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Am mis 
of WyomiM0 

1--TI «ll!i^] II 



Stimson Photo 

April J 9 5$ 





Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

James Bentley Sheridan 

Henry Jones Hanna 

Mrs. Lora Jewett Pinedale 

Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois 

Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland 

Mrs. Margaret E. Hall Moorcroft 

Mrs. Lorraine Stadius Thermopolis 

Attorney-General Thomas O. Miller, Ex-officio. 



Lola M. Homsher Director 

Henryetta Berry Assistant Director 

Reta W. Ridings Director Historical Division 

Lewis K. Demand Assistant Archivist 

Mrs. Lillian V. Stratton Secretary 

Loretta Taylor.... .-.-.....Clerk Typist 


The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually in April and 
October and is received by all members of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. Copies of current issues may be purchased for $1.00 each. 
Available copies of earlier issues are also for sale. A price list may be 
obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor does 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 

Copyright, 1958, by the Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department. 

A^mls of Wyoming 

Volume 30 

April 1958 

Number 1 

Lola M. Homsher 

Qf THF Reta W. Ridings 

_ -~^ URAMII 

Published Biannually by the 


Official Publication 

of the 



OFFICERS 1957-58 

President, Dr. T. A. Larson Laramie 

First Vice President, A. H. MacDougall Rawlins 

Second Vice President, Mrs. Thelma Condit Buffalo 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley.... Cixeyenne 

Executive Secretary, Miss Lola M. Homsher Cheyenne 

Past Presidents: 

Frank L. Bowron, Casper 1953-1955 

William L. Marion, Lander 1955-1956 

Dr. DeVVitt Dominick, Cody 1956-1957 

The Wyoming State Historical Society was organized in October 1953. 
Membership is open to anyone interested in history. County Historical 
Society Chapters have been organized in Albany, Campbell, Carbon, Fre- 
mont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona, Park, Sweetwater, Washakie 
and Uinta counties. 


Life Membership $50.00 

Joint Life Membership (Husband and wife) 75.00 

Annual Membership 3.50 

Joint Annual Membership (Two persons of same family at 

same address.) 5.00 

Send membership dues to: 

Wyoming State Historical Society 
Executive Headquarters 
State Office Building 
Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Zabk of Contents 


Mae Urbanek 


Ed Wright 

THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL, Part V, Section 2 17 

Thelma Gatchell Condit 


Compiled by Maurine Carley 


Dale L. Morgan, Editor 


Archaeological Research for 1958 
Relocation of Pioneer Burials by L. C. Steege 
The Little Bald Mountain Site by R. C. Bentzen 
Stone Artifacts by L. C. Steege 


President's Message by T. A. Larson 
Fourth Annual Meeting 

POEMS ....- 11, 12, 16 

John Colter by Mae Urbanek 
Branded Peace by Dick J. Nelson 
Wyoming by Dick J. Nelson 


Adams, The Best of the American Cowboy 112 

Howard, This is the West 113 

Hamilton, From Wilderness to Statehood 114 

Chatterton, Yesterdays' Wyoming 115 

Fundaburk and Foreman, Sun Circles and Human Hands 117 

Holbrook, The Rocky Mountain Revolution 118 

Laubin, The Indian Tipi, Its History 119 



Lake Solitude 4 

Ed Wright 12 

The Hole-in-the-Wall 18, 20 

Oregon Trail Trek No. 6 36 

Ft. Bridger, 1858 54 

Archaeological Notes 94, 95, 98 

John Colter Historical Marker 110 

Maps : Hole-in-the-Wall 24 

Oregon Trail Trek No. 6 38 


Cake Solitude, a Qlacier Sapphire 

Mae Urbanek 

This mile-long lake in its rugged Alpine setting lies in the 
approximate center of the Big Horn National Forest and is the 
high goal of all who pack into the Cloud Peak Wilderness Area 
of north-central Wyoming. Located twenty miles from the nearest 
paved highways and roofed dwellings, it can be reached only by 
mountain trails and steep switchbacks over which no wheel has 
ever traveled. 

The Big Horn National Forest was created as a recreation pre- 
serve by President Cleveland on February 22, 1897, seven years 
after Wyoming became a state. It is drained by the Big Horn, 
Tongue, and Powder Rivers which all flow into the Yellowstone 
River, a tributary of the Missouri. At the time of the Lewis and 
Clark expedition in 1805-6, large numbers of Big Horn sheep 
grazed in these mountains, which were called Big Horns by the 
Crow, Sioux, and Cheyenne Indian tribes who hunted and fished 
this territory. Lewis and Clark accepted the Indian name and 
gave its translation "Big HoYn" to the river and the mountains it 

The Cloud Peak Primitive Area of 92,000 acres is located in 
the most inaccessible and scenic part of the Big Horn National 
Forest and was given this designation by the Chief of Forest Ser- 
vice on March 5, 1932. During the ice age this part was deeply 
eroded and scarred by glaciers, some of which still exist in the 
vicinity of Cloud Peak, elevation 13,165 feet, and Black Tooth 
Mountain, elevation 13,014 feet, highest peaks in the Big Horn 
Mountains. Cloud Peak is only 600 feet lower than the highest 
mountains in Wyoming, and lacks 1,615 feet of reaching the 
altitude of the Matterhorn in the Swiss Alps. Paintrock Creek 
rises in the vicinity of Cloud Peak and flows westward into Lake 
Solitude, and from there southwest into the Big Horn River. 
Water from the melting snows and glaciers of Cloud Peak also 
flow northeast and east into the Tongue and Powder Rivers. 

No roads, summer homes, resorts, stores, or cabin camps are 
allowed in the Cloud Peak Wilderness area. With the exception 
of trails and garbage disposal pits maintained by the Forest Service, 
it is preserved as a natural wonderland much as it was when 
Columbus discovered this continent. Here lovers of nature can 
enjoy the scenic grandeur of lakes, waterfalls, rocks, and moun- 
tains untouched by civilization. They can ride and wander, hunt 


Indian artifacts, fish where the strike rings of trout dapple the 
waters, rest and relax as their pioneer ancestors did, without the 
intrusion of the sometimes discordant features of modern civil- 
ization. Because of heavy snow, the trails are open from about 
June 15 to September 15, when the maximum temperature aver- 
ages 60 degrees and the minimum 39 degrees. 

The Solitude Circle Trail is sixty-two miles in length; fifty-four 
miles of this maintained horse trail is in the primitive area. Twelve 
main feeder trails lead into it, making it accessible from either side 
of the Big Horn Mountains. Motorists may pack in west from 
Buffalo, north from Tensleep Canyon on U. S. 16, northeast from 
Hyattville, or southeast from Sheridan. The nearest point of 
accessibility by automobile is at the Hunter Ranger Station west 
of Buffalo, where it is only seven miles to the primitive area 
boundary, and twenty-two miles to Lake Solitude through Flor- 
ence Pass; or from the Tyrrell Ranger Station on Tensleep Creek 
it is eight miles to the primitive area, but only eighteen miles to 
Lake Solitude. Mr. W. E. Augsbach of Sheridan is Supervisor 
of the Big Horn National Forest. 

In the Wilderness Area there are one hundred and four miles of 
maintained trails. These give access to sixty-seven lakes and 
sixty miles of fishing streams that are well stocked with Brook, 
Native, and Rainbow trout. Cloud Peak was named by early 
settlers for the clouds that usually cluster above it. Florence Pass 
was named by an unknown early settler for his daughter. Accord- 
ing to J. Laird Warner who was a Ranger in the Big Horn Moun- 
tains from 1910 to 1914, and whose father, Mark Warner, was a 
Ranger in the 1890's, Mather Peak was named for the father of 
Kirtly Mather, curator of Harvard Geological Museum. The elder 
Mr. Mather was a member of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

Mr. Warner was acquainted with Uncle John Luman who lived 
on Paint Rock Creek above Hyattville. Uncle John, one of the 
very early settlers in the region, was a squaw man. Although 
he had a nice ranch at the foot of the mountains, he usually 
camped with his dogs up in the hills. He would mix "dough-gods" 
in the top of his flour sack, put them on the coals of his open fire 
to bake, and then fight it out with his hounds to see whether he 
or the dogs got filled up first. 

"The Crow Indians, even after my folks came to the Tensleep 
Valley in 1893, came from Pryor Gap, Montana, through the Big 
Horn Basin to Ten Sleep," Mr. Warner writes. "This was 'ten 
sleeps'. They crossed the Big Horns near the head of the North 
Fork Powder River and went on to Pumpkin Buttes, another 'ten 
sleeps'. The Pumpkin Butte territory was their favorite hunting 

Paintrock Creeks were so named because Indians used clays 
of bright variegated colors found in their banks for ceremonial 
and war paint. Warm Springs Creek was also named by the 


Indians because of the medical relief they found in the waters of 
the springs. Dry Medicine Lodge Creek was so named because 
the creek bed is dry, but one can hear the water running beneath 
the ground when standing in the dry creek bed. Hidden Tepee 
Creek is named for the many tepee poles that were still standing 
deep in the canyon when the white men came to the country. 
Dr. R. C. Bentzen, a Sheridan dentist, furnished this information. 

Lake Solitude was named by Francois E. Mattes in 1899. In 
the magazine "The Living Wilderness" he writes: "The Cloud 
Peak region was the first high mountain district I was called upon 
to map for the Geological Survey. . . . When I beheld that lovely 
tranquil lake on Paintrock Creek, I broke my vow to abstain from 
naming any features of the country, and I named it Lake Solitude. 
... It thrilled me because it renders so vividly the awesome 
grandeur and utter wildness of that boldly sculptured mountain 
country. Lake Solitude is one of the most beautiful mountain 
lakes in existence. ... It is to me a profound satisfaction to learn 
that after forty-eight years it still lies tucked away in its deep 
wilderness." Mr. Matthes wrote this in 1948. 

I first learned about Lake Solitude in the thirties when I was a 
member of the State Land Use Planning Committee. At that time 
and until the late forties the Bureau of Reclamation tried to secure 
authority to have roads built to Lake Solitude and a large dam 
constructed there for irrigation purposes in the Hyattville and 
Manderson areas. Such action was opposed by the Forest Service 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and many leading citizens 
who claimed that roads and a dam would destroy the unique 
primitive charm of the lakes and mountains; that few such primi- 
tive areas existed and should be preserved for present and future 

Dr. Will Schunk of Sheridan, who with his wife, Edna Schunk, 
has made over thirty pack trips to Lake Solitude, roused the Izaak 
Walton League, The Wilderness Society, and many individuals in 
the fight against the demands of the Bureau of Reclamation. He 
wrote, "We want the Cloud Peak Wilderness Area, of which 
Solitude is a gem, preserved in natural and primitive splendor 
for everyone to enjoy, unspoiled by semi-civilized conditions." 
Anyone who views the once uniquely beautiful Morning Glory 
Pool in the Yellowstone National Park now littered and clogged 
with tourist-tossed papers, bottle caps, and broken glass will agree 
that a few areas should have their primitive beauty protected from 
the motoring public. 

In the fall of 1956 my husband Jerry and I made our first 
attempt to reach Lake Solitude from the Buffalo approach. It 
was October and too late to hire horses, so we drove our automo- 
bile as far as possible beyond Hunter Ranger Station and attempted 
to hike in, equipped only with a compass, a heavy skillet, fishing 
equipment, and cans of beans and salmon. At that time we were 


not acquainted with 'mountain miles' and believed we could 
easily make Seven Brothers Lakes. A Forest Service sign in- 
formed us that it was six miles. From there we might go on 
through Florence Pass and reach Lake Solitude, a mere twenty 
miles from our camp. 

The trail led past fallen trees scattered five deep in places. 
Nita, our toy terrier, ran ahead and back and forth. The cleared 
path had many switchbacks and led ever upward. At two o'clock 
we reached the first of the Seven Brothers Lakes. A cold wind 
was blowing in a heavy fog. We were almost at timber line. The 
wind-twisted Alpine fir and Engelmann spruce bent low over the 
boulder-strewn waters. I caught none of the large Mackinaw trout 
that lived here; not even a small Brook trout would rise in the 
rough, cold water. We ate the salmon and beans cold and started 
back down the long, steep trail. At dark we reached our car, 
exhausted and much wiser as to what it takes to conquer 

Last fall we came again, this time better equipped. At Deer 
Haven Lodge on U.S. 16 we rented horses even though there was 
some snow on the trails. Since they were well marked and we 
are Wyoming ranchers who know both horses and Wyoming moun- 
tains, we did not take a guide. It would be safer and more com- 
fortable, however, if someone acquainted with the area went along 
as a guide and companion. A guide is necessary for those not 
accustomed to horses and primitive conditions. No one should 
enter a primitive wilderness area without letting someone know 
their probable destination and time of return. 

A detailed map of the area may be secured from a Forest 
Ranger. A compass and first aid kit are necessary equipment. If 
lost in any forest area, the first rule is not to panic. In case of 
night, fog, or storm, make camp in a sheltered place, building a 
fire in a safe place, and gathering dry fuel. In daylight travel 
only down hill, following a stream out if possible. If injured 
build a smoke signal on a high point. The SOS call of the 
wilderness is three signals of any kind, either audible or visible. 
The answer to a distress signal is two signals. Do not run or 
worry, and above all conserve strength, and do not quit. These 
are rules all forest travelers should know and follow. 

The horses we rented at Deer Haven Lodge were Cricket, a 
black saddle horse, and Thunder, a large sorrel pack horse. 
Thunder carried our tent, sleeping bags, extra bedding, fishing 
equipment, and an ax. Cooking and eating utensils and groceries 
were in panniers hooked to his pack saddle. The tent and bedding 
were fastened over the panniers and secured with a diamond hitch. 
This diamond is made with a rope that goes over and around the 
four corners of the pack, under each pannier and across the top, 
making a diamond pattern on each side of the horse. No bump 


against a tree will dislodge the horse's burden. In Cricket's saddle 
bags were cameras and our lunch. 

Nita traveled happily ahead. I rode Cricket, and Jerry walked, 
leading Thunder. After several miles on a graded road which led 
past the Tyrrell Ranger Station, we took the trail east of West 
Tensleep Lake. Then the climb started. The narrow path that 
cut through the pine forest and over boulders was well kept by 
the Forest Service. Small bridges crossed rivulets flowing into 
Tensleep Creek, and rocks were placed to prevent deep erosion. 
In one spot a large pine had recently fallen over the path, and we 
detoured up and down a rocky knoll, the horses almost sliding 
on their tails. But they were wise and sure-footed as mountain 

We had grown weary on the steep uphill trail when we reached 
a Forest Service sign informing us that we were entering the Prim- 
itive Wilderness Area. A glance at our map showed us what a 
relatively short distance we had traveled, and when we reached 
Lake Helen a long mile farther on, we decided to camp for the 
night. The hillsides were timbered and the open ground so filled 
with large boulders that we could find no clear space for picketing 
the horses. But a stream of mountain water trickled from steep 
rocks and Lake Helen was filled with the strike rings of trout. 
While Jerry struggled to stake the tent in the rocky soil, I discov- 
ered that trout were more plentiful than daylight. We hastened 
to tuck the covers around us before deep darkness came. We 
wakened at dawn to soft vibrant tones echoing through the pine 
trees. This musical call puzzled us, until hastily dressed and out 
by the lake shore, we saw a herd of elk on the opposite bank, 
bugling to the dawn. 

Thunder had a lighter load the second day as we left the tent 
and bedding at Lake Helen, knowing we would have to come back 
if we stayed on our three-day schedule. Cloud Peak, softly 
rounded in the misty air, loomed ahead of us up the trail to Lake 
Marion, and on to deep Misty Moon Lake. Bomber Mountain, 
scarred and rocky, was to the east of the trail. Here a B 17 flying 
fortress had crashed on June 28, 1943, but we could see no 
glimpse of its metal carcass. 

I would have liked to hunt for Indian artifacts at Misty Moon 
Lake and loiter among the evergreen trees, twisted and wind- 
tortured into grotesque shapes this close to timber line, but our 
goal was Lake Solitude. We struggled on and crossed the high 
core-rock ridge that divides the drainage areas of West Tensleep 
Creek and Paintrock Creek. The air was thin and bright. We 
seemed almost as high as majestic Cloud Peak which was over a 
mile to the northeast. Last year we had been on the east side of 
Florence Pass. Now we looked at its desolate wildness from the 
west. We wished for another day in which to climb Cloud Peak, 


birthplace of thunder storms, and explore its snow fields and 

We began our slow descent westward to timber line. Around 
a small lake below us we sighted a herd of about twenty-five elk, 
sporting and playing in the water. A large bull would dive in 
until all we seemed to see was his rack of horns. Then he would 
plunge out and shake off, graceful as a kitten with his huge, sleek 
body. As we trailed past, the elk ignored us. Finally they took 
off, single file, up a rocky canyon. They were proud and stately, 
stepping lightly over the boulders with their heads held high and 
their noses pointing forward. 

Trails on the south side of the canyon we were following were 
filled with snow, and we followed a deer path up a steep rise until 
we discovered we were lost. Leading the nimble horses, we slid 
back down the slippery mountain and found the right trail which 
crossed Paintrock Creek. Nita, our little dog, was tired by now, 
and slipped off a rock into the racing Paintrock water. She swam 
out and after this insisted on riding with whoever was in Cricket's 
saddle. Our trail now led down the rocky north wall of the 
canyon and was clear of snow. Coming over a sharp rise on this 
trail we first saw Lake Solitude, peaceful in its setting of rugged 
and turbulent beauty. 

As we stood there, we seemed to share with Verdi the trium- 
phant music of his Grand March from "Aida". We had dreamed, 
we had struggled, and we had arrived within sight of our goal. 
Solitude, called by some the most beautiful lake in America, was 
truly that to us. Eagerly we traveled on, past the pounding roar 
of Paintrock Falls to the quiet of the wide, level meadow east of 
the Lake. Unsaddled and picketed out, the horses were as happy 
as we. They rolled and rested before eating the tender grass. 

Timbers of a Forest Service garbage pit were sagging and 
broken, but on the edge of the quiet Lake was an ample grate 
and seats on fallen logs. Hidden in a clump of trees was a toilet, 
with an incomparable vista from its doorway — a high cliff of 
crumbling, disintegrated boulders reflected in the peaceful blue 
mirror of Lake Solitude. We did not have time to cross the twin 
streams of Paintrock Creek entering the southeast portion of the 
Lake or to follow the rocky path around its southern rim. Brook 
trout grabbed at the hook as fast as I could toss it into the quiet 
waters. We ate our fill of the rich meat and wished for the acid of 
fruit juice. Like Cricket and Thunder, we were content to rest 
and dream during the two brief hours we allowed ourselves before 
starting on the long, steep trail back to our tent at Lake Helen, 
and next day to our automobile and civilization. 

The unspoiled loveliness of Lake Solitude is uniquely charming 
because it can only be reached by physical effort and exertion. 
The few who come each year to test the coldness of its icy waters 
respect its beauty. No broken bottles or rusty cans mar its shore 


line. In the fall golden splashes of aspen accent the dark ever- 
greens growing on the sides of the rocky pocket that holds the lake. 
Set in these rugged, boulder-strewn mountains, and filled with the 
rushing, restless waters of Paintrock Creek, Lake Solitude itself is 
so quiet and peaceful that it makes its visitors feel that finally they 
are within a pebble-toss of Heaven. 

Mn Colter 


Mae Urbanek 

One hundred and fifty years ago, 

In winter time, when the wind-whipped snow 

Settled deep, and Indian bands 

Wandered over prairie lands, 

A dauntless man in a fur-lined cap 

Treked southward to plot Wyoming's first map. 

He followed the Stinking River course. 
Up Owl Creek Hills, and to the source 
Of the swift Wind River; over the pass, 
First to see the saber-toothed mass 
Of Teton Mountains; watch geysers steam, 
Mud pots boil; and the Yellowstone stream 
Tumble and fall. He waited the play 
Of one geyser, faithful by night and day. 

John lingered long in this wonderland 
Till the frostbite left his stiffened hand. 
Alone, but not lonely, he braved the sleet 
Of another pass, and hoped to meet 
Indian trappers; persuade them to trade 
With Lisa. A thousand miles he made; 
Spring came, and back to the fort he turned- 
Five dollars a month is what he earned. 

When he told of nude mountains, and valleys of steam 

Everyone laughed at his dazzled dream, 

And scoffingly called it "Colter's Hell". 

He was first to see, and first to tell 

Of natural wonders soon to be 

Wyoming, land of pageantry. 



Ed Wright 

branded Peace 


Dick J. Nelson 

The free range loneliness some said we had 

To us was just God's own alluring peace. 

With so much of His marvelous handicraft about 

Our thoughts of Him could never cease. 

We had no close neighbors and saw little of town or city life, 

Or knew how God kept His Talley there, 

But we did know, that on the ranch and on the range, 

We found His Brand on Everything, Everywhere. 

Zke Cowboy KepresentatWe or Kep 


Old Cowboy Ed Wright* 

I'ed like to try an explain to ya what a real cowboy was sup- 
posed to do in the early days. Ya know, I d,on't think a real 
cowboy's ever been described or explained to the general public, 
especially to the younger generation. I never talked with anyone, 
outside of a few I know, or visited or grew up with, who really 
knowed what a cowboy's job was. There ain't many real old-time 
cowboys left. I wonder how many knows how many horses it 
took to mount a cowboy on the roundup. Well, eight or ten at 
least. Or how many knows what his night horse was, or what 
standin' guard was, what the main heard, or cut was. 

I guess everyone thinks they know what a roundup cook was. 
He's the feller movin' pictures have been tryin' to make a clown 
out of for years, but he wasn't a clown. Very likely, he was a 
cowboy that'd been crippled, or too old to ride hard anymore. 
All cowboys could cook. They had to eat their own cookin' too. 
A roundup cook had to drive the cook wagon, a four or six horse 
team. The horses he drove, it took five or six cowboys to get 'em 
hooked to the cook wagon sometimes. Most of 'em was spoilt 
saddle horses. He had to be a good reinsman, or they had to 
send someone with him that could drive 'em. They didn't want 
to do that, 'cause they needed all the hands they had. It seems 
like a roundup was always short a good hands. A roundup 

* In offering this chapter from his book The Representative Old Cowboy 
Ed Wright for publication in the Annals of Wyoming, author Ed Wright 
comments: "In the early 1900's Wyoming was the greatest cattle country 
in the world. The cowboy had whiped the hired gun men and bonty hunt- 
ers. The law had come to stay, Tom Horn had been found guilty and hung. 
A cowboy still raised plenty of good clean hell in town, quenching his 
thirst, and other ideas he men was bothered with, fightin, gamblin, dance 
halls, and once in a while a shootin. There is no question, a cowboy was 
tough as hell, but he seemed to have something most gentlemen don't seem 
to be able to find in themselves. 

"What wonderful dreams I have been thinkin back to, those wonderful 
care free days and times I spent on the roundups. I wish our kids could 
see a western picture about real cowboys without no killings. I know plenty 
of them, but seems like they have educated the public so well to the killin 
they don't want and won't consider a story without killin's, western Mar- 
shalls, wild women, and gun men. I would like to see good clean stories 
with humor and explaining what a real cowboys life was like." 

Ed Wright privately published five hundred copies of his book in 1954 
for charity, not for a general sale. Two hundred copies were given to St. 
Joseph's Orphange of Torrington, Wyoming. 


couldn't move without horses, any more than they could a built 
the Union Pacific Railway in those days without horses. They 
didn't have tractors or automobiles in those days. The horses 
pulled two-horse scrapers, and four-horse fresnos, month after 
month, but the old horse got the job done. 

As I said, a roundup couldn't move without horses, so naturally, 
they had a horse rangier that herded them all day, and when the 
wagon moved, he foUered with the cavey. The cavey, that's what 
the herd a horses was called, when all the cowboys and reps 
throwed their strings together. It night, the nighthawk took 'em 
right after the cowboys caught their night horses. A cowboy was 
never afoot only long enough to catch his mount out of the rope 
corral. His night horses was used to stand guard on the main herd 
with. The main herd was made up of all the cattle the representa- 
tives had caught in the circles they'd made to date. The circle 
was made every mornin', roundin' up all the stock in whatever 
territory you was in. What they cut out of the circles was 
throwed in the main herd, an guarded day an night, an moved 
with the wagon. The herd was worked on certain dates, at 
certain places. 

The reps was always met by the cowboys from their own outfit 
that had come to throw all the stock back to it's home range, the 
rep had picked up by then. They always met the rep at the 
closest point to their home range, where the herd was being 
worked. All roundups was always made up of plenty of repre- 
sentatives from all different outfits that run cattle. A rep threw 
cattle back as far as a hundred-in-fifty miles or more, to their 
home range. 

If you was a cow man in the west, when it was a cow country, 
an had from five hundred to a couple thousand head a cattle, and 
no fences, when you hired a cowboy, you looked for a representa- 
tive to take care of your interest. He had to be a real hand. You 
didn't want a politician with a ten gallon hat, a runnin' for sheriff 
or somepin, or one of them that always whistle, and their horse 
comes to 'em. That string a ponies you cut to him, he had to get 
the job done on them. A good cowboy had to be able to take the 
initiative, and know what to do next. There wasn't anybody there 
to tell him what to do. In other words, he's a man that 'ed be 
hkely to make good runnin' his own outfit, but he didn't want to 
settle down-he just wanted plenty a room. 

I don't want to form the impression that if we still had the wide 
open places an longhorn cattle, we wouldn't have cowboys. It's 
just the wide open places an longhorn cattle we don't have. If we 
still had 'em, all the kids 'ed wanta go where they was, even if 
they had to walk, an oh boy, does a kid hate to walk nowadays. 

A good cowboy, or real hand, always knowed the country well. 
He knowed every brand in the country, an who owned it. If he 
wasn't smart enough to read brands an brand all the calves 


foUerin' your stock, you 'ed run out a cattle. More'n likely, when 
he put his bed on his night horse, an started off across the hills 
with his string a cow ponies, you wouldn't see him for six or seven 
months. A good rep '11 fight for his outfit, an he's careful not to 
miss any stock. Cows and calves was often run off, an held till 
the calves was old enough to wean, and then branded by some 
rustler. They even worked cattle ahead of the roundup, throwin' 
'em back where the wagon had already been — then later on they'ed 
brand the calves, an run the cows off. They had to run the cows 
off. A calf '11 foUer its mammy long after she weans him. It's 
nothin' to see a cow with a three or four-month-old calf at her 
side, with a big long yearling still follerin' her. A good hand 
knows that's a good place not to leave any she stuff. Someone's 
a gettin' off with your calves — there was plenty of that all over the 
west in the early days. 

Most cowhands never had over a couple pair of levis or overalls 
at one time, an two or three shirts, a old pair a boots, an maybe a 
pair in his bed, he was a breakin'^ in. I don't know where he 'ed 
carried more if he had it. He slept on the ground in his own bed. 
His bed was made up of a tarp. The tarp was a piece of heavy 
canvas, eighteen foot long, an about nine foot wide, with two er 
three sugans folded double, one on top of the other, an the tarp 
was spread out on the ground, with the sugans laid on one end, 
about a foot from the top, then a double wollen blanket. He slept 
between with a couple more sugans or quilts on top of them. 
The bottom of the tarp was throwed over the beddin', an that left 
the canvas under an over the bed. Most cowboys used their boots, 
or sourdough coat, for a pillow, they always kept dry in their bed. 
At night, they'ed roll it out an tuck the sides under. That made 
it harder for snakes or centipedes to get in bed with you. That 
sourdough coat, the cook always used to wrap his sour dough in 
to keep it warm so it 'ed rise-that's where it got its name. It was 
a sheepskin lined coat. All the cowboys always had one a them, 
an believe me, it sure come in handy standin' guard it night. 

Soon as a cowboy 'ed roll out before daylight in the mornin', 
he 'ed roll his bed up good an tight, an tie it. If the wagon was 
movin', he 'ed throw it on the bed wagon. The night hawk always 
drove the bed wagon from one camp to the next. It was loaded 
with the rope corral, sledge hammer, extra ax handles, an things 
like that. When the beds was loaded for thirty or more cowboys, 
they had to be tied down good, or some cowboy 'ed be short his 
bed that night. There wasn't no roads where he went-not even a 
wagon rut after the winter snows. 

Most of the water wasn't very good, especially after the cattle 
had drank out of the water holes, an stood in 'em a while. Lots of 
alkali water, so we always carried barrels full on each side of the 
bed wagon an cook wagon, while goin' through a bad water 


They always got poUywogs in 'em before the barrels 'ed get 
empty, an when a cowboy 'ed get a drink, he 'ed always hit the 
top of the water with the dipper, so the pollywogs 'ed duck to the 
bottom-then he 'ed dip out a cup to drink. If it got so low in the 
barrel they couldn't duck, we had to strain the water through a 
flour sack. The cook always had to strain it. That water never 
hurt me, I never even knowed a doctor in those days. 

Someday, Fm gonna tell you about the cook that forgot to 
strain the pollywogs out of the water 'for he cooked the beans in it. 



Dick J. Nelson 

There is a certain charm about Old Wyoming 

With its hills, canyons, streams, grass, and trees 

That seems to rest my spirit and set my heart at ease. 

It brings back fond old memories that time cannot efface, 

I feel sure that the One Great Roundup Foreman 

Still brands as TOPS my old home place. 

Zhe Mole-iH-tke- Wall 


Thelma Gatchell Condit 


By the time the Barnum post office was estabUshed in 1897 
the outlaw picture in the Hole-in-the-Wall had changed consid- 
erably. "Flat-nosed" George Curry's gang was now hookedup 
with Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch, whose operations had reached 
a truly spectacular climax about this time. These former horse 
and cow thieves were now universally branded genuine badmen 
sought by the law, for Cassidy had organized the most far-reaching 
chain of outlaws since the days of the James Brothers — a gang of 
expert cowboy horsemen, who for 15 years boldly and gayly 
flouted the law in every state in the Rocky Mountain region. 
Their varied activities extended from Alma, New Mexico, north 
to the Canadian border, and from Minnesota west to Oregon. 

They stole horses, rustled cattle, robbed banks and post offices, 
held up stage-coaches, freight strings and trains, and frequently 
shot down their fellow men. But these young "long-riders", these 
ran^^eland ruffians were mostly just happy-go-lucky cowboys out 
of work, whose decision to follow the "Outlaw Trail" resulted 
from boredom and lack of sufficient excitement in other walks of 
life. They were not, at heart, evil men with slimy criminal in- 
stincts. They were of an "altogether different breed" — big like 
the country they used so advantageously — cruel, maybe — ruthless, 
sometimes; but, somehow, staying clean and reputable, even in 
their law-breaking. Their opponents were always armed men, 
forewarned and shot from the front; they never plugged an unsus- 
pecting victim in the back, or took advantage of a fool, or a lesser 
man, in an unfavorable position who was unable (or afraid) to 
defend himself adequately or properly; nor did they wantonly and 
recklessly shoot innocent by-standers, killing like cowards do, 
simply because they had the upper hand and could. Their crimes 
were big like the country they worked in — not filthy, foul and 
cowardly and purposeless, greedy, petty, and sadistic Uke the 
doings of the modern criminal element. For the most part, and 
with few exceptions, those of the Hole-in-the-Wall Gang were like- 
able fellows, friendly and fair-minded, who left behind no personal 

The Hole-in-the-Wall country was the last hide-out on the 
"Outlaw Trail", the place farthest removed from the persistent 
onslaught of the law. It was the one place, because of its wild 

Blue Creek Ranch, site of old Riverside Postoffice, as it was when Bud 
Stubbs bought it from Butch Cassidy 

First Barnum Postoffice 

Judd Ritter, NH hand, on fine Hole-in-the-Wall horse 


bigness and rugged terrain, ideally safe and delightfully isolated, 
full of little grassy mountain pockets where tired, used horses, as 
well as pilfered broncs, could graze contentedly until moving-on 
time; full of little hidden canyons especially made for the leisurely 
changing of brands. It was not a hurry-up place at all; there was 
always plenty of safe time. Here train robbers could be swallowed 
up like magic, bringing sheriffs' posses to a sudden halt, leaving 
them feeling furiously foolish to have been foiled so completely 
and unexpectedly when the moment of closing-in seemed so 

It seemed rather strange, too, this isolation factor, for, by now, 
the red wall country was becoming settled. Homesteaders were 
piling up little heaps of rocks on land corners to mark their 
claims, and there was much, very much, coming and going in the 
Powder River country. 

It is well, perhaps, to describe the Barnum postoffice and its 
surroundings — where again we art able to get fleeting, and often 
very humorous, glimpses of early-day characters, both good and 
bad; where we can scan all too briefly a cross-section of these 
people so typical of this outlaw-rustling period. Barnum got its 
name from its first postmaster, Thomas Freeguard Barnum. Tom 
had had a goodly sample of frontier life before he staked out his 
homestead under the cottonwoods on Beaver Creek. He'd fallen 
in love with the place many years before when he was hunting 
buffalo and serving as an escort for the government wagon trains 
during the Indian Campaign on the Powder. Seeing as how Tom 
was such a quiet, sort of wizened-up, flat-chested httle person, 
unassuming in both appearance and manner and a confirmed 
bachelor to boot, it's hard to believe he'd fallen in love with a 
place because of its beauty; but he did. He liked the red wall 
and the mountain and the water and the trees — the redness, the 
blueness and greenness all around. He liked the quiet peaceful- 
ness and the potentials for a little cow business of his own some 

Tom had been one of the Green Mountain boys from Vermont, 
who joined up with the Union Army. When he was discharged 
at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1865 he decided to go on West, 
as he felt restless and at loose ends, as did most of the soldiers; 
and about the only way a fellow with nothing but "army script" 
in his pocket could get farther west was to sign up with some 
freight string and earn his way out. Tom became a bullwhacker 
for Waddell and Russell, the biggest overland freighters of the 
West (and being so slight a man he surely seemed ill-fitted for the 
work). Each driver had four wagons pulled by twelve yoke of 
oxen and the pay was around $100 a month. In June of that year 
the freight outfit pulled into Fort D. A. Russell, near Cheyenne, 
which was the end of the haul. Tom drew his pay and headed 



Thomas Freeguard Barnum, first 
Barnum postmaster 

for Fort Fetterman (near Doug- 
las, Wyo. ) where he heard jobs 
were to be had. Here he began 
work as "horse-tender". 

Tom next found employment 
as a buffalo hunter and escort 
for the government freight wag- 
ons plying north over the Boze- 
man Trail. It was at this time 
that he became acquainted with 
the Powder River country. 

In 1878 he returned to St. 
Joseph, Missouri, and met his 
brother, Guy Perry and family, 
who also wanted to come west. 
They equipped themselves with 
wagons and mule teams and 
took out over the Oregon Trail, 
ending up at Fort Fetterman 
where they stayed until coming 
to Johnson County in the mid- 
dle '80's. Tom had a Civil 
War buddy, a Mr. Lander, 
who'd come to Wyoming and 
taken up a homestead on the North Fork of the Powder, a few 
miles west of present-day Kaycee. So the Barnums decided to 
stay with him until they got themselves a place to live. 

It was then that Tom staked out his homestead and commenced 
putting up his cabin on Beaver Creek, on the east side of the 
Creek just at the bend below the old Glenn Carr place, about one 
mile from the foot of the mountains and 300 yards west of the 
break in the wall where the road came through. Tom took up the 
land with the "script" in his pocket. Every Civil War soldier got 
script, which was a piece of paper issued by the Federal Govern- 
ment granting the holder the right to settle on a piece of land. 
After the Homestead Act Tom went to Buffalo and legally filed 
on the land. This was to be the beginning of his cow ranch 
(which, by the way, never materialized beyond a few head of 
cattle he and Guy ran up on the slope on free government land). 
The little two-roomed, dirt-roofed, stone-floored cabin was the 
first Barnum post office. Tom had to have two rooms because he 
couldn't stand to have "his sleeping quarters" and "his eating 
quarters" all in one room; he had the post office in his sleeping 

In those days a postmaster received no regular salary, his only 
pay came from the cancellation of stamps, and it wasn't long 
before Tom knew he couldn't make a living at being postmaster, 
not even enough for a grubstake, so he decided to have Guy's 


family move over and let Guy's wife do the postal work, thus 
leaving the two men free to go out and work, which they did. 
Tom was roundup cook for the various big cow-outfits. He was 
a neat little fellow and, while on the slow side, always got things 
done when he put his mind to it. Guy worked wherever he could 
— mostly as a hay-hand on the ranches round about, after they'd 
put up a larger cabin for his family which was increasing by leaps 
and bounds. This they built just south of the post office — it had 
four rooms in the shape of an L — three rooms in a row and one 
room on the end. It, too, had a dirt roof on which grass grew 
when it could and "sawmill" floors which were really something 
at that time. A fellow by the name of Pat Connelley (unsure of 
the spelling) had just started a sawmill up on the slope in the 
first line of timber on the old wood road ( and stage route over the 
mountain), so "sawed boards" now took the place of the former 
stone for floors. 

Guy Bamum was a little fellow, too, but not neat or thin like 
Tom. He was bald-headed and round-faced and as "black- 
whiskered as they come". Like Tom he never had much to say, 
which, perhaps, was a good thing in the long run, for Guy's wife 
made up for both of them. She talked incessantly, endlessly — 
partly, because she probably was lonesome (just she and the kids 
there alone most of the time) and partly because of the friendly 
sociability of her nature. Talking was apparently an outlet for 
her pent-up emotions and frustrations. 

The years went by and the kids were getting good-sized and still 
there was no cow outfit. As Guy grew older nothing like that 
mattered much anyhow, for he had to coddle his gouty right foot 
which had become so painfully swollen he couldn't bear any weight 
on it, or endure the pain when it hung down the way a leg should. 
So Guy rigged up a peg-leg of sorts upon which his right knee 
rested. Using a piece of old ragged quilt as padding, he strapped 
the peg onto his bent knee with an old leather thong, leaving his 
foot and leg sticking out behind in a decidedly awkward, ridiculous 
manner; but, at least, he was able to get around some by using 
this contraption. However, by now, Guy didn't want to get 
around much — mostly he just lay on the bed and let the rest of 
the world go by. A person couldn't help wondering what he 
thought about on that bed month after month — not reading, not 
talking — just lying. Maybe he got pleasure out of just listening 
to his wife and the folks coming and going. Suppose no one will 
ever know, just as they won't ever know about a lot of other things 
that happened in the Hole-in-the-Wall. 

Guy's son, John, now an old man, still lives in Johnson County 
in a little cabin at the foot of EK Mountain (on the Clark Condit 
ranch) where he traps bobcats and an occasional coyote. 

Butch Cassidy, really George Leroy Parker, had now settled 
on the old Riverside postoffice site on Blue Creek and, posing 


in the guise of an honest homesteader,^ had ostensibly set up 
ranching operations along with Curry. He improved the place, 
adding another cabin and more corrals, etc. which lent a legitimate 
touch to the outlaw set up, and at the same time furnished the 
fellows with a grub stake place, an information bureau of sorts, 
and a refuge where they could stay and rest up awhile and act 
normal if they wished (which is good for anybody). For no one 
would come in and arrest a man on his own ranch, would he? 
No, he wouldn't, because he couldn't, even if he tried, for Cassidy 
and Curry would have disappeared up one of the many draws 
before the door had even opened or closed. You'd never see or 
find an outlaw there, if he didn't wish to be seen or found. It was 
just that easy; ridiculously easy, for everybody round about took a 
stand favorable to the Wild Bunch, and not because they were 
afraid to oppose them, either. They stood behind them because 
they had no good reason, no man-to-man, personal reason to be 
against them, and if you weren't openly against a man, whether you 
exactly approved of what he did or not, you still did him no 
appreciable harm; and if a man took no stand whatever — just 
remained "plum" neutral — he still provided a favorable situation 
for the outlaws and rustlers. Simmering it all down, Cassidy's 
bunch lived in a strictly friendly neighborhood whenever they were 
in the Hole-in-the-Wall country, as did all the other transients 
and lone badmen who came and went. They harmed no one 
there and no one was in the least afraid because the outlaws were 
there, nor was any door barred to protect the womenfolk. Every- 
body, including the homesteaders (and this is true) did as he 
pleased, in so far as he was able, and asked no questions and 
answered no questions. Cattle rustling was so general up and 
down the Powder that, as one old-timer so aptly said, "They had 
them cows plum wore out stealin' 'em from each other." 

One rancher had a couple of fine horses he kept just for the 
purpose of selling over and over, as the need arose, to pay his 
grocery bill, for he had an extravagant wife and a houseful of kids. 
They were smart horses and just plain satisfied staying right in 
the Hole-in-the-Wall where they figured they rightfully belonged; 
one was named "Cottonwood" and the other "Long Head," and 
both were big dependable horses, "gentle-broke". Mostly they 
were sold to some inexperienced homesteader over in the Basin 
country and long before he could get around to burning his brand 
on them, they'd be back home poking their noses over the corral 
gate as if nothing whatever had taken place out of the ordinary. 
They had no objections of any kind, either, about being put in a 
Uttle hidden pasture until the next time the grocery bill was due. 

1. He did have the homestead rights as abstracts of present owners 
plainly show. 


When this had gone on as long as humanly possible (even in those 
times) these two horses, sad as it was, were sold to Malcolm 
Moncrieffe of Big Horn, who bought horses for the war in Eng- 
land. Many loyal, gallant horses ended up over there, which 
seemed mighty unfair, and as ignoble almost as being sent to the 
meat cannery, but such was life; unpredictable, and at times unjust 
beyond any sensible explanation, even for a horse. 

A fairly clear picture of the times is told by a woman who lived 
in the Powder River country behind the Wall. She wrote: 
"Through all these wild happenings down here the people were 
perfectly safe. We had as high as 12 or 15 hundred dollars in 
the house at a time and the outlaws knew it and didn't touch it. 
Everyone threw their "chicken-feed" coin on the dresser to buy 
stamps with, as there wasn't much else to buy then, and sometimes 
it grew to quite a pile, but it was never taken. . . . Dirty Jim, a 
shady character, who drifted into ,the Hole-in-the-Wall, worked 
for us on our ranch awhile. He was one of the most low, vile men 
I ever met, yet he never molested us in anyway. . . . The Roberts 
Brothers, two dangerous, shifty-eyed murderers, came in here from 
somewhere and were fed and housed at our place the same as 
everyone else. The ranchers were all dispensers of hospitality in 
those days, and everyone that came along hung up his hat and 
called it home, very often spending an entire winter without invi- 
tation^. . . . All kinds of men put in an appearance, like a fellow 
named Mel Olmstead, who was a young arrogant, egotistical 
would-be badman. He used to wear us out telling how he was 
going to rob a bank. We told him he didn't have sense enough to 
come in out of the rain, but he did finally assist Tom O'Day in 
robbing a bank by holding his saddle horse. And the funny thing 
about it was that everybody got away but poor Mel — he got 
killed. . . . Then there was a little high-complexioned feminine- 
looking fellow — can't remember his name — who robbed the Buf- 
falo postoffice one night. Even though such a weak-lookin' young 
thing, guess he had quite a record behind him. You never knew 
about people in those days for you didn't ask questions. It didn't 
really matter who they were." 

You didn't know whether your guest was what he seemed, an 
honest roving cowboy looking for a job, or whether he was an 
outlaw stooge pretending to want work, only to be the eyes and 
ears for future outlaw escapades. 

The outlaw setup was different after Cassidy arrived. Mere 

2. Old Bill speck, whose story will be told laier, rode up to a ranch 
below Kaycee one time with his whole pack-string to stay over night. He 
and his horses ended up staying three years. They finally had to ask him to 
leave because he refused to close the gates on the ranch when he went 
visiting up Kaycee way. 



horse stealing and cattle rustling in themselves had grown too 
tame for Butch. His cool daring and adventuresome spirit de- 
manded excitement of a higher type. Practically everybody was a 
horse thief; it was easy of accomplishment, and while a profitable 
enough sideline and certainly not one to be scoffed at or discarded 
entirely, it definitely provided very little challenge to an outlaw 
with a price on his head and a notorious reputation to maintain. 
Cassidy expanded the outlaw history of the west to such an extent 
that this spectacular period of "horse and cowboy outlawing" 
became a live, never-to-be forgotten drama, colorful and dynamic. 
George Leroy Parker in the early '90's was just a kid, cowboying 
in southern Utah — a live hand, but too full of steam to be content 
with slow, easy living. It is thought his outlaw career began when 
he met and became associated with some of Black Jack's gang 
(Tom Ketchum) of train robbers, who were cowboying on some 
of these ranches in Utah. Undoubtedly the seed of outlawry was 
sown then and began to quicken when, a few years later, he met 
Harve Logan, who was with Curry's Hole-in-the-Wall gang. Any- 
way, after Cassidy came to Johnson County and took over Curry's 
bunch he and Black Jack Ketchum combined operations and put 
train robbing in the realm of big business. 

All the things accomplished over this huge area by these cowboy 
outlaws could never have been done without the gallant horses 
under them. Far too little has been told of the horses and the part 


they played in all this. Like the pioneer women they have been 
too casually taken for granted, and certainly too little emphasis 
has been brought to bear upon their stupendous contribution in 
early day transportation. Who has ever been told of the cruel, 
undeserved ending of those few gallant ones that died of starvation, 
tied up (or locked up) in some hidden place, weakening and 
dying with the saddle on, waiting too long for the rider who never 
returned, with nothing left of a story of loyalty but a pile of rotted 
leather and dried-up bones long since buried under years of debris. 
The cowboy outlaws valued their horses above everything else 
on earth and were meticulous in their choice of mounts, more than 
painstaking in the breaking and training of the ones used on the 
Outlaw Trail. Being expert horse thieves and the best of horse- 
men, they knew horseflesh from A to Z and always had the very 
best at their disposal. For what would a cowboy be without his 
horse? His horse was the only investment in his trade, his only 
means of going any place, and often his closest friend. Surely 
this bond between a cowboy and his horse, when they became as 
one, a perfect working unit where the man knew and trusted the 
horse, and the horse understood and respected the man, was a 
rare, God-like thing. 

There is something distinctly fitting and proper and mighty 
good about a man and a horse taking out over the trail, covering 
mile after weary mile, looking off into the bigness of long distances, 
breathing the clean invigorating air — just the man and the horse 
alone with the sky, the hills, the clouds, the wind and the dust 
and their "man-and-horse" thoughts. A fellow can get pretty 
close to the roots of living and the feeling of life when his horse 
is the only other living thing there is around. That true-blue ani- 
mal under him somehow gives him a feeling of security and above 
all a glorious sense of freedom and well-being, as if belonging to 
all this bigness surrounding them. It also gives him a feeling of 
power, for it's dead certain that together they can face anything 
unexpected that might turn up, be it Old Mother Nature in a fury, 
or some man-made thing, and even if they can't lick it they can 
give it a "good run for the money" and not have to be ashamed 
of the mark they made. A cowboy from Barnum once said this 
about one of his horses. Old Box, a beautiful chestnut sorrel with 
a little star on his forehead. "God, it's good to get back on Old 
Box — the old devil sure does keep a man on his toes. It's a 
downright God-blasted cinch you can't take no liberties with him. 
You sure as hell can't take no nap on him— but I sure do like a 
horse like him. Treat him like a gentleman and he'll hold up his 
end of the bargain and more." 

No men ever worshipped and revered the stamina of horseflesh 
more than these cowboy outlaws, and throughout the entire story 
of western history, theft of horseflesh meant gun-play and hangings 
galore. Many Indians, as well as white men, have dangled from 


the end of manila for stealing prize horses. In desperate privation 
or under great duress a western man might eat a mule, but never 
his faithful horse. -^ 

The Hole-in-the-Wall country w^as a perfect training ground for 
the outlaw's horses. Cassidy's ranch became a bronc-breaking 
place where the best of the horses were prepared for the Outlaw 
Trail. Nature's mingling of magnificent mixtures of Morgan, 
Hamiltonian, Thoroughbred, Standardbred, Arabian, Barb, Palo- 
mino, Mustang, Maverick and just plain Cayuse made up these 
hard-working and often abused horses of the West. Their speed 
and strength were the pride of the land, and like the men who 
rode them, they knew the routes over mountain passes, valleys and 
canyons, over badlands and alkali bogs. They were sure-footed, 
giant-hearted and dependable. There were no broom-tails or ring- 
tails in the bunch. You can bet a real Westerner never rode either 
if he could help it for a "ring-tail-er"^ was nearly always a no-good 
animal, neither reliable nor smart. 

Cassidy, being an extraordinary man in many ways, broke and 
trained his own private horses. No time was too long for him 
to spend working with and sweating over a horse, until its response 
to orders was instantaneous. He never considered a horse broke 
until he and the horse had become a perfect working unit. He 
said, "You got to get the horse to liking and, above all, respecting 
you and wanting to respond." That was the all important thing, 
always. Thus Cassidy's success in evading the law was not mere 
luck. He worked at his job and never tackled anything, however 
minor, ill-prepared, and he never rode a "green" horse. He knew 
what he was going to do and so did the horse. There was very 
little left to chance (and his quick wits took care of that). There 
was nothing "hit and miss" about Cassidy in spite of his gay, 
light-hearted manner, and contrary to what a lot of people think, 
there was much more than glamorous galloping around to an 
outlaw's life. There was grueling hard work connected with prac- 
tically every phase of his profession — long hard hours of riding 
and days of exhausting privation. It took careful planning and 
strict discipline of both men and horses, each doing certain things 
at certain times all along the line. 

Cassidy's splendid horses could go down a steep shale hill on a 

3. An old Hole-in-the-Wall cowboy once visited the meat Processing 
Plant in Casper when it was first started up. He took one look at the 
"de-hided" horse on the pulley ready to be sliced open for gutting, and that 
was enough for him. Turning around, pale as a sheet, he bolted out the 
door mumbling, "darned sacrilege doing that to a horse" — for to him a 
horse was like one of the family and ought to be kept on good feed until 
"death claimed him natural". 

4. A ring-tail horse is always switching his tail around in a ring. One 
can see a lot of them in modern "Western movies". 


dead run, jumping in powerful "20 foot" leaps, sinking slender 
hooves eight inches in the earth. They could safely leap off high 
cutbanks and swiftly ascend narrow steep ledges, and they could 
turn like a flash and be gone like the wind, or stand and wait 
indefinitely. Like the well-trained athlete, they had in reserve that 
last spurt of strength which spelled the difference between success 
and failure. Endurance, speed, intelHgence, beauty and loyalty, 
they had them all and served their riders nobly. (Of course, 
there were always bad, no-good horses as there always were bad, 
no-good men, but they only served, by contrast, to heighten the 
others' glory.) 

Cassidy's favorite horse was a powerfully-built dappled-grey, 
a magnificent animal. It is said that one time when a bunch of 
fellows were bedded down out on the trail somewhere, this horse 
mysteriously disappeared. At dawn next morning when Cassidy 
awoke and found him gone he nearly went wild with grief. It was 
the first time any had seen him completely shaken and unnerved. 
He left no stone unturned until he got the horse back (the details 
of which are not now remembered). 
"^ Cassidy's outlaws were called The Hole-In-The-Wall Gang, The 

'■ Wild Bunch or the Trainrobbers Syndicate. The only requisites 

to becoming a member were: first, be a good shot, no half-way 
stuff; second, be a top horseman; and third, be absolutely familiar 
with the Rocky Mountain region of the West. 

Cassidy and "Flat-nosed" George Curry were much the same 
type of men tempermentally — both everybody's friend, likeable, 
good-natured, honest-when-trusted, steel-nerved, quick-witted and 
daring. Cassidy was five foot eight inches tall and weighed around 
155 pounds, and (like Curry) had light brown hair with a pro- 
nounced cowlick in front. Both were soft-voiced and quick- 
spoken and physically very graceful and fast-moving. Cassidy 
was considered very good-looking and always played the gentleman 
in speech and manners. The ladies all loved him (or wished they 
could). He was a man of unusual character, a venerable Robin 
Hood, laughing and gay, and always kind and charitable toward 
the unfortunate. 

He wore a wicked-looking Frontier Model .44 Colt revolver 
with a big wooden handle stuck in his trouser belt, so as to be as 
inconspicuous as possible. (No notches on it, either, for Butch 
never notched his guns). He went into the holdup game purely 
for the sport of it. It was a challenge to the fun-loving side of 
him, and later when he came to fully realize that the bandit trail 
had but one inevitable ending, disaster and retribution, (no matter 
how good a fellow was at it) he figured he was far too involved 
to quit, so played it gallantly through to the end. You have to 
admire a man who wilfully charts his own course and then sticks 
to it even when it gets tough. Cassidy never became soured or 
unhappy about his fate, but he probably had plenty of inward 


regrets that he hadn't used his fine talents and rugged capabilities 
for a more worthy cause. 

One time a friend asked, "Butch, why don't you give up ban- 
ditry?" and he said, "It can't be done. There's no use trying to 
hide out and go straight. There's always an informer around to 
bring the law on you. After you've started you've got to keep 
going, that's all. The safest way is to keep moving all the time 
and spring a holdup in some new place. In this way you keep 
the other fellow guessing." 

Nobody at all could ever understand why he and Harve Logan 
got along so well, for everybody said that Harve was the most 
dangerous man Butch ever associated with. Yet Butch said, 
"Harve Logan was the bravest, coolest and most able man I've 
ever known." Harve was the youngest of the three Logan brothers 
who came West from Missouri and took up cattle rustling right 
from the start. Lonny and John got themselves "bumped off" in a 
shooting scrape in a short time and Harve headed for Wyoming 
and joined up with Curry's Hole-in-the-Wall bunch. 

Harve went by a lot of different names. Around Thermopolis 
and the Basin country he was known as Ed Howard, and in 
Johnson County he was referred to as a "Curry". He was nick- 
named, and rightly, the "Tiger of the Hole-in-the-Wall" gang. 
Harve was quite a distinguished looking fellow too; tall, medium 
dark-complexioned and wore a mustache. He had two outstand- 
ing characteristics, his extreme quietness and his habitual polite- 
ness. It was, "Yes, sir," and "No, sir." He never drank, smoked 
or used profane language, which was probably why he always 
appeared rather stiff and dignified, in a crowd, aloof and un- 
friendly, though, perhaps, not so much unfriendly as just disin- 
terested. While in his presence you felt that he was deliberately 
ignoring you and immediately you felt resentful toward him, for 
no real particular reason. Logan was the only member of the 
Hole-in-the-Wall gang (as far as is known) who was a cold- 
blooded murderer. It was rumored that he had "thirty-some" 
killings to his credit (or discredit) and that he ruthlessly plotted 
revenge for every wrong he figured had been done him, even if 
purely imaginary, no matter how long it took him to get the job 
done. He could wait until the right time came and shoot a man as 
easily as he could a rattlesnake. Cassidy never killed and hated 
killing, even necessary killing, yet he and Harve were the best of 
friends. Maybe they complemented each other; maybe Logan 
supplied a little of the hardness Cassidy lacked and maybe Cassidy 
served to soften a little of Logan's hardness or perhaps it was a 
case of opposites attracting opposites. 

Harry Longabaugh (called the Sundance Kid because he'd been 
jailed at Sundance, Wyoming, for rustling) joined the Wild Bunch 
and also became a fast friend of Cassidy. This attachment was 
understandable, for Lonabaugh was like Cassidy, happy-go-lucky, 


courageous, and liked by all who knew him. He also was tall, 
good-looking and dark-complexioned with a smart mustache, very 
temperate in his drinking and never a killer. It was said that 
Cassidy, Logan and Lonebaugh were the "big trio" of the Hole- 
in-the-Wall gang. 

What a strange happenstance that Cassidy and Lormbaugh, who 
never killed, never robbed an employer and never betrayed a 
friend, lived in outlawry the longest of all the restless cowboys 
who voted cattle-stealing too slow; they were more feared than 
any other bandits who ever held up a train or robbed a bank. 
They escaped the longest from the clutches of the law — they had 
simply gone so far along the Outlaw Trail there was no turning 

Others known to be in Cassidy's bunch were Bill Carver, Bob 
Lee (a cousin of Harve Logan), BilfMcGinnis (alias Elza Lay), 
Dave Atkins, Bill Cruzan, Ben Kilpatrick and Tom O'Day, called 
"Peep O'Day". No one now remembers much about any of these 
men except Ben and Tom. Ben was a big, tall, dark-complexioned 
Texan, very handsome and clean-faced. One old timer said 
"There was a sort of cleanness hangin' all over Ben. He looked 
you so straight in the eye and seemed so sincere and serious- 
minded for a young "fella" that nuthin' about him made you think 
he was a bad man, and he couldn't a been too bad." 

Everybody knew Tom O'Day, the big, husky, easy-going Irish- 
man who was the gang's "outside contact man". He'd spot the 
stuff for the others to pick up. He'd nonchalantly ride into a 
cow camp (or ranch) and picket his horse and stay overnight, or 
maybe a day or two. (Most of the time he rode a fine-looking 
powerfully-built bay horse) He was so very sociable and enter- 
taining that the lonesome line-rider (or whoever it was) would feel 
plenty flattered to have Tom stay awhile and, believe it, he always 
stayed until he had the lay of the land and all he wanted to find 
out. His decidedly charming manner immediately disarmed his 
victims. He was genuinely liked and was the kind of person you 
just automatically talked to. First thing, he'd find out all about 
your cows and horses and what you planned to do and all the 
while you were stupidly unaware of the fact that he'd gained infor- 
mation useful to the outlaws or himself personally, for Tom did 
considerable cow and horse stealing on his own on the side. Few 
people realized all that Tom was up to and those who did know 
couldn't do much about it anyway. At least, they didn't do any- 
thing about it. Tom had many interests besides his association 
with the Wild Bunch and it was most difficult to pin anything 
definite on him. 

Tom was blue-eyed and had a beautiful black bushy mustache 
and he "talked nice", having great respect for the English lan- 
guage. Somehow you felt he could be trusted and meant what he 
said. He cowboyed with most of the cow outfits off and on and 


while not the friend-maker Cassidy was, still he was well-received 
wherever he went. He was a crack shot and plenty quick on the 
draw, but had one bad habit — he drank too much and sometimes 
at the wrong time and when inebriated sometimes got kind of 
ornery spells and was inchned to talk too much — talk about wrong 
stuff. Often he'd brag and belittle the human race in general for 
their stupidity and gullibility. He'd tell how simple it was hood- 
winking the people, and after all, why not hoodwink a fool? 
Why couldn't he get smart and then you wouldn't be tempted to 
steal from him, etc. Besides all this, Tom loved to fight, gun fight 
or fist fight, it didn't matter in the least which. And he didn't 
fight because he was mean, just the Irish in him probably, he 
thoroughly loved to fight. He wasn't even particular whether he 
won or not, that is, in fist fights. He was too clever to ever get 
caught in an unfavorable gun fight and he never got drunk when 
something serious was in the air needing "gun-settlement". 

Tom and John Nolan started up the first saloon in Kaycee (not 
a town then ) located just north of the river on the west side of the 
road. John Nolan, a hard-working homesteader and owner of the 
KC ranch (more about this later), was a big, husky, square- 
shouldered, sandy-complexioned, red-faced Irishman who was con- 
sidered a goot citizen, even if he did carry on rustling and outlaw 
operations on the side. John once said about himself, "I've been 
a thief all my life and guess I always will be". When old Pete 
Griffin-'', who had no family and a delightful sense of humor, died 
he left to John Nolan all his worldly possessions, which probably 
weren't very extensive, because he said, "John was the most suc- 
cessful thief on Powder River." Nolan wasn't mean or cruel, he 
didn't kill valuable cows (like some of the others did) to get the 
calves. He just had an eye for business, especially John Nolan's 
business, whatever its nature. He could see easy money in the 
saloon and certainly there was little expense-of-ownership in the 
venture, for all the old-timers were vehement in describing the 
"vileness' of the "rot-gut brand of whiskey" sold there. 

The saloon gave Tom O'Day his chance for the fighting he 
loved, principally with a brawny NH cowboy; they fought every 
time they met. It became an institution, like 4th of July celebra- 
tions and horse-racing. After much imbibing and argumentation 
Tom and the NH fellow would go out in the road in front of the 
saloon. Proceeding with much elaboration and the utmost delib- 
eration, each man removed his coat, his vest, his gunbelt and last 
of all his hat, the coats and vests being carefully and neatly folded 
and laid on the ground beside a sagebrush. Then after much 
flourishing of fists and much prancing of booted-feet, the fight was 

5. Pete came to the Powder River country as gardner for Plunkett and 
Roche at the NH ranch. 


on, and it went on, and on, until the men were done up. They 
were so of a size it invariably ended the way it began. Bloody 
and "black-eyed", spitting and gulping for wind, they'd shake 
hands and thump each other on the back. And after putting on 
gunbelts, vests, coats and hats (very ceremoniously, like a couple 
of Indian chiefs) they'd return to the saloon the best of pals and 
have drinks set up for the crowd. It seemed they had to get 
"this fight" out of their systems every time they set eyes on each 
other. It always began the same and ended the same; the pro- 
cedure never varied, it was completely memorized and it had 
become a sort of ritual. The only deviation was the thing they 
began arguing about — it might be a girl in a dance-hall, maybe it 
was about a horse, or a fancied insult to a friend or maybe about 
nothing at all that could be seen or heard. Folks thought surely 
this fierce having-to-get-at-each-othen would some day end up with 
a killing match, but it never did. Lookers-on liked it the way it 
was, for it provided excitement of the kind so craved in those days. 
They thought it too bad Tom O'Day didn't stay around longer, but 
he didn't; he was a busy man — here today, someplace far-away 

Besides the Nolan and O'Day saloon on Powder River, the 
outlaws had other favorite drinking and carousing places. One 
thing particularly to be remembered in their favor was the fact 
that they left their drinking and carousing right where they found 
it. They didn't mix it with or carry it over into their business 
deals. They drank when they drank and worked when they 

One drinking place was the Zindel saloon in Buffalo, which 
at that time was considered the finest this side of Cheyenne. Mr. 
Zindel carried on ranching operations on the side in the Powder 
River country, first on North Fork (later Donaldson's Ranch and 
now part of the Crow Gordon outfit) and later on he had a place 
on the Middle Fork above Kaycee (now a part of the Eldon Keith 
holdings. This place was also at one time owned by George 
Peterson). It is thought Mr. Zindel's ranch house was the first 
shingled house in Johnson County. 

Mr. Zindel was tall, rather heavy-set, very dark-complexioned 
and was unusually big-eyed; he had a sort of spread-out nose, 
wide at the nostrils which didn't at all mar the looks of the man, 
however. He was always immaculately and flashily dressed and 
wore an enormous diamond ring on his cigar-holding hand. One 
never forgot the diamond, the long black cigar and the derby hat 
he usually wore. He was a very imposing sort of person; his big, 
black, round eyes were constantly rolling here and there missing 
nothing that went on. Those eyes seemed to glance off people 
and things, always moving, never taking a good long look, just 
moving, like the cigar he twirled with diamonded hand. In all 
fairness it must be stated that Mr. Zindel was always a gentleman 


and ran a very fine saloon'', clean and orderly. There were 
sleeping rooms on the floor above the saloon to be had with or 
without "girls". The covered stairway is still there at the back of 
the building where the girls from "Mag Jesses' Emporium" could 
quietly and unobtrusively enter the rooms upon call. They were 
well-behaved and "perfect ladies" when in public and did not 
mingle with the men in the saloon. Zindel's place was well 
managed and outwardly respectable. 

Not so were the places up on the mountain west of the Hole- 
in-the-Wall. At Cheevers Flats (see map) a fellow by the name 
of Davis ran a saloon and gambling and prostitution place. One 
old-timer said, "It was a hard, tough place — a horrible place. 
Women of loose character came and stayed awhile and would go. 
Different ones coming and going all the time." 

Mr. Cheevers had a store and eating house of sorts, but there 
were no extra sleeping quarters. All overnight transients had to 
sleep in their own bedrolls under the stars in the big open spaces. 

A fellow by the name of O. A. Parker had a blacksmith shop 
there in the summer time. (He blacksmithed at 33-Mile and also 
at Kaycee later). 

O. A. was a very dark-complexioned man and the things most 
easily remembered about him were his straight black hair which 
hung slightly over his forehead and the huge-muscled arms which 
seemed far too heavy to be on so slight a man (for physically 
Parker looked small compared to the big swarthy Texans whose 
horses he shod and whose running irons he made ) . Parker stood 
rather stoop-shouldered and turned his whole head up as he 
looked at you through straggles of hair. But whatever needed to 
be done to keep horses on the trail, Parker could do. It was 
amazing what could be done with a piece of hot iron and a 

These early-day blacksmiths, like the women and horses, have 
been overlooked, too, when honors were passed around. Every 
little road ranch had its blacksmith shop as well as its saloon. 
Every stage stop had its blacksmith shop, even if off in some 
God-forsaken place in the midst of nowhere. The blacksmith was 
an important man to the outlaws for it was he who made their 
"outlaw horseshoes", a very clever device used to throw pursuers 

6. Present site of Rainbow Cafe. 

7. It is worth anyone's time to see the early-day blacksmith-made items 
in the Gatchell Museum in Buffalo. Few people today realize what mir- 
acles of workmanship were performed by these blacksmiths. In 1898, a 
Bill Babcock, working in the Hogerson blacksmith shop in Buffalo, mounted 
an arrow-head in pure gold for a stick-pin for a Mr. Brown (whose son, 
Clyde, now lives in Nebraska). It is very delicately and beautifully made. 
Mr. Babcock had been a jeweler in his younger days and was indeed a 
workman of rare ability. 


off the track. One minute the trail showed the tracks of a sharp- 
shod horse and all of a sudden the horse tracks showed bare- 
footed, making a man think he'd gotten careless and lost the right 
trail. While he was deliberating and trying to figure out where 
he'd "gone to sleep" the outlaw had that Httle extra time he needed 
to get away. These horseshoes were not nailed to the hoof, but 
were fastened on by means of a screw clamp. They could easily 
be carried along with a running iron and slipped on and off a 
horse's feet as the need arose*^ 

Many exciting incidents, some good and some bad, happensd at 
Cheevers Flats and will be told later. Even rougher and more 
obscene were the "goings-on" on Shankersville — a road ranch 
farther to the south, (see map) Fortunately its life of iniquity 
was brief. It died almost overnight and left absolutely nothing 
of itself to be recorded but the rock foundations of the building 
which once stood there. No one now has one single thing to say 
about Shankersville, even those who can rember being told, so the 
only conclusion to be drawn in regard to it is that either nothing 
too important happened there, or no one wishes to say what did 
happen. All that is known is that it was a stopping place on the 
Outlaw Trail. 

Another stopping place was Baker's Cabin, about 15 miles 
south of Ed Houk's. It was located at the junction of the Barnum 
and Arminto and the mountain road which went over the southern 
end of the slope and led to Cheevers Flat, etc. on top. Baker's 
Cabin was a road ranch of sorts and, like Houk's and Barnum, a 
post office and stage-stop and was considered a respectable place 
even if girls, gambling and drinking were side line attractions. 

Many were the men in and out of the red wall country. We 
get a glimpse even of George Shanton, who later became quite a 
popular figure as one of Roosevelt's Rough Riders and U. S 
deputy marshal. He had a most romantic career as a law- 
enforcing officer, rounding up the Herrin Gang in Illinois. George 
got his start as a cowboy in the Hole-in-the-Wall. Born in Rome, 
New York, he came to Wyoming and stayed until he was twenty 
years old, hobnobbing with the outlaws and riding the range, 
learning about broncs and guns and bad men. He was an inter- 
esting person and was described thus in a Kansas City newspaper 
clipping written about the same time the Johnson County Invasion 
was headlined, "Shanton was over six feet tall and as straight 
as one of Geronimo's Apache bucks. He was solid, yet slender, 
all steel-springs and rawhide and hard rubber. His eyes were like 
blue ice and about as hard when his dander was up. He had a 
good chunk of a nose, forceful and generous, and a humorous 

8. A pair of these horse shoes are in the Gatchell Museum. Many were 
found in cabins and places used by outlaws and rustlers. 

^ t:iBRARTS 




mouth that could snap shut Hke a bear trap. While all tempered- 
steel from head to heel, he was also very gentle and gallant." 

Old Eagle Breast was a queer character who hung out at Cas- 
sidy's on Blue Creek. He was a big old Texan with an eagle 
tatooed on his chest (hence the nickname). He had very dark, 
piercing eyes that could easily have belonged to the eagle on his 
breast. He was very close-mouthed, more so than seemed neces- 
sary or normal for any kind of man. All that was actually known 
about him was that he was "an all-fired good cow hand". 

The famous Teton Jackson also put in an occasional appearance 
in the earliest outlaw times. According to Robert David in 
Malcolm Campbell, Sheriff, he was the head of a band of 300 
horse-thieving outlaws from the Jackson Hole and over here prob- 
ably fixing up some horse-swapping deal with Sang Thompson or 
Curry. Teton was a giant of a man, six foot two inches, and 
weighed around 300 pounds. He was big and ferocious looking 
enough to be a "plum dangerous bad man". He had a frowzly 
head of wiry red hair and a red scraggly beard with little black 
eyes in between, which mostly got lost in all the hair. He'd served 
as a scout with General Crook in 1876 against the Indians and 
knew every last nook and cranny of this country. 

Another fellow hanging around Blue Creek and the Bar C a lot 
was "Black Henry" Smith. He was a bad man through and 
through, so bad that no outlaw gang wanted him around. In 
1889 a Russell from Texas was cow foreman for the Bar C. Russell 
and Black Henry had known each other in Texas so when Black 
Henry drifted up Wyoming way he naturally wound up at the 
Bar C looking for a job. But he wouldn't stay on a job long. He 
didn't take to work much, only off and on, when he needed no 
alibi. He just couldn't stick to honest work. He had the southern- 
ers' charm of personality and manner and spoke Spanish very well. 
He was dark, long-nosed, and tall, so tall in fact that he had to 
lean down to talk to people. His black hair was very straight and 
inclined to stick out all over his head. He wore unusually long 
and high heeled boots with faded overalls tucked in their tops. 
His coat appeared too small, and his large hands dangled out of 
the sleeves like a tramp's. His voice, though, was most unusual, 
a perfect complement to the evilness inside him. It was unpleas- 
antly rasping and low-pitched, not soft, just low. His eyes were 
the never-to-be-forgotten part of him; they were yellow like a 
coyotes, like clear amber, large and piercing, bad eyes, absolutely 
fearless, shrewd and treacherous, and cold, ice cold, steel-cold. 
His mouth was hidden under a big mustache, which was undoubt- 
edly a good thing as it never would have been noticed anyway; 
with those evil eyes whatever kind of a mouth he had, good or bad, 
would not have mattered in the least. An old-timer described him 
as follows: "Black Henry didn't care nuthin' about human life — 
he was run out of Texas and was plenty bad. He was handsome 


in an evil sort of way and a great entertainer. He could talk 
anybody out of anything and was plain smart. If he'd turned his 
talents to honest pursuits he could have gone far, but he never 
did". Black Henry was no half and half person, he was all bad 
without any scruples whatever and without affection for a living 
soul — not even a horse or any animal. His face, his voice, his 
every movement showed cruelty, and yet he visited around the 
various ranches as did others and no one was afraid of him." 

The first time Black Henry was heard of in northern Wyoming 
was once when Charles Fischer's'^ father was freighting between 
Fort Fetterman and Medicine Bow. It was a bad outlaw time. 
The stage coaches were being held up to such an extent that at this 
particular time it was decided to send the government pay money 
to Fort Fetterman by the freight string, thinking it would have a 
better chance of getting through thisVay than by stagecoach, the 
way it was usually sent. Fischer and his boy were driving the 
string alone and it seemed like taking a mighty big chance of 
getting killed taking that money, but men in those days took 
chances; they had no chocie, they had to. They finally hit upon 
the idea of hiding the $4000 of government money in baking 
powder cans and sacks of flour, which were opened with a ladle 
inside as if being used. They started out finally, feeling plenty 
apprehensive, and got along fine until about half way to Fort 
Fetterman; when topping a little hill they came face to face with 
hold-up men, who stopped the mules. Several then proceeded to 
go through the wagons while others on horseback stood off a ways 
pointing guns at the man and the boy. The men were very polite 
about all this, didn't damage a single thing, not one, and failing 
to find the expected and wanted strongbox, motioned Fischer on. 
These outlaws were the James Brothers and with them were Dutch 
Charlie (whom I know nothing about), Big Nose George, Black 
Henry Smith and Arapahoe Brown. 

Black Henry was plenty lucky all along the line getting away 
from the law, especially after he started hiding out in the Barnum 
country. Fortunately there were few like him. He, like Big Nose 
George, was a lone wolf, mostly working alone with extremely 
cruel methods, brutal and cold-blooded. 

Another very interesting, as well as very dangerous, man who 
went in and out of the Hole was Arapahoe Brown, who later 
became a respected (this is a controversial matter) citizen of 
Buffalo. He was an odd mixture of a man: "a fellow you didn't 
want to fool with"; "just like a sage-chicken — coulda' been born 
any place"; the fellow with a lot of friends and a lot of enemies; 

9. Charles Fischer's family was one of the first in Johnson County. 
Charles, now an old man, still lives on a ranch on French Creek northwest 
of Buffalo. 



a fellow who could compose beautiful lines of poetry to a lady 
friend and at the same time plot the extinction of a man whose 
land he wanted. 

(To be continued) 

Oregon Zrail Zrek ^o. Sk 

Compiled by 

Maurine Carley, Trek Historian 

September 11, 1955 

75 participants 30 cars 


Col. W. R. Bradley of Hiway Patrol.... Safety Officer 

Gen. R. L. Esmay ....^Commander of Military 


Maj. Henry Lloyd Registrar 

Col. A. R. Boyack.... Chaplain 

Maurine Carley Historian 

Joe Bagley Wagon Boss 

Lyle Hildebrand Assistant Wagon Boss 

Jim Carpenter. Assistant Wagon Boss 

Tom Sun Assistant Wagon Boss 

George Christopulos Photographer 

Elva Myers Sale of Treks & Pioneer 


Note : Numbers preceding "M" indicate miles north and west from 
where the south branch of the main emigrant road enters 
what is now Wyoming. Ft. Laramie is 33 M., Ft. Casper 
153 M., the Tom Sun Ranch 212 M., and the 6th crossing 
of the Sweetwater is 269 M. 

The Crown maps, by A. B. Hulbert, which depict the entire 
Oregon Trail in some detail, show the main road branching south- 
east between the Ice Slough (where the last Trek ended) and the 
6th Crossing of the Sweetwater. It stays on the south side of the 
river and joins the road which we consider to be the main trail 
at Oregon Slough across the river from the Burnt Ranch. We 
know that there is a branch of the old road here, but in any event, 
the Pony Express and Stage Lines traveled our route and the 
telegraph line paralleled it. 

8:45 A.M. The party assembled at the Filling Station just 
west of the bridge across the Sweetwater River on the Lander- 
Rawlins Highway. 

Prayer by Colonel Boyack 

Our Father Who Art in Heaven — 

In the quiet of this peaceful Sabbath morning, and in these 
surroundings made sacred by the historic events of the past, we 

^e^Tt //, /9SS 





,.^S>«Pxf»«*- ■ 

f/&je^ iiin»S*^'^ 



give thanks to Thee. We thank Thee for our homes and loved 
ones, for citizenship in our beloved America, for the companion- 
ship of each other, for an opportunity to pay homage to the 

We pray Thy blessings upon this trek this day. May we travel 
in peace and safety. May we catch some little of the spirit, cour- 
age and fortitude of those who made famous this pathway to the 

We ask Thy blessings upon those who have devoted unselfishly 
of their time and efforts to mark accurately the Trail of the 
Pioneers. May we ever memorialize, in our hearts and in suitable 
monuments and dedications, the heroic efforts of those whose 
pathway we shall this day follow. We pray for the worthiness 
to follow in their steps. 

Inasmuch as along the way we shall pass the final resting places 
of many who in utter weariness lay down for their last sleep, we 
pray that peace shall be theirs, and we re-dedicate to Thee these 
numerous graves, known and unknown, until that day when all 
shall come forth to the life that shall have no end. 

Now Thy blessings we invoke upon us as we journey forth, in 
the name of Jesus, Amen. 

9:00 A.M. Departed from the Sweetwater Filling Station. 
About V2 mile west on the Highway we crossed the north side 
emigrant road; at 2.4 miles west we turned southwest on Yellow- 
stone Sheep Company road; and at 2 miles on this Sheep Company 
road we crossed the north side emigrant road. 

9:20 A.M. After three more miles we halted at 269 M. where 
the main Emigrant road crosses just north of the 6th Sweetwater 
Crossing. From a high bluff Mr. Joe Bagley pointed out the 6th, 
7th, and 8th crossings of the Sweetwater. 

Mr. Joe Bagley read excerpts from Gold Rush, The Journals, 
Drawings and Other Papers of J. Goldsborough Bruff. (Two vol- 
ume edition) 

"July 26, 1849 Noon'd at 'Independence Rock.' Camped at 
'Devil Gate.' 

July 27 Traveled 19Vi miles and camped on Sweet- 

water River. 

July 28 Passed dry bed of Bitter Cottonwood Creek. 

July 29 Proceeded to 4th ford of Sweetwater River and 

also crossed 'Ice Springs.' [This is Icy Slough] 

July 30 Passed thru Sweetwater, very sinuous with bot- 

toms of good grass. River, and an Indian trail 
runs thru a rugged gorge. Left side red and 

July 31 Left valley and ascended the high hill, dusty, 

the next was very stony in the ascent and re- 
quired care. Several other ridges passed over 
— Crossed a creek bed. "Strawberry Creek." 


August 1 Moved early crossed Sweetwater and over 

Sandy hills and plains. Made lOVi miles and 
Noon'd, then moved on thru Pass to Pacific 

Below is a quote from "Critical Notes from Sketches of Note- 
book A of the edition of Georgia Willis Read."- (Brujj) 

"Fords of Sweetwater, No. 5 — 1 [mile]. Plenty of good grass 
and willow bushes. River about three rods wide and two feet 
deep." But Horn's "Ford No. 6, Sweet Water: 1 [mile]" (Guide, 
p. 26) is Clayton's and Bruff's 5th ford. Bruff's dry bed of a 
stream is V4 mile in, another Va mile a hill, V/i miles to summit; 
and the river in 3V2 miles more, with two fords near together. 
This follows Clayton exactly — too exactly for coincidence. These 
6th and 7th crossings of the Sweetwater by Bruff and Clayton 
correspond to Horn's fords number 7 and 8." 

9:25 A.M. Departed from 269 M. on the left-hand road or 
the St. Mary's Cut-off. 

9:45 A.M. Arrived 273 M. at junction with main road over 
the hill, where a branch crosses the Sweetwater River (7th Cross- 
ing) to recross it in about V2 mile (8th Crossing), where the main 
road goes over another hill. Several trails converge at the 8th 

10:00 A.M. Departed from 273 M. on present-day dirst road. 

10:10 A.M. Came to 273% M. where we entered the old main 
road. Continued on the old road to 215V2 M. when we detoured 
1/3 mile to the right around a meadow. 

10:30 A.M. Stopped at 277 M. and looked at the site of the 
St. Mary's Pony Express and Stage Station across Silver Creek 
about 100 yards west of the river bank. 

Mr. William L. Marion of Lander gave some facts about St. 
Mary's Stage Station. 

"The site of St. Mary's Stage Station, also called Rocky Ridge 
Station because of the cliff near by, is marked with a stone tablet. 
The station was built in 1859 by Russell, Majors and Waddell 
for the Pony Express. The riders loved to put on impressive bursts 
of speed as they passed the plodding ox-teams, but they were 
grateful for the protection afforded by the wagon trains in areas 
such as this, where there were many hiding places for Indians. 
Except during July, August, and September, when most of the 
trains poured over the divide, the ride took courage. While the 
Indians did not dare attack well-organized trains, lone riders were 
targets for their vengeance. 

1. Page 54 Vol. I. 

2. Page 506 Vol. II. 


"When the transcontinental telegraph line was established in 
1861, St. Mary's was made a depot. In May 1865, while the five 
man garrison hid in an abandoned well, 150 Cheyenne and Arap- 
ahoe Indians burned the station and cut 400 yards of telephone 
wire. When the ammunition in the building exploded, the Indians 
fled. The station was rebuilt, but nothing remains except old 
square-headed nails, bits of pottery, melted glass, and pieces of 
telegraph insulators. 

"Miss Grace R. Hebard in the Bozeman Trail wrote that this 
old station was located about 300 miles from Ft. Laramie, twelve 
miles below the old town of Lewiston, and eighteen miles from 
the old mining town of South Pass City. She also wrote that it 
never became a station as it was located ten miles north of the 
Oregon Trail. Miss Hebard was certainly wrong in this instance 
as the station played a very important part during the Pony Ex- 
press days as well as during the time of the Overland telegraph. 

"It was to this station that Bill Cody made his famous ride. He 
left Sweetwater as usual with the mail but when he reached Split 
Rock, where he was to change horses, he found the guards all 
killed, the station burned, and the stock run off. He went on to 
Three Crossings where he found the same situation so he came on 
here only to find this station also completely destroyed. From here 
he returned to Sweetwater Station, thus making over a three 
hundred mile ride in less than twenty-four hours. He was only 
fifteen at the time." 

1 1 :00 A.M. Left St. Mary's Station on a detour to the right for 
about 1/3 of a mile to re-enter the old road. St. Mary's Spring 
was pointed out. 

11:10 A.M. Arrived 279 M. where the main old road branches 
to the northeast away from the river. 

11:45 A.M. Arrived 280 M. on a high ridge where the Hand- 
cart Road branches right to avoid Rocky Ridge. We ate our lunch 
on this dry, desolate, high, rolling mountain. 

Mrs. A. R. Boyack gave the following account at this point. 


Enroute over famed South Pass there rises above the uneven 
landscape an imposing mound known as Rocky Ridge. This name 
appears many times in the annals of Western History, although 
the references to it are very brief. 

Built near to this spot in 1859 was the Rocky Ridge or St. 
Mary's Stage Station. The lush meadow grasses made it an ideal 
camping site, where laboring oxen could be turned out to graze 
and rest from the hard journey. The famous freighting firm of 
Russell, Majors and Waddell used this station advantageously 
during the era when so much merchandise was needed by the 
troops at Camp Floyd in Utah Territory. 


The trans-continental telegraph, put through in 1861, made this 
place a depot where messages of great importance were flashed 
over the wires during those stirring years of the Civil War period 
and of the Indian uprisings along the eastern portions of the Old 

Today we, the trekkers of 1955, pause at the site of Rocky 
Ridge for another reason. A novel method of emigration was 
introduced between the years of 1856-1860 by the Latter-day 
Saint Church in Salt Lake City. It was the Handcart Emigration 
which brought some three thousand souls to the mountain valleys 
of Utah. 

The long, long trail over which these valiant folk trudged, some 
thirteen hundred miles in length, stretched from the terminal of 
the Rock Island Railroad at Iowa City to the Salt Lake Valley. 
This seemingly endless pathway was indeed an obstacle course for 
these Pioneers. Rain, mud, dust, rocky roadways, and sand such 
as we encountered in the Sweetwater Valley last summer. Myriads 
of insects made a chorus in the camps at night. All of this entered 
into a day of weary travel. 

As they neared the South Pass region fatigue was in their bodies. 
It was a wise and prudent thing, on seeing the right of Rocky 
Ridge, to detour around it, if possible, for an easier grade. This 
is what the Handcarters did. 

A courageous and thrilling epoch was written into the annals of 
Western migration during the Handcart period. Also a sad chap- 
ter. Two impressive memorials mark the brief era, one located 
on the highway west of Devil's Gate in Central Wyoming, the 
other one at Rock Creek, enroute over South Pass.* 

At these spots bronze plaques sketch briefly a story of rugged 
determination and faith unsurpassed in the history of human 
endeavor. These valiant folk stood ready to give their all for the 
cause they had espoused, adding another stirring page to the 
already incomparable pageant of the Old Oregon-Mormon-Cali- 
fornia Trail. 

12:30 P.M. Left 280 M. and took the right-hand or Handcart 
branch road around the brow of the mountain to avoid the Rocky 
Ridge on the main road higher up. 

12:50 P.M. Arrived at Radium Springs 286 Vi M. where we 
re-entered the old emigrant road. Looked around abandoned 
ranch buildings and drank from the cold spring. 

1:10 P.M. Halted at 288 Vi M. opposite the Lewiston townsite 
on Strawberry Creek. 

* For a more detailed story of the Handcart Companies see the Annals 
of Wyoming October 1957, pages 179-184. 


Jim Carpenter told about the old mining days and the town of 

"The first gold discovery west of the Mississippi River was made 
at South Pass in 1842. An attempt was made to mine the placers 
in 1847 but the party was driven off by hostile Indians. Another 
party was also driven off a short time later. In 1867 the Carissa 
mine was discovered and the first commercial mining was done. 
Soon after the placers around Atlantic City were opened up. Also 
the mines at Yankee Spring, Meadow Gulch, and Hamilton, then 
called Miner's Delight, were begun. As the Indian danger sub- 
sided the miners gradually moved eastward down Little Beaver, 
Crowsnest, and Strawberry creeks. 

"A Mr. Lewis found gold placer on Strawberry Creek in the 
spring of 1876. By following up the placer he discovered the 
bullion lode from which he took out a small fortune during the 
winter. A town was started and called Lewiston. 

"During the 1880's a number of rich lodes were found. Among 
them were The Hidden Hand, Iron Duke, Burr, Irish Jew, Good 
Hope, Anaconda, and Mint. No mining has been done lately. 
The Lewiston district has closed down and the town of Lewiston 
has very nearly disappeared." 

1:20 P.M. Left 28 8 1/2 M. 

1:35 P.M. Paused at 292 M. to point out the old road, which 
we leave to our left. The old Handcart road came in at this point. 

1:45 P.M. Arrived at the monument for the Willie Handcart 
Company on Rock Creek, 293 M. Velma Linford gave a colorful 
description of the misfortune of the Mormons at this point in 1856. 

2:10 P.M. Left Rock Creek. At 294% M. we detoured south 
to avoid crossing Willow Creek to re-enter the old road at 
2951/2 M. 

2:45 P.M. Arrived 300 M. at the location of the Burnt Ranch. 

Colonel Boyack read the following paper (prepared by Lester 
Bagley) on the Burnt Ranch. 

We are now at a point which in later years has been designated 
as the Burnt Ranch. Just how it received this title is not known at 
this time. 

The first recorded statement that I can find relative to this 
location refers to an incident which occurred in the late fall of 
1847 when Brigham Young was returning to winter quarters. He 
met a large emigration party at this point which was known as the 
last or ninth crossing of the Sweetwater. A feast of rejoicing was 
held at that time, and it was designated in Mormon diaries as the 
"Feast in the Wilderness." 

This location has been known as the "South Pass Station" while 


it was being used as a military post, as the "Burnt Fork" following 
the time that it was burned, "Burnt Ranch" and "The Ninth Cross- 
ing of the Sweetwater." Much research will have to be made 
before all of the events which occurred at this interesting location 
will be known to us. 

It was used as a Pony Express station, a telegraph station and as 
a stage station during the period these different enterprises func- 
tioned through this area. 

In standing here at the monument we can see the Lander Cut-off 
which takes off to the north. Across the Sweetwater is the famous 
Oregon Slough which is featured in so many diaries. Climbing the 
hill a little to the west we can see the road that came out from the 
ninth crossing of the Sweetwater to join the Oregon Trail. 

In 1856 Col. W. F. Lander began at this point to run what was 
known as the Lander Cut-off of the Oregon Trail. The trail leav- 
ing this point takes a more northwesterly direction than any of the 
previous trails and goes from here through the Big Piney country, 
the Star Valley country, and over to Fort Hall. This trail cuts 
off about 200 miles from the previously-used trails. 

It is interesting to note that this road building project under Col. 
Lander received one of the early appropriations for the expenditure 
of public money on roads in the West. When this appropriation 
was passed by Congress, the statement was made on the floor by a 
Congressman that it was necessary to secure the road cutting 
north of Utah in order to avoid contact with the Mormon colonies 
in Salt Lake. It is interesting to note that a large part of the 
civilian employees on this project were recruited from the Mormon 
people around Salt Lake. 

I have traveled every part of this Lander Cut-off and it seemed 
to be the feeling that any place where four mules could drag an 
army wagon was a suitable grade. 

The Lander Cut-off was built from 1857 to 1859, and it is 
estimated by Col. Lander that over 9,000 emigrants passed over 
this trail in 1 859, the first year the road was opened. 

In this same year Russell, Majors and Waddell, the famous 
freight people, established a freight station at this location. We 
know that it was garrisoned in 1 862 by the Eleventh Ohio Cavalry. 

We are advised that the Burnt Ranch or Burnt Fork was burned 
twice, but the dates of these burnings are not known to me at this 
time. It is generally assumed, however, that the military post was 
burned by Indians shortly after it was abandoned. 

It has been over forty years since I first visited this location. At 
that time there were many graves in the area. I trust that as we 
read more and as other diaries are made available additional infor- 
mation about the rich history of this area will be revealed. 

3:10 P.M. Left Burnt Ranch and forded the Sweetwater. 

4:00 P.M. Arrived 310 M. at South Pass. 


Mrs. Hazel Noble Boyack read this excellent paper on the 
famed portal to the early west — South Pass. 

South Pass — a storied strip of high country nestling at the south- 
ern tip of the majestic Wind River Range in central Wyoming. 
South Pass — of rugged terrain, covered with sage and greasewood, 
its soil tempered against the plough. The discovery of the Pass 
was a peak upon the map of human events and hastened one of 
the greatest mass migrations and constructive conquests of a terri- 
tory in all the proud annals of history. 

As an important segment of the once famous Oregon Trail, 
South Pass seemed designed as a gateway through the heart of the 
mighty Rockies, a portal through whicli might be admitted those 
early explorers, fur-clad traders and trappers, home seekers — and 
a chosen people, seeking to establish a New Zion in the heart of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

Along the route that marked this famous roadway was witnessed 
the stirring pageantry of early Western America, when an approxi- 
mated half million Americans, eager and adventurous, channeled 
through famous South Pass to reclaim the virgin West and pre- 
empt America's right to those vast and verdant regions that 
reached to Pacific shores. 

Though httle known to modern America on wheels, the area, 
nevertheless, represents a vital fragment of mid-century America. 
To stand upon the crest of this historic Pass, one feels the 
consciousness of the passing of a hundred years, because written 
into those few miles that extend from the upper valley of the 
Sweetwater, across the ridge of the Rockies into the valley of the 
Green, lies the saga of a tumultuous past, underwritten by the 
courage and faith of a people who followed the Trails to the West, 
ready to give their all for the fulfillment of a dream. 

In the spring of 1811 Wilson Price Hunt, representing the 
Pacific Fur Company, headed by that great genius of the industry, 
John Jacob Astor, led a band of overlanders into the West. Their 
course of travel took them over what was known as Union Pass 
in the Wind River Range, about one hundred miles northwest of 
the present South Pass. This party struggled up rugged canyons 
through icy streams until the crest of the Continental Divide was 
reached. Here the mighty Tetons, capped with eternal snows, 
met their gaze. Their method of travel had been by canoe, 
horseback, and on foot. The thing of prime importance was a 
roadway over the Rockies to the West. 

It took an obscure member of the Hunt party, one Robert 
Stuart, who, with six others, left Fort Astoria at the mouth of the 
Columbia River on June 29, 1812, to make the unprecedented 
journey overland to St. Louis, Missouri. This little party was the 
first to trace a route that could be used by wagons, and a portion 
of that roadway lay through the South Pass region, so named 


because it lay south of the Wind River Range. (The old emigrant 
road over the Pass did not follow the pathway of the Stuart Party. 
This party veered to the south and east from Pacific Springs, while 
the old emigrant road kept to the north.) Robert Stuart and his 
little band made that fine contribution to early Americans, but 
several years would pass and other explorers would announce to 
the world the newly-found gateway that would open the floodgates 
of a mighty migration that would eventually link Atlantic and 
Pacific shores. 

As engaging stories of quick wealth and frontier adventure 
reached the ears of youthful Americans, many trapping expeditions 
were formed, chief of which was the Ashley-Henry Expedition of 
1822. In this famous Fur Brigade were indeed "enterprising 
young men", men who would write their names permanently on 
the geography of the great West. One, James Bridger, an eighteen- 
year-old youth, became the discoverer of the Great Salt Lake, and 
later founder of old Fort Bridger in southwestern Wyoming. 
Etienne Provot, one of the first mountain men to enter the wide 
and easy way over the Continental Divide, is generally accorded 
first place in the discovery of that route of travel. 

Other members of the Ashley party to gain renown were: 
Jedediah Strong Smith, a "Knight in buckskin"; putting equal 
reliance on his Bible and gun, he became perhaps the greatest 
single explorer ever to enter the West. It was he who led a 
detachment of the Ashley Party through the famed South Pass in 
March 1824, thence into the beautiful Green River Valley, there 
to reap a rich harvest in this fur haven of the Rockies. And there 
were William Sublette and Robert Campbell, who later became 
the founders of old Fort Laramie, in eastern Wyoming; Kit Carson, 
Thomas Fitzpatrick, and many others now famous in Western lore. 

Year after year the Ashley Brigade returned to the West, and in 
1826 took a small cannon drawn by mules through South Pass, 
the first vehicle to trace a dim outline of wheels on the terrain of 
the Continental Divide. 

To a doughty Army Captain, B. L. E. Bonneville, much credit 
is due. He organized a caravan of one hundred and ten men and 
twenty wagons and started West from Fort Osage on the Missouri 
River in 1832. The wagons were loaded with provisions and 
ammunition, plus merchandise, to gain Indian favor, and traversed 
the South Pass Route. 

During the early 1830's, missionaries were being sent among the 
Indian Tribes of the West in an effort to Christianize them. One 
of the noteworthy parties was the Doctor Marcus Whitman group, 
who came West in 1836. They arrived at the crest of the Pass 
on July 3rd. The following morning, as the first rays of the 
summer sun shone brilliantly over the landscape. Doctor Whitman, 
with a Bible in one hand and an American flag in the other, raised 
his voice in prayer and in the name of God and the United States, 


took possession of that vast territory. The patriotic service was 
closed by a hymn from Mrs. Whitman. Today, close by the old 
Trail, and in the approximated spot where this ceremony took 
place, is a monument to the two women of the party, Narcissa 
Prentiss Whitman and Eliza Hart Spalding, the first white women 
to cross the South Pass. 

From 1843, when the first great migration to Oregon occurred, 
the Old Trail was the scene of covered wagon trains of almost 
unbroken numbers, strung out across the prairie stretches like a 
pearl necklace. 

Out of Winter Quarters, in the spring of 1847, came the famous 
Mormon Vanguard making their memorable trek toward the Salt 
Lake Valley. As these Pioneers neared the South Pass area, Wil- 
ford Woodruff wrote in his journal on June 27, 1847: "I was 
quite astonished at the road and the country considering that we 
were crossing what is called the South Pass of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. It was the best road we had had for many days, and had it 
not been for the Wind River Range of mountains in full view on 
our right, covered with eternal snow, and some snow banks ten 
feet deep by the side of the road, I should have thought myself 
traveling over the beautiful prairies of Illinois or Missouri." 

As members of the Mormon Vanguard were returning to Winter 
Quarters in August of 1847, they met the caravan of Saints led by 
John Taylor near the upper crossing of the Sweetwater, enroute 
over the Pass. In order to do honor to these Pioneers, Brother 
Taylor requested the women of his party to prepare a dinner for 
them. Accordingly, what was later known as "the Feast in the 
Wilderness" was enjoyed by them in this lonely retreat. 

Elder B. H. Roberts describes the event as follows: "Several 
improvised tables, covered with snow-white linen gave evidence 
that a surprize was in store for the weary Pioneers. The fatted 
calf was killed, game and fish was had in abundance. Fruit, jelly 
and relishes for special occasions were brought out until it was 
really a royal feast." The dinner over, the brethren and sisters 
spent the evening in dancing to the merry strains of the violin, 
and the clear voice of the prompter directing the dancers through 
mazes of quadrilles, scotch-reels, french-fours, and other dances 
suitable to the occasion. 

The high tide of emigration over the Pass was reached when 
word came that gold had been discovered in California in 1848. 
It is estimated that one hundred fifty-five thousand people trekked 
through that region between 1849 and 1851, bringing with them 
more than one hundred thousand head of livestock. 

In the meantime the Mormon migration to Utah kept the 
historic pathway astir with life, the Pioneer caravans sometimes 
traveling several columns abreast over the broad stretches of the 
Pass. Today that broad, well-beaten highway is still very distinct. 
But pioneer traffic could not continue throughout the year. Dur- 


ing the late fall and winter months the region became a battle- 
ground of the elements. Biting winds laden with heavy snow 
and below-zero temperatures made it almost impossible for man 
or beast to survive the fury of these mountain storms. 

It was in one of these swirling blizzards along this highland 
trail in which the delayed Willie Handcart Company was caught in 
October, 1856. They had taken refuge in a small cove near the 
banks of Rock Creek, a tributary of the Sweetwater. The stream, 
heavily lined with willows, offered but slight respite from the 
elements. Here fifteen members of the emigrant party perished 
from cold and exhaustion. A mound bearing a copper plaque, 
marks the spot where thirteen of these brave people lie buried. 
Relief trains, sent out by President Brigham Young, arrived none 
too soon to avert further deaths and disaster to the party. They 
were taken into the Salt Lake Valley, and arrived November 9, 

Johnston's Army to Utah, approaching the Pass in the fall of 
1857, met with great difficulty. The roadway up the Sweetwater 
Valley and over the Pass into the Green River Valley was strewn 
with the bodies of dead mules and oxen that had perished from 
cold and lack of food. 

But springtime and summer was a delightful season. It was in 
April, 1860, that a daring and romantic enterprise was instigated 
by the gigantic freighting firm of Russell, Majors and Waddell. 
The Pony Express took to this great "Medicine Road of the 
Whites" in order that mail might reach news-hungry Americans 
in the distant West. Along the nineteen hundred miles of highway, 
the horse and rider raced against time, the rider pitting his courage 
and indomitable will against the elements, the darkness, and the 
Redmen. Over the South Pass Route Pony Express Stations 
had been erected, the one at Pacific Springs being an important 
stop. To the noise and bustle of long emigrant trains, the creaking 
of stage coaches, and the grinding of heavily laden freight wagons 
was added the rapid staccato of hoof beats as pony and rider 
disappeared like a phantom beyond the horizon. 

In the mid-1860's a rich discovery of gold quartz was made near 
Willow Creek, a few miles north of the Trail. The news spread 
like prairie fire before the wind. Soon hundreds of miners, with 
their picks, shovels, and bacon, swarmed over the sleepy foothills 
and plundered the good earth for its treasures — and it yielded well. 
South Pass City mushroomed into existence, as did Atlantic City 
and Miner's Delight. But the ultimate desolation of these little 
hamlets lay in the very activity that had given them life. 

It is not the gold from South Pass City that is remembered 
today, but rather one of its citizens, a gifted, courageous woman, 
Esther Hobart Morris. It was she who championed and won the 
cause of Woman's Suffrage in Wyoming Territory. The franchise 


was granted December 10, 1869. Just two months and two days 
later, on February 12, 1870, the women of Utah were also 
granted the franchise and used this newly-given liberty twice 
before the women of Wyoming went to the polls. 

Today the South Pass region slumbers away amid the vibrant 
memories of an historic past, the quiet present in sharp contrast 
with the tumultuous events of yesteryear. The same starry heavens 
are indeed overhead. Oregon Buttes, proud sentinels of the 
region, rise against the identical skyline of long ago. 

Neither the road nor the landscape has changed greatly since 
the eager Pioneers, looking out from their rocking "Prairie 
Schooners", surveyed the country, saw it tinted here and there 
with wild rose, gentian, and columbine, the rough terrtain adapt- 
able only for eternal pasturage of sheep, antelope and sage 

The deeply worn ruts of the Old Trail still endure and attest 
to the passing of an era of pageantry in American History, and 
era that will not return again, when South Pass was indeed a famed 
portal to the Early West. 

by Hazel Noble Boyack 

We salute you! Women of those early years. 
Who struggled westward o'er the prairie sod. 
Faithful to your trust, you kept. 
Your courage high, sublime your faith in God. 

With plodding caravans you led the way, 
Unyielding to the heat, the dust and rain; 
A frontier land demanded heavy toll 
Of you who came to conquer, to reclaim. 

Devoted, staunch, unsung pioneers you. 
Your bodies sorely taxed by heavy toil. 
Bore, in travail, a child along the way, 
No force your visioned destiny could foil. 

Where once the sovereign clumps of sage brush grew, 
Proud cities, highways, mark the course today, 
Where hunger, sickness, death stalked hand in hand, 
Church spire rise, their silent tributes pay. 

We honor you! Heroines of those early years. 
And humbly offer now the homage due, 
For courage, strength, and faith to carry on. 
We've reaped our cherished heritage from you. 


5:15 P.M. Left South Pass. 

5:30 P.M. Arrived 313 M. at Pacific Springs. 

Mrs. Mary Hurlburt Scott read a paper on Pacific Springs. 

Pacific Springs was one of the most important spots on the 
entire Oregon-California-Mormon Trail from the Missouri River 
to the Pacific Ocean. It was a pleasant place to relax after cross- 
ing the highest elevation, 7550 feet at South Pass. 

It was evidently missed by Robert Stuart in 1812 on his way 
east as he did not mention the place in his Narratives.-'' 

From 1824, fur men — Smith, Jackson, Fitzpatrick, Fontenelle, 
Bridger, Kit Carson and many others — passed Pacific Springs. 

In 1832 William Sublette passed the Springs. Since 1824 he 
had trapped and traveled the two old Indian Trails which led 
directly from the Sweetwater to the Snake. Nathaniel Wyeth 
passed here on his way to the 1834 rendezvous at the mouth of 
Ham's Fork. 

When the Mormon vanguard came in 1847 they found one 
Moses Harris waiting at Pacific Springs to pilot Oregon emigrants 
over the short route to Oregon, or Sublette's Cut-off. (Mormon 
Diary, June 28, 1847.) Soon after passing Pacific Springs there 
was a choice of two trails. The one taken by the Mormons led 
southwestward. The short or shorter road to Oregon led west 
along what was then called the Sublet Cut-off. (Sublette Cut-off 
is a misconception because it was and is the shortest route of the 
Sublette Road link of the original wagon-traveled Oregon Trail.) 

In 1888 Mr. and Mrs. Albert Bayer and party from Missouri 
camped here at Pacific Springs. Some time before, the mother of 
a husky baby boy was grieving uncontrollably over the loss of 
another child and she lost her milk. Mrs. Bayer, a frail young 
mother of a girl baby (now Mrs. John Bloom of Pinedale) nursed 
both babies. Realizing that her own child was not getting suffi- 
cient nourishment, but at the same time demonstrating the faith 
of our Christian pioneers, she prayed thus: 

"Dear Father in Heaven, if it is Thy will let that overdue colt 
be born so that this boy can have mare's milk, and let my dear 
little Minnie have her own food." 

In 1891 Joseph M. Huston (Daniel, Wyoming) was a young 
man of 1 7 and was the hunter for an Oregon Trail emigrant train 
requiring 5 or 6 antelope per day. In the train was a charming 
young lady whom he admired. Not knowing that they would that 
day reach the junction of the Sublette and Lander roads, (the 
Burnt Ranch) he went hunting as usual. Imagine his feelings 

3. See P. A. Rollins, ed. The Discovery of the Oregon Trail (Robert 
Stuart's Narratives and Wilson Price Hunt's Diary) N.Y., Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1935; Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. Ill, 1902, Mar. pp. 82-104. 


when he returned to his outfit, ready to take the southern Sublette 
Road to learn that most of the train, including the charming young 
lady, had taken the northern Lander Road. 

It was good-bye forever wtihout the sweet pleasure of a fond 
farewell. Mr. Huston states that when he reached Green River 
at the mouth of Slate Creek there were 500 wagons camped there. 

In 1911 Mary Hurlburt Scott, her daughter, Josephine Irby 
Lester, and Mrs. Bayer made a trip on the mail stage from Lander 
to Pinedale. They stopped for a rest at the postoffice and store in 
Pacific Springs. 

In 1912 Miss Hibben married Fred Graham, a ranger at Snyder 
Basin Ranger Station 25 miles west of Big Piney. That year they 
talked with Oregon-bound emigrants and saw the last of the 
covered wagons on the old Trail. 

Following are a couple of quotations expressing reactions of 
Oregon and California-bound emigrants at Pacific Springs. "After 
the months' long trek, we are over the divide. We are on the 
downhill slope to the Pacific, to our destination, to the promised 
land, to our homeland. Glory Be!" 

Julia Altrocchi, a descendant of a Donner party member, in her 
book, Snow Covered Wagons, expresses emigrant attitude thus: 
"When the Trail goes down the Western side, Boggs, the captain 
of the train dashes up and down the line of teams shouting, "Roll 
on! Roll on! We're over the divide. Roll on to the Pacific, boys. 
And now a brook sings with a western voice, pouring out of 
Pacific Springs down hill to the Pacific. Oh! the golden sunset 
side of South Pass! Oh! water running to the Western Sea! 
Pacific Springs! Cheer, Boys, Cheer!" 

Following is an interesting summary of Trek No. 6 by Frances 
Seely Webb and Edness Kimball Willans, both of Casper. 

One of the most interesting of the series of Oregon Trail Treks 
was held Sunday, September 11, 1955. Along much of the trail 
the fall scenery was beautiful, the juniper in full fruit, its blue 
berries gleaming. Other shrubs and trees had on their fall colors 
making the drive more enjoyable. In some places the contrast was 
noted as dry, dusty, barren sections were passed. The trail was 
dusty, rocky, and rough, but the same one over which the Mor- 
mons pushed their handcarts one hundred years ago. 

At an early stop, Raymond Fuller of Lander glanced down 
beside the trail, to find a perfect arrowhead of white quartz. 

Jim Carpenter of Atlantic City told of the construction of the 
handcarts used by the Mormons. They were made from green 
lumber. This mistaken economy gave little trouble in the begin- 
ning, but as the companies reached the dry western country and 
the lumber dried out, the carts became rickety and in disrepair. 
The Mormon booklet given to the emigrants as they started West, 
"LDS Emigrants Guide from Council Bluffs to Great Salt Lake" 


was by W. Clayton, giving distances, water, mountains, camping 
places and other travel information. Only one known copy sur- 
vives, in the Congressional Library. 

In the mining district we learned that Jim Carpenter, a member 
of the trek, hauled 10 tons of ore out from the Hidden Hand mine 
and sold it for $7500. In 1933 he panned $3000 in twenty min- 
utes from the Iron Duke mine. Willow Creek had been dredged 
for eleven miles in a gold mining operation. 

It was at the Brunt Ranch that Brigham Young met a large hand 
cart company and gave "The Feast in the Wilderness" for the 
starving people. It was here, also that a lieutenant and thirteen 
men, left on guard, pilfered stored whiskey and quarreled. The 
lieutenant walked away, leaving the others dead. This killing was 
blamed on Indians and called a "massacre," a thing which hap- 
pened more than once in those days. 

The final talk of the trek was given by Mary Hurlburt Scott at 
Pacific Springs where three trails, the Oregon, CaUfornia and 
Mormon were one. Her story included much human interest 
material with tales of people making the early day treks. 

The last recorded covered wagon trip over this old trail was as 
late as 1912. In this section, far from railroads or regular roads, 
the old trails were followed and the covered wagon was the only 

Washakie and Zhe Shoshoni 

A Selection of Documents from the Records of the Utah 

Superintendency of Indian Affairs. 

Edited by 

Dale L. Morgan 

PART X— 1867-1869* 


Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to F. H. Head, Supt. of 

Indian Affairs, telegram dated July 1, 1867.-^^ 

By Telegraph from Bridger 

Anteroes band of Utes are at this agency is there an order not 
to sell them amunition. please inform me in regard to this 
matter. . . . 


Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to F. H. Head, Supt. of 
Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger Agency, July 8, 1867.-^^ 

I have the honor to make the following reporte relative to the 
population individual Wealth and Value of the Furs and Skins 
Sold by the Indians under my immediate controll. 

From the best information in my possession I would place the 
number of Souls in this agency at two thousand The relative 
number of Either Sex I am unable with any degree of certainty 
to give but can Safely Say that the Females very largely pre- 

The number of Horses (For in them con- 
stitute their Entire wealth) I would place the number at Six 
hundred and Seventy five and would fix their Value at Thirty 
dollars pr head Making a total of Twenty thousand and two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. 

The value of the Furs and Skins Sold by them during the year 
would probably reach the Sum of Ten thousand dollars 

The above Estimates are made from the most reliable informa- 
tion that could be obtained 

* Part X concludes the Washakie and the Shoshoni series. 

261. Utah Field Papers, 1867. 

262. Ibid. 



Fort Bridger in 1858 from Frank Leslies Illustrated Newspaper 

This reporte may not be in form yet I hope it gives the desired 
information upon the Subjects named in your letter of May 
29th 1867. . . . 


Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to F. H. Head, Supt. of 

Indian Affairs, dati:d Fort Bridger Agency, 

July 15, 1867.-"-' 


Your communication of June 3^ in regard to the Mixed Bands 
of Indians who range about tiic head waters of the Yellow Stone 
CJaliton Madison Snake and Green Rivers around Bannack and 
Boise frequently in the Terilory of Utah was duly received. Ac- 
cording to yoiu- request I have had conversations with Washakee 
and other head men of the Faslcrn liands of Shoshones also with 
Tahgee the Chief o\' the Bannacks and find that there does exist 
a very large Band of Bannacks numbering more than One Hun- 

263. Transmitted in Head to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Aug. 3, 
1H67, H/32.'>-l867, having inadvertently been omitted from Head's letter of 
July 25. Document CXXXVI I; printed in: 4()th Congress, 2nd Session. 
House E.u'cittivc Document I (Serial 1326). Part II. p. 189. 


dred Lodges. I also find a few Lodges of Shoshones with them 
There also exists another Band of Tookooreka or Sheap Eaters a 
branch of the Shoshonees who live almost Entirely in the Moun- 
tains very Seldom visit the white Settlements the last named Band 
Speak the Shoshonee dialect the former have a dialect of their 
own. All of these Indians are very poor and require the fostering 
hand of the Government. They are very friendly and desire to 
cultivate the most friendly relations with all of whom they meet. 
Large numbers of Bannacks visit this agency every year more 
than fifty of their Lodges wer present at the distribution to the 
Eastern Bands of Shoshones of their annuities this year I made 
a request of Washakee for them to Share in the distribution of 
their goods this year but he peremtorily refused I also held a 
long conversation with the Chief Tahgee he informed me that 
his Indians feel very much hurt to think that the Great Father 
had not made them presents. Knowing as they did that all the 
Indians with whom they wer Surrounded wer receiving goods every 
year They claim that They are good Indians and that the Gov- 
ernment ought to in view of the fact that their country has been 
Settled with the whites give them a fair compensation for their 
loss. The Settlement of Boise Beaver Head Bannack and Viriginia 
City have driven them to Seek for other Hunting grounds and 
they are compelled to travel long distances and that too in an 
enemys Country where they are liable to loose their Horses the 
only wealth they possess, they informed me that they lost Sixty 
head last winter I would most earnestly reccommend that Some 
provisions be made for them in the future. . . . 


F. H. Head, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to N. G. Taylor, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake 

City, July 25, 1867.264 


On the 17!*^ of October last I received from the CommF a com- 
munication bearing date Sep. 24- enclosing copy of letter from 
N. P. Hill, to the acting Governor of Montana, relative to certain 
bands of Bannacks and Shoshonees, and instructing to direct 
Agent Mann to procure through Washakee, all accessible informa- 
tion regarding such Indians — 

At the time of the reception of such instructions Washakee and 
all his principal men had started on their annual Buffalo hunt, 
and could not readily be reached. At once on their return, about 
two months since, I transmitted to Agent Mann copies of the 
correspondence above referred to, and have just received his 

264. H/324-1867. Printed in: Ibid., p. 188. 


report, which is herewith transmitted [Document CXXXVI]. 
Washakee and several hundred of his principal men visited me a 
few days since, and I had a conversation with them relative to the 
same subject, from which I am satisfied that the Indians in 
question are the same band, usually known as the "mixed" or 
"broken bands of Bannacks and Shoshonees." with whom the 
late Gov. Doty made a Treaty at Soda Springs. Oct. 14 1863. 
From the best information I can get, I judge their number to be 
about 2500, of whom about 1500 are Shoshonees, but the balance 
Bannacks. They live, wander about together and intermarry. 

The treaty made as above seems scarcely reconcileable with 
justice to the Shoshonees — Treaties were made July 2'^ and July 
30'h 1863, with the Eastern and North Western bands of Sho- 
shonees, providing for annuities of $10,000 and $5000 respective- 
ly. By the Treaty of Oct 14, 1863, at Soda Springs it is provided 
that the mixed bands shall share in the annuities of the Shoshonees, 
which in effect is a reduction of the Shoshonee annuities below 
the amount agreed to be paid them, without their consent.-*^-^ 

The mixed bands have faithfully observed their treaty, and I 
invited last Fall a portion of their number to be present and par- 
ticipate in the annuities of the N. W. Shoshonees — I have also 
during the past Quarter made them presents of goods and pro- 
visions to the value of about $2000. I suggested to Agent Mann 
to let a portion of the tribe who were with Washakee participate 
in the E. Shoshonee annuities, but from the report enclosed, 
Washakee evidently and sensibly objected to such arrangement — 

In my estimate for the coming year I shall include an item of 
$5000, as being justly due the mixed Bands under treaty stipula- 
tions, and trust such suggestion may be favorably considered by 
yourself and by Congress. 

These Indians, to the number of nearly 2500, have been for the 
past 3 or 4 months in N. Eastern Utah, scattered along the Bear 
river and through Cache and Bear Lake Valleys — They spent 
about seven or eight months in each year within this Superintend- 
ency, and the balance of their time in Southern Idaho, where game 
is more abundant during the winter months. . . . 


Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to F. H. Head, Supt. of 

Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger Agency, Utah 

Territory, July 29, 1867.-«*' 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report relative 

265. This treaty of Oct. 14, 1863, in any event was never ratified. 

266. 40th Congress, 2nd Session, House Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1326) Part II, p. 182-184. 


to the condition of the eastern band of the Shoshones, for the year 
ending June 30, 1867: 

Immediately after the distribution of their annuity goods last 
year, they left this agency for their hunting grounds in the 
Popeaugie and Wind river valleys, the only portion of the country 
claimed by them where they can obtain buffalo. 

While there they live well, and are generally healthy. 

From the buffalo robes and other skins and furs obtained by 
them during the past hunting season, I estimate, from the best 
knowledge I can gain, they have realized some $10,000, and their 
present comfort has been greatly increased by the addition of a 
large amount of skins and furs, used for their lodges and clothing. 

Early last spring the near approach of hostile Sioux and Chey- 
ennes compelled them to leave before they could prepare their 
usual supply of dried meat for summer use, and upon their arrival 
at the agency they were almost destitute of provisions. 

I at once commenced issuing to them the flour and beef pro- 
cured from you by the exchange of goods, and they were so well 
pleased with the exchange thus made, I would recommend that 
$2,000 of their annuity be, in the future, paid in money, to be 
used in the purchase of beef, cattle, and flour, to feed them during 
their stay at the agency. 

These Indians have faithfully observed the stipulations of the 
treaty made with them in 1863, and since my last annual report 
there has been no departure from a uniform line of good conduct. 

On the 8th of June, I assembled all of the tribe within reach, 
and made the annual distribution of goods, which was perfectly 
satisfactory to them, and they have since gone to the valley of 
the Great Salt Lake, as is usual with them, preparatory to their 
return to their hunting grounds in the autumn. 

I would call your attention to the fact that the goods distributed 
this summer were those which arrived last year after the departure 
of the Indians from the agency, and the goods intended for the 
distribution of 1867 it is probable will not reach here until too 
late to be given out before the summer of 1868. 

Their sanitary condition remains good, and there has been but 
little change in their numbers, either from mortality or accessions 
from other bands. 

From careful inquiry among them, I estimate the present num- 
ber of Washakees tribe at about 2,000 souls, being an increase of 
100 since my last report. 

In former reports I have recommended the setting apart of a 
reservation for the Shoshones in the valley of Wind river. For 
various reasons I would still urge the propriety of doing so. 

The abundance of nutritious grasses, in connection with the 
mild winters, would enable them to subsist their stock during the 
entire year, and situated in the best game region of the mountains, 
they could furnish themselves with an ample supply of meat. 


Their occupancy of the valley, with suitable protection from 
the government, would prevent the raiding war parties of Sioux 
from interfering with the development of the mines just discovered 
and being opened in the vicinity of South Pass, where, within a 
few days, a large party of miners were driven away by a small band 
of hostile Indians, after three or more of their number had been 
inhumanly murdered. 

The entire range of country west from the South Pass to the 
Mormon settlements on Weber river is almost destitute of game, 
and while these friendly Indians are obliged, during the summer 
months, to subsist on the small game of this vast area of sage brush, 
the powerful and hostile Sioux are roaming unmolested over the 
beautiful valleys east and north of the Wind river chain of moun- 
tains, with grass and game at their disposal, which enables them 
to murder and rob with impunity the soldiers near their garrison, 
the almost defenceless emigrant crossing the plains in search of a 
new home, and the hardy miners who are toiling to develop the 
mineral resources which constitute the base of our national wealth. 

I would again call your attention to the mixed bands of Ban- 
nacks and Shoshones that range in the northern part of Utah and 
the southern portion of Montana, to whom I have heretofore 

Although holding themselves entirely aloof from the eastern 
bands of Shoshones in regard to their tribal arrangements, they 
do, for the purpose of protection, accompany each other to their 
hunting grounds east of the Rocky range, and the most friendly 
feeling still exists between them. 

It affords me pleasure to say that these Indians have abstained 
from any act of hostility towards the whites since my last report. 
They accompanied Washakee on his recent visit to the agency, and 
were present at the distribution of goods to him. 

In view of their friendly relations and their great destitution, 
I would recommend that an appropriation of $8,000 in goods and 
$2,000 in money be made annually to supply their wants while 
they continue friendly. 

Should the appropriation be made, and the department deem 
it advisable, they could be placed under the protection of this 

I strongly recommend that some provision be made for the 
erection of an agency building at this agency, as soon as practi- 
cable, and trust that its importance will be sufficient excuse for 
urging it upon the attention of the department. 

For agency purposes I am now using one of the buildings 
erected by the military department. It is in a very bad condition 
and utterly unfit for the protection of the annuity goods, which I 
am compelled to retain for more than six months after their 
arrival. ... 



F. H. Head, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to N. G. Taylor, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake 

City, July 30, 1867.-<^^ 

Sir: I observed among the telegrams published in our papers 
here, an exceedingly meagre synopsis of your report, made during 
the recent special session of Congress, relative to the causes of 
the present Indian war.-^^*^ Washakee and the other principal chiefs 

267. Ibid., pp. 186-188. 

268. The report mentioned is 40th Congress, Special Session, Senate 
Executive Document 4 (Serial 1308), "Report of the Secretary of the 
Interior, communicating, in compliance with a resolution of the Senate of 
March 29, 1867, information in relation to the Indian tribes of the United 
States," 50 pp. The Commissioner's report therein, dated April 12, 1867, 
was not particularly concerned with "the causes of the present Indian war," 
but on p. 12 did comment, in respect of the nine bands of Sioux in Dakota 
Territory who were parties to a treaty of 1865, that unsatisfactory relations 
had existed since the Minnesota outbreak of 1862, one of the causes being 
"the rush of emigrant travel across their country, driving away the game." 
The Commissioner seems more particularly to have had in mind conditions 
in what is now North and South Dakota. 

Some remarks in this particular report may be noted here, from the 
discussion of the Utah Superintendency: 

Fort Bridger agency. — The Indians under the general charge of 
this agency are the eastern bands of Shoshones and Bonnacks, of 
which Washakee is chief. These bands, with others of the same 
people, having their range of country along the great emigrant and 
stage routes to California, Idaho, and Oregon, it was deemed advisable 
that some arrangements should be made to prevent obstructions to 
travel, and accordingly Governor Doty, of Utah, in 1863, met their 
chiefs at various points and concluded separate treaties of friendships 
with them, under which the government undertook to pay them 
annuities of from $1,000 to $10,000 for each band, as some compen- 
sation for the inevitable destruction of game by whites, they under- 
taking to keep the peace. The Senate amended all of these treaties 
by inserting a certain proviso in each, which made it necessary to 
submit them again to the Indians. A part of them reached the In- 
dians, and the amendments being assented to, the treaties were pub- 
lished, but some of them, Governor Doty having meanwhile died, 
failed to reach them. The appropriations have, however, been made 
under all. Washakee's band is one of those which has not yet had 
the amendment submitted to them. He and his people have faith- 
fully kept their treaties, and indeed the same may be said of all the 
other bands treated with in 1863. The ranges of country claimed by 
these bands are noted at the end of table C. They are thoroughly 
wild Indians, living by the hunt, and have, and at present need, no 
reservations. Luther Mann, jr., appointed July 31, 1861, is the special 
agent, and has given full satisfaction. . . . Mr. F. H. Head, appointed 
March 23, 1866, is the superintendent, and is a careful, energetic, 
and prompt officer. ... (p. 9) 

In Table C (p. 35) the "Range of country" of the Eastern bands of 
Shoshones and Bannocks is described as "Commencing at Bridger's Pass; 
thence north to Independence Rock; thence up the line of the Rocky 


of the Eastern Shoshones visited me a few days since, and I had 
a conversation with them relative to the same subject. I write 
you regarding this, thinking the views of Washakee, who is un- 
doubtedly the most sagacious, honorable, and intelligent Indian 
among the uncivilized tribes, might be of interest to you, especially 
as they would seem to corroborate your own, in every particular. 
Washakee said that the country east from the Wind river moun- 
tains, to the settled portion of eastern Nebraska and Kansas, had 
always been claimed by four principal Indian tribes — the Sioux, 
Arapahoes, Cheyennes, and Crows. That it was a country abound- 
ing in game, thus furnishing to the Indians an abundance of food 
as well as large quantities of surplus robes, skins ad furs, by the 
sale of which they were made comparatively wealthy. That all 
the tribes inhabiting that region were contented and entertained 
towards the whites the most friendly feeling until the opening of 
what is usually known as the Powder river route to Montana, a 
road leaving the old express route near Fort Laramie and passing 
by a circuitous course to Virginia City.-*'" That all the Indians 
objected strongly to the opening of this road, knowing by exper- 
ience that the game would, in consequence, soon disappear, but 
did not commence hostilities at once, since they were informed by 
the whites that there was no other way for them to go to the gold 
mines of Montana. That they soon found this was not true; that 
but few people passed over the road, but that forts were built, 
.soldiers sent out to protect the road, and trains were often passing, 
but only to carry supplies to the troops.-^" That the soldiers, too, 
gave the Indians whiskey, seduced from them numbers of their 
squaws, and otherwise maltreated them. And after mature dehb- 
eration the Indians were satisfied that the road was only made to 
afford employment to the soldiers and to destroy their game; that 
they must starve after a few years with the disappearance of their 
game, and that it was as well to die fighting as by starvation. 
They had accordingly all taken up arms, resolved to drive out the 
whites from their country or perish in the endeavor. I asked 

mountains to about 112° west longitude; thence southwest to Salmon Falls, 
on Snake river; thence up that stream to Fall creek; thence southeast to 
Utah lake; thence east to headwaters of North Platte, in North Park; 
thence down that stream to place of beginning." 

269. This road, pioneered by John Bozeman in 1863-1864, is now better 
known as the Bozeman Trail; it struck out for Montana from the northern- 
most bend of the North Platte, the site of Fort Fetterman, near Douglas, 
Wyoming. Keeping east of the Big Horn Mountains, the road did not 
penetrate Shoshoni country as did the Bridger Trail, over which Jim 
Bridger guided immigrants to Montana in 1864; it passed through the 
heart of the Sioux domain, and was at once beset by those Indians. 

270. The forts built to garrison the Bozeman Trail were Reno, Phil. 
Kearney, and C. F. Smith, all constructed in the summer of 1866. After 
two bloody years, they were abandoned, and the Bozeman Trail was not 
reopened until after the Custer Massacre of 1876. 


Washakee if the white traders had, by their conduct, in any way 
aided in the present state of affairs. He rephed that they had not; 
that the regular traders, hcensed by the government, were nearly 
always good men, since they were under the control of the Great 
Father, but that there were great numbers of white men, thieves 
and murderers, who were outlaws because of their crimes, who had 
taken up their residences among the Indians, and were always 
inciting them to outrages; often leading in their stealing raids. 

The views of Washakee, although somewhat crude as to the 
reason for keeping open the road, are in most respects entirely 
correct, and are the views of all disinterested men familiar with 
the subject. -^^ What is known as the Powder river road is one of 
the most complete and expensive humbugs of the day. 

Attention was first called to this road and its opening secured 
by certain speculators, owning or expecting to own certain lucra- 
tive toll-bridges, roads and ferries thereon. It was claimed to be 
many hundreds of miles shorter than the road via Fort Bridger. 
I have however myself conversed with numbers of freighters who 
have passed over the road, and without an exception they have 
stated that they would never go by that route again; that although 
on a map it would appear shorter than the route via this city, yet 
that, by reason of the numerous detours, they believed it actually 
longer, and that it was a worse road in every respect, especially 
as it regards wood, water, grass, and streams difficult to cross. 

These reasons would of themselves have been sufficient to 
cause an abandonment of the route, but it was at this time found 
that the Missouri river, contrary to ancient theories, was navigable 
for light-draught steamboats. For the last two years all freight 
for Montana from the States has gone by the Missouri river. Had 
the Powder river road, therefore, been all that was at first claimed 

271. In the Annual Report on Indian Affairs, Nov. 15, 1867, Acting 

Commissioner Charles E. Mix commented: 

... Noted among the Indians of this (Utah) Territory is "Waskakee", 
chief of the eastern Shoshones, always friendly, and deserving the 
praise awarded by all who know his virtues and noble characteristics. 
I refer to his sensible views as to the probable cause of the hostile 
views and demonstrations by the Sioux and other Indians on the 
upper Platte, embodied in a letter from Superintendent Head, which 
will be found among the documents accompanying this report. His 
people numbering about 2,000, usually spend the winter in Wind 
River valley, Dakota, which abounds in game, and affords them 
mainly their supplies for subsistence. They want that valley for a 
reservation, and if it be practicable I shall favor granting it to them. 
. . . (40th Congress, 2nd Session, House Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1326,) Part II, p. 11.) 
It requires to be born in mind that at this period a bitter struggle was 

going on between the War and Interior departments as to whether the 

Office of Indian Affairs should remain under civilian control or be handed 

over to the military. 


for it, it would have been abandoned by freighters, since freight 
could be taken by steamboat to Montana, profitably, at six to 
eight cents per pound, while land transportation would cost about 
three times such rates. In view of above facts it has at all times 
seemed to me most singular that the government should persist in 
keeping troops along a road abandoned by all freighters and emi- 
grants, when the result of such a course, unless the Indians were 
induced to cede the right of way, could not fail to be an Indian war. 
I think it would be within bounds to say that every pound of 
freight taken over the Powder river road for the past two years 
has cost the government already at least $1,000, and the expense 
would seem to be but commenced. 

Many of the Indians within the superintendency, in the hunting 
expeditions, meet and converse with the hostile Indians. From 
their statements I feel entirely certain that if the troops were with- 
drawn from the Indian country, and a treaty made with the 
hostile Indians guaranteeing them the occupation of the territory 
cut by the Powder river road, for a certain term of years, peace 
could be at once restored and kept. It has been the correct theory 
of our gove'-nment that since the Indians do not make the highest 
use of the soil, we may take it from them after reasonable com- 
pensation, as fast as the same is needed for settlement. There is 
not, however, in all the vast region cut by the Powder river road, 
and now occupied by troops, a single settler or white person, other 
than the hangers-on of the army. No person, save the pure- 
minded, patriotic army contractors, would be injured by such 
abandonment. The many expenses for a single week would be 
sufficient to perpetually tranquilize the hostile tribes. At the 
expiration of 1 or 15 years, were it deemed advisable to open the 
country for settlement, arrangements could be made with the 
Indians accordingly, either by setting apart certain portions as 
reservations, or by removing them to some suitable portion of our 
territory between Montana and Alaska. . . .^'^^ 


Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to F. H. Head, Supt. of 
Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger, U. T., Sept. 23, 1867.-^^ 


I have the honor to transmit herewith Triplicate Receipts for 
Seven Hundred ten dollars and Seventy five Cents Absence from 
Bridger looking after the Indians under my charge is my excuse 
for the delay in not sending them Earlier. 

272. An extraordinary remark; how would Head have defined "our 
territory" between Montana and Alaska? 

273. Utah Field Papers, 1867. 


The Snake and Bannack Indians wer on their way to their 
hunting grounds in the vicinity of the late discovery of the Gold 
Mines^^^ and Knowing the big Scare of the Minors in regard to 
Indians I thought it advisable to accompany the Indians to and 
through the Camp in order to avert any collision between them 
I accomplished the object of my mission and am Satisfied that 
the Minors wer well pleased with the visit by the Indians. . . . 


F. H. Head, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to N. G. Taylor, 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Feb. 12, 1868-'^ 


On the l'^ day of July, 1863 the late Gov. Doty, pursuant to 
instructions from the Indian Bureau, concluded a treaty with the 
Eastern bands of Shoshonees, providing that they should recieve 
an annuity of $10,000. On the 30th of the same month, he con- 
cluded a treaty with the North Western Bands of Shoshonees, 
providing that they should recieve an annuity of $5000. and on 
the 1st. day of October 1863, a treaty with the Western bands, 
providing for the payment of the same annuity- 

Shortly after these treaties were concluded, he made a fourth 
treaty with a tribe known as the "mixed bands of Bannacks and 
Shoshonees," by the terms of which, it was provided simply that 
they should share in the annuities of the Shoshonees — 

It seems impossible to reconcile the provisions of the treaty 
last referred to, with good faith on the part of the Government 
toward the Shoshonees- It is simply diverting from them a por- 
tion of their annuities, without their consent. 

In view of this fact, in my estimate for the coming year, I 
inserted an item of $5000. to carry out the treaty with the mixed 
bands, as being fairly due to them under the treaty- Observing 
that this item is not in the printed book of estimates, emanating 
from the Treasury Department, I beg to again call your attention 
to this subject — 

It would seem to me but Just, that an appropriation be recom- 
mended for the $5000 above referred to, as well as a reasonable 

274. The so-called Sweetwater Mines at the south end of the Wind River 
Mountains, the northern shoulder of South Pass. Intermittent prospecting 
in this area had been prosecuted all through the sixties; interesting finds 
were made in 1864, and a mining district came into being in 1865. It was 
not until the fall of 1867, however, that South Pass City assumed its 

275. H/516-1868. This letter, like Document CXLII, was written on a 
letterhead of the House of Representatives, Fortieth Congress, U. S., Wash- 
ington, D. C, which indicates that Head was then in Washington and had 
political entree. 


amount, on account of what should Justly have been given them 
during the past four years — 

The mixed bands number about 2500, & have observed their 
treaty stipulations with entire fidelity. . . . 

[Endorsed:] The recommendation within is just if practicable. 
The mixed band ought to stand upon an equal footing with the 
other bands — and inasmuch as we have no right to divide the 
money of the Shoshonees with others without their consent — a fair 
interpretation of the treaty would be that they are due a pro rata 
sum equal with that paid to the Shoshonees. 

This matter ought to be brought especially to the attention of 
the Secretary & Congress and an appropriation made — 




F. H. Head, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to N. G. Taylor, 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Feb. 15, 1868-^*^ 

Sir - 

The treaty, made in 1863, with the mixed bands of Bannacks 
& Shoshonees, & to which reference was made in mine of the 13th 
[12th] inst. was ratified by the Senate upon condition that a sec- 
tion be added, defining the character of the Indian title to the 
land, recognized by the Government. 

This rendered it necessary to submit the treaty to the tribe for 
their acquiescence to the added section, which has never been 
done - 

I shall meet this tribe probably early in June next, & can then 
submit to them the treaty for their signatures. 

I would respectfully suggest — that the treaty, before being again 
submitted to the tribe, be modified by inserting a provision, pro- 
viding for the payment of an annuity of $5000. instead of the 
indeterminate amount, named in the present treaty — 

Should this suggestion meet with your approval, will you please 
instruct me accordingly? . . . 


F. H. Head, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to N. G. Taylor, 

President, Indian Peace Commission, dated Salt Lake City, 

April 14, 1868.-'- 

Sir: I am Just in receipt of a letter from Mr. [A.S.H.] 

276. H/520-1868. See preceding note. 

277. H/595-1868. 


White, Secretary of the Peace Commission,^'^** transmitting your 
kind invitation to meet you at Ft. Bridger in June next, at the 
councils to be held with the Bannacks and Shoshonees — Have 
any steps been taken to assemble the tribes at Ft. Bridger in June? 
They are, during the summer, scattered over a great extent of 
country, fishing & hunting, and at least a month's time would be 
required to get them together in any considerable numbers. 

I would respectfully suggest, that as sdon as you are able to 
designate a certain day for the conference, you should notify me, 
& I will get the Indians together at the time, and will also, should 
you. desire it, have at Ft. Bridger, some beef and flour, to distribute 
among them. . . . 

[Endorsed:] See tel? to Supt Head and Genl Sanborn, April 29, 

278. The Indian Peace Commission was appointed in conformance with 
the Act of Congress, July 20, 1867, "to establish peace with certain hostile 
Indian tribes," the Commissioners being N. G. Taylor, President, J. B. 
Henderson, Lieut. Gen. W. T. Sherman, Bvt. Maj. Gen. William S. Harney, 
John B. Sanborn, Bvt. Maj. Gen. Alfred H. Terry, S. F. Tappan, and Bvt. 
Maj. Gen. C. C. Augur. The Commission organized at St. Louis on Aug. 
6, 1867, and until the close of the year treated with tribes on the Missouri 
and the Arkansas, and up the Platte as far as Fort Laramie. The Oglalla 
chief Red Cloud, who had been on the war trail since July, 1866, declined 
to come in, but sent a message "that his war against the whites was to save 
the valley of the Powder river, the only hunting ground left to his nation," 
and gave assurance "that whenever the military garrisons at Fort Phil. 
Kearney and Fort C. F. Smith were withdrawn, the war on his part would 
cease." Before adjourning, the commissioners sent word to Red Cloud that 
they wished to council with him the following year. In the Commission's 
report of Jan. 7, 1868, the final recommendation was as follows: 

A new commission should be appointed, or the present one be 
authorized to meet the Sioux next spring, according to our agreement, 
and also to arrange with the Navajoes for their removal. It might be 
well, also in case our suggestions are adopted in regard to selecting 
Indian territories, to extend the powers of the commission, so as to 
enable us to conclude treaties or agreements with tribes confessedly 
at peace, looking to their concentration upon the reservations indi- 

In the course of a short time the Union Pacific railroad will have 
reached the country claimed by the Snakes, Bannocks, and other 
tribes, and in order to preserve peace with them the commission 
should be required to see them and make with them satisfactory 
arrangements. (40th Congress, 3rd Session, House Executive Docu- 
ment 1 (Serial 1366), p. 509.) 

A further factor, exhibiting the economic facts of life, may have been 
the land grants to the builders of the Pacific Railroad; technically, the 
Government had to extinguish the Indian title before it could give the 
railroad a valid title to the lands being granted. This consideration prob- 
ably outweighed all of Agent Mann's recommendations on the basis of 
simple abstract justice to the Shoshoni. 



Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to F. H. Head, Supt. of 

Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger Agency, 

May 12, 1868.-''^9 


Your letter of the 30 April this Moment received by Coach from 
the East and hasten to reply I will not distribute goods untill 
after Meeting of Peace Commission I am collecting the Indians 
as rapidly as possible and hope to have a large portion of them 
if not all by the time the Commission arive the fourth of June 
there are at present here 96 Lodges of Shoshonees and forty nine 
Lodges of Bannacks Washakee is not here I am Expecting him 
Soon I am feeding the Indians with Beef and Flour in Small 
quantities in order to keep them here I have already given them 
One hundred Sacks Flour and a thousand pounds Beef which is 
a very Scarse article here I will try and Keep all of the Indians 
here that come the Flour you speak of would be very acceptable 
I understand that arangements have been Made by the Indian 
Bureau with Judge Carter for feeding Indians what those arange- 
ments are I do not know I will send copies of Telegrams from 
Genl Sanborn 

From Genl Sanborn April 20 
Do you desire the assistance of Mr [James] Bridger If so we 
will Send him at once to you-^*' We will meet the Indians at 
Bridger on the fourth of June 

My reply April 21 

Will not require the assistance of Mr Bridger It will be 
necessary to feed the Indians to Keep them at the agency what 
Shall I do 

From Genl Sanborn April 29 ''^ 
Arangements are made by Indian Bureau with Judge Carter for 
feeding Indians at Bridger & they may be collected at once 

I had however commenced feeding them Soon after the 20th 
of April I have been using the Shoshonee Flour for that purpose 
Judge Carter expects three hundred Sacks here in a few days and 
I will replace it I shall be pleased to see you at Bridger with the 
Commission. . . . 

279. Utah Field Papers, 1868. 

280. Bridger had spent part of the winter at Westport, but was on hand 
for the councils with the Sioux which culminated in the treaty at Fort 
Laramie on April 29, 1868. On May 15 he was placed on the Army 
payroll as a guide, and during the summer served with Lieut. P. F. Barnard 
of the Fourth Infantry in removing property from the forts which were 
being abandoned along the Bozeman Trail. See J. Cecil Alter, James 
Bridger, revised ed., Columbus, 1951, pp. 469, 591-592. 



Articles of a Treaty with the Shoshonee (Eastern Band) 

AND Bannack Tribes of Indians. Made the third day of 

July 1868 at Fort Bridger Utah Ter.^^^ 

Articles of a Treaty, made and concluded at Fort Bridger, Utah 
Territory, on the third day of July in the year of Our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty eight by and between the under- 
signed Commissioners on the part of the United States and the 
undersigned Chiefs and headmen of and representing the Sho- 
shonee (Eastern Band) and Bannack tribes of Indians they being 
duly authorized to act in the premises. 

Article I. From this day forward, peace between the parties to 
this Treaty shall forever continue. The Government of the United 
States desires peace and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. 
The Indians desire peace and they hereby pledge their honor to 
maintain it. 

If bad men among the whites or among other people subject to 
the authority of the United States shall commit any wrong upon 
the person or property of the Indians the United States will upon 
proof made to the Agent and forwarded to the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs at Washington City proceed at once to cause the 
offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the 
United States and also reimburse the injured person for the loss 

If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depreda- 
tion upon the person or property of anyone, white black or Indian 
subject to the authority of the United States and at peace therewith, 
the Indians herein named, solemnly agree, that they will on proof 
made to their Agent, and notice by him deliver up the wrong doer 
to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its 
laws, and in case they wilfully refuse so to do the person injured 
shall be reimbursed for his loss, from the annuities or other monies 
due or to become due to them under this or other Treaties made 
with the United States. And the President on advising with the 
Commissioner on Indian Affairs shall prescribe such rules and 
regulations for ascertaining damages under the provisions of this 
article as in his judgment may be proper. But no such damages 
shall be adjusted and paid, until thoroughly examined and passed 
upon by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and no one sus- 
taining sustaining [sic] loss, while violating, or because of his 

281. The manuscript copy of the treaty here printed is one found in the 
Ratified Treaties File No. 373. This was one of the last treaties negotiated 
by the United States with an Indian tribe, for after 1868 all reservations 
were created by Executive Order. The treaty was ratified by Congress 
Feb. 26, 1869. 


violating the provisions of this Treaty, or the laws of the United 
States, shall be reimbursed therefor. 

Article II. It is agreed that whenever the Bannacks desire a 
reservation to be set apart for their use, or whenever the President 
of the United States shall deem it advisable for them to be put 
upon a reservation he shall cause a suitable one to be selected 
for them in their present Country which shall embrace reasonable 
portions of the "Port Neuf" and Kansas [Kamas] prairie" coun- 
tries and that when this reservation is declared the United States 
will secure to the Bannacks the same rights and privileges herein 
and make the same and like expenditures wherein for their benefit 
except the Agency House and residences of Agents in proportion 
to their numbers as herein provided for the Shoshonee reservation. 

The United States further agree that the following district of 
country, to wit. Commencing at the mouth of Owl Creek and 
running due South to the crest of the divide between the Sweet- 
water and Popo Agie rivers — thence along the crest of said divide 
and the summit of Wind River Mountains to the longitude of 
North Fork of Wind River — thence due north to mouth of said 
North Fork and up its channel to a point twenty miles above its 
mouth — thence in a straight line to head waters of Owl Creek 
and along middle of Channel of Owl Creek to place of beginning, 
shall be and the same is set apart for the absolute and undis- 
turbed-'^- use and occupation of the Shoshonee Indians herein 
named and for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians 
as from time to time they may be willing with the consent of the 
United States to admit amongst them,-''-' and the United States 
now solemnly agree that no person except those herein designated 
and authorized to do so, and except such, officers or Agents and 
employees of the Government, as may be authorized to enter 
upon Indian reservations in discharge of duties enjoined by law, 
shall ever be permitted to pass over settle upon or reside in the 
Territory described in this article for the use of said Indians and 
henceforth they will and do hereby relinquish all title claims or 
rights in, and to, any portion of the Territory of the United States 
except such as is embraced within the limits aforesaid. 

Article III. The United States agrees at its own proper expense 
to construct at a suitable point in the Shoshonee reservation a 
warehouse or storeroom for the use of the Agent in storing goods 

282. Notwithstanding these fine words, and after the usual manner of 
the "permanent" arrangements made by the United States with Indian tribes, 
the Shoshoni were afterwards persuaded to concur in the reduction of the 
size of their reservation; it was cut down in 1872, 1896, 1904 to approxi- 
mately one-fifth the size of that defined in 1868. 

283. As this worked out in practice, the U. S. government placed upon 
the Shoshoni reservation numbers of Northern Arapahoes, their hereditary 


belonging to the Indians, to cost not exceeding two thousand 
dollars; an Agency building for the residence of the Agent to cost 
not exceeding three thousand; a residence for the Physician to 
cost not more than two thousand dollars, and five other buildings 
for a Carpenter, Farmer Blacksmith, Miller and Engineer each to 
cost not exceeding two thousand dollars; also a school house or 
Mission building, so soon as a sufficient number of children can be 
induced by the Agent to attend School, which shall not cost 
exceeding twenty five hundred dollars. 

The United States agrees further to cause to be erected on said 
Shoshonee reservation near the other buildings herein authorized 
a good steam circular Saw mill with a Grist Mill and Shingle 
Machine attached the same to cost not more than eight thousand 

Article IV. The Indians herein named agree when the Agency 
House and other buildings shall be constructed on their reserva- 
tions named they will make said reservations their permanent 
homes, and they will make no permanent settlement elsewhere but 
they shall have the right to hunt on the unoccupied lands of the 
United States, so long as game may be found thereon and so long 
as peace subsists among the whites and Indians, on the borders 
of the hunting districts. 

Article V. The United States agrees that the Agent for said 
Indians shall in the future make his home at the Agency building 
on the Shoshonee reservation but shall direct and supervise affairs 
on the Bannack reservation,-^^ and shall keep an office open at all 
times for the purpose of prompt and diligent enquiry into such 
matters of complaint by and against the Indians as may be pre- 
sented for investigation under the provisions of their Treaty stipu- 
lations as also for the faithful discharge of other duties enjoined by 
law. In all cases of depredation on person or property he shall 
cause the evidence to be taken in writing and forwarded together 
with his finding to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs whose 
decision shall be binding on the parties to this Treaty. 

Article VI. If any individual belonging to said tribes of Indians 
or legally incorporated with them being the head of a family shall 
desire to commence farming he shall have the privilege to select 
in the presence and with the assistance of the Agent then in charge, 
a tract of land within the reservation of his tribe not exceeding 
three hundred and twenty acres in extent which tract so selected 
certified and recorded in the "Land Book" as herein directed 
shall cease to be held in common, but the same may be occupied 
and held in the exclusive possession of the person selecting it. 

284. This provision, if not a fossil relic from an earlier draft of an 
insufficiently revised treaty, represented a lingering hope that the Bannacks 
would yet be domiciled with the eastern Shoshoni. 


and of his family, so long as he or they may continue to cultivate 

Any person over eighteen years of age, not being the head of a 
family may in like manner select and cause to be certified to him 
or her for purposes of cultivation, a quantity of land not exceeding 
eighty acres in extent and thereupon be entitled to the exclusive 
possession of the same as above described. 

For each tract of land so selected a certificate containing a 
description thereof and the name of the person selecting it, with 
a certificate endorsed thereon that the same has been recorded 
shall be delivered to the party entitled to it by the Agent after the 
same shall have been recorded by him in a book to be kept in his 
office, subject to inspection which said book shall be known as 
the "Shoshonee (Eastern Band) and Bannack Land Book." The 
President may at any time order a survey of the reservations, and 
when so surveyed Congress shall provide for protecting the rights 
of the Indian settlers in these improvements, and may fix the 
character of the title held by each. The United States may pass 
such laws on the subject of alienation and descent of property as 
between Indians and on all subjects connected with the Govern- 
ment of the Indians on said reservations, and the internal police 
thereof, as may be thought proper. 

Article VII. In order to insure the civilization of the tribes 
entering into this Treaty, the necessity of education is admitted 
especially of such of them as are or may be settled on said agri- 
cultural reservation and they therefore pledge themselves to 
compel their children male and female, between the ages of six 
and eighteen years to attend school and, it is hereby made the duty 
of the Agent for said Indians to see that this stipulation is strictly 
complied with and the United States agree that for every thirty 
children between said ages who can be induced or compelled to 
attend school, a house shall be provided, and a teacher competent 
to teach the elementary branches of an English education shall be 
furnished who will reside among said Indians and faithfully dis- 
charge his or her duties as a teacher. The provisions of this article 
to continue for twenty years. 

Article VIII. When the head of a family or lodge shall have 
selected land and received his certificate as above directed and the 
Agent shall be satisfied that he intends in good faith to commence 
cultivating the soil for a living, he shall be entitled to receive 
seeds and agricultural implements for the first year in value, one 
hundred dollars and for each succeeding year he shall continue to 
farm, for a period of three years more, he shall be entitled to 
receive seeds and implements as aforesaid in value twenty five 
dollars per annum. And it is further stipulated that such persons 
as commence farming shall receive instructions from the Farmers 
herein provided for, and whenever more than one hundred persons 
on either reservation shall enter upon the cultivation of the soil a 


second Blacksmith shall be provided with such iron, steel and 
other material as may be required. 

Article IX. In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities 
provided to be paid to the Indians herein named underany and all 
treaties heretofore made with them, the United States agrees to 
deliver at the Agency House on the reservation herein provided for 
on the first day of September of each year, for thirty years the 
following articles, to wit; 

For each male person over fourteen years of age a suit of good 
substantial woolen clothing, consisting of, hat coat pantaloons, 
flannel shirt and a pair of woolen socks. 

For each female over twelve years of age a flannel skirt, or the 
goods necessary to make it, a pair of woolen hose, twelve yards of 
calico and twelye yards of cotton domestics. 

For the boys and girls under the ages named such flannel and 
cotton goods as may be needed to make each a suit as aforesaid 
together with a pair of woolen hose for each. 

And in order that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be 
able to estimate properly for the articles herein named, it shall be 
the duty of the Agent, each year to forward to him a full and 
exact census of the Indians on which the estimate from year to year 
can be based. And in addition to the clothing herein named the 
sum of ten dollars shall be annually appropriated for each Indian 
roaming, and twenty dollars for each Indian engaged in agriculture, 
for a period of ten years, to be used by the Secretary of the 
Interior in the purchase of such articles as from time to time the 
condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper 

And if at any time within the ten years it shall appear that the 
amount of money needed for clothing under this article can be 
appropriated to better uses for the tribes herein named. Congress 
may by law change the appropriation to other purposes but in no 
event shall the amount of this appropriation be withdrawn or 
discontinued for the period named. And the President shall 
annually detail an officer of the army to be present and attest 
the delivery of all the goods herein named to the Indians and he 
shall inspect and report on the quantity and quality of the goods 
and the manner of their delivery. 

Article X. The United States hereby agree to furnish annually 
to the Indians the Physician, Teachers, Carpenter, Miller, Enginer, 
Farmer and Blacksmith as herein contemplated and that such 
appropriations shall be made from time to time on the estimates 
of the Secretary of the Interior as will be sufficient to employ such 

Article XI. No Treaty for the cession of any portion of the 
reservation herein described which may be held in common shall 
be of any force or validity as against the said Indians unless 
executed and signed by at least a majority of all the adult male 
Indians occupying or interested in such manner as to deprive 


without his consent any individual member, of the tribe of his 
right to any tract of land selected by him as provided in article VI 
of this Treaty. 

Article XII. It is agreed that the sum of five hundred dollars 
annually, for three years from the date when they commence to 
cultivate a farm shall be expended in presents to the ten persons of 
said tribe, who in the judgment of the Agent, may grow the most 
valuable crops for the respective years. 

Article XIII. It is further agreed that until such time as the 
Agency Buildings are estabUshed on the Shoshonee reservation, 
their Agent shall reside at Fort Bridger U. T. and their annuities 
shall be delivered to them at the same place in June of each year. 

N. G. Taylor (Seal) 

W. T. Sherman Lt. Geni. (Seal) 

Wm. S. Harney (Seal) 

S. F. Tappan (Seal) 

C. C. Augur (Seal) 

Bv't-Major Genl. U.S.A. 
Attest Commissioner 

A. S. H. White Alfred H. Terry (Seal) 

Secretary Brig. Genl. & Bv't Maj Genl U.S.A. 


Wash-a-kie x his mark 

Wan-ny-pitz x his mark 

Trop-se-po-wot x his mark 

Nar-kok x his mark 

Taboonsheya x his mark 

Bazeel x his mark ^ 

Pan-to-she-ga x his mark i 

, Taggee x his mark 

Tay-to-ba x his mark 

We-rat-ze-mon-a-gen x his mark 
Coo-sha-gan x his mark • 

Pan-sook-a-motse x his mark 
A-wite-etse x his mark 


Henry A. Morrow 
Lt. Col. 36 Infantry & Bvt Col U. S. A. 
Com'^g Ft. Bridger 
Luther Manpa [Mann] 
U. S. Indian Agent 

W. A. Carter. 
J. Vanallen Carter 



Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to F. H. Head, Supt. of 

Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger Agency, 

Aug. 16, 1868.285 


I have the honor to transmit herewith an Estimate of funds for 
the Fort Bridger agency for the quarter Ending Sep^ 30th 1868 

The Estimate for Wood is made upon the Suposition that I will 
be able to procure an Office at this agency I am Entirely destitute 
of One at present and have been for more than a month and there 
is but very little prospect if any of my obtaining one unless I 
build one for myself In view than of the uncertainty of obtaining 
one I would Very respectfully suggest that leave of absence on 
business be granted me say from the first of November untill the 
first of May thereby precluding the necessity of building an office 
or of furnishing Wood for the Same you are aware that the 
Indians of this agency have left for their Winter hunt and will not 
return before the first or middle of June, the Service therefore 
would not suffer on account of my absence I desire that you 
would give me your opinion and advice upon the matter as I have 
no desire that the Service shall suffer on my account please let 
me hear from you Soon and greatly Oblige. . . . 


Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to F. H. Head, Supt. of 

Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger Agency, 

September 12, 1868.286 

Sir: In compliance with the regulations of the Indian depart- 
ment, I have the honor to submit the following report relative to 
the affairs of this agency. 

About the first of September, 1867, the Indians under my 
charge (the eastern bands of Shoshones) left here for their hunting 
grounds in the Wind River valley. There had then recently 

285. Utah Field Papers, 1868. 

286. 40th Congress, 3rd Session, House Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1366) pp. 616-619. This was Mann's last annual report submitted from the 
Utah Superintendency; his final annual report from the Wyoming Superin- 
tendency and dated Fort Bridger Agency, July 24, 1869, is published in 
41st Congress, 2nd Session, House Executive Document 1 (Serial 1414), 
part 3, pp. 714-715. 


occurred a series of depredations by hostile Indians upon prospec- 
tors and camps of the newly discovered Sweetwater mining 
country, and threatenings were bitter against all Indians. As this 
region was directly in the route of the Shoshones, I deemed it 
advisable to precede them and allay the ill feeling so far as they 
were concerned. I did so, assuring the miners that the best feeling 
existed between these Indians and the whites, and that their pres- 
ence in the valley would be protection against any more raids by 
the Sioux, which proved true, all hostilities having ceased against 
the miners until after the Shoshones had returned to this agency. 

As early as May 1, 1868, advance parties reported themselves. 
About that time I received telegraphic notice from General John 
B. Sanborn that the peace commission would visit this agency, 
the 4th of June, and requesting all Indians under my control, also 
the Bannocks of this vicinity, to be assembled by that time. I 
immediately sent out couriers to accomplish this object. Through 
the efforts of Tag-gee, their principal chief, I succeeded in assem- 
bling about 800 Bannocks, who had arrived by the 15th May. 
By telegram I was authorized to purchase subsistence for all 
Shoshones and Bannocks until the arrival of the commissioners. 
Owing to the ill condition of roads in their route they were unable 
to reach here according to appointment, and in consequence 
nearly half the Bannocks had grown impatient and left for their 
fishing and summer resorts before the arrival of General C. C. 
Augur, who represented the commission. In the mean while a 
full assemblage of the Shoshones was accomplished, notwithstand- 
ing the annuities were withheld, and the most favorable representa- 
tions made to them of the benefits to result by remaining to meet 
the commissioners; even a few restless ones among these, unable 
to resist their roaming inclinations, and therefore not present either 
at the conference of distribution of annuities. Immediately upon 
his arrival General Augur had an informal meeting with Washakie 
and other leading men of the Shoshones, and Tag-gee of the 
Bannocks, informing them of the object sought, and desiring them 
to communicate with their tribes preparatory to a formal meeting. 
On the 3d of July all of the headmen and a large number of their 
followers were present, and had explained to them fully the terms 
of a treaty, which is made known to you in the report of the 
commissioners. The result of this meeting was the acceptance of 
a treaty, under which added benefits are guaranteed, and a reserva- 
tion in the country of their choice made for these Indians. It is 
especially gratifying to me to report this fact, having repeatedly 
urged the thing accomplished for several years. -"^^ The meeting 

287. Mann had urged the creation of a reservation for the Shoshoni in 
the Wind River country in every annual report, beginning in 1862. 


was most satisfactory, and I trust that an early ratification and 
appropriations under the new treaty may be made in time for the 
goods to reach the Indians by their next annual visit. I am espe- 
cially desirous that such may be accomplished in behalf of the 
Bannocks, these Indians having for years been entitled to annuities 
under a former treaty, but as yet deriving no "benefit from their 
faithful observance of treaty stipulations. Following the signing 
of the treaty a valuable present was made them, the greatest har- 
mony prevailing. 

The relations existing between the Shoshones and Bannocks are 
of so amicable a nature that it is hoped they may yet consent to 
join together upon one reservation. Indians are perhaps more 
jealous than whites of such rights as are claimed by them, and I 
would advise that time, and the evident advantages of such an 
arrangement as it will develop, may be allowed to accomplish this 

The Bannocks are greatly in minority, and to urge too speedy 
occupation of one ground in common might produce a change in 
the relations of these tribes, which for a great many years has been 

During the past winter, frequent inroads have been made by 
northern tribes unfriendly to the Shoshones, and their hunting 
excursions thereby rendered somewhat less successful than usual. 
The enmity existing between them and the Nez Perces, Crows, 
Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes is of long duration, and the 
raids of these tribes upon their hunting parties have by degrees 
deprived them of no inconsiderable amount of stock killed and 
captured. While en route to the agency this spring a united party 
of Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes, about 300 warriors, led by 
a son of Red Cloud, attacked Washakie. A lengthy fight ensued. 
Their leader and several of the opposing party were killed. Four 
Shoshones were killed, and a number wounded, who have mostly 
recovered. The attacking party captured about 80 horses. These 
were a party of the same combination of refractory warriors who 
refused to be present at the recent visit of the peace commissioners 
at Fort Laramie, who, later, killed a number of prospectors in 
Wind River valley, and have more recently committed a series of 
atrocities along the Union Pacific railroad and on the route from 
Benton to South Pass. The hostility of these tribes will be a 
temporary drawback to the peaceful occupation of the reservations 
allotted to the Indians of this agency. An effort is being made 
on the part of the Crows to procure peace, to which I heard no 
opposition on the part of Washakie, though he signified his desire 
that for that purpose they meet him in the presence of some 
government official. I sincerely hope that the late treaties with 
the Sioux and their confederates will be the means of withdrawing 


them from the vicinity of the Indians under my care, who may 
then speedily secure the advantages of the treaty of July 3, 1868, 
and at the same time, to themselves and their property, security 
while hunting. 

A decrease, consequent upon their losses in fight, and by such 
diseases as are prevalent, is manifest. While at the agency the 
past spring a number of deaths occurred, with but few exceptions 
among children. The diseases most fatal have been whooping 
cough, with some complication, result of exposed habits, and 
diarrhoea among children. Intermittent and continued fevers are 
frequent and severe among adults, especially women. Such deaths 
as have under my notice occurred among adults have been from 
old age. 

The long detention to await the peace commissioners, already 
alluded to, gave rise to impatience, and in consequence, when I 
hoped to obtain the most complete estimate of population I found 
many absent. There were present at one time, of both tribes, 
about 1,750. Of these 450 were Bannocks; the remainder Sho- 
shones, in approximately the following proportions: Of males 
between the ages of 15 and 60 years, 400; adult females and girls 
over 12 years old, 500; the remainder, children from infancy to 
10 years old. The above estimate does not include quite half of 
the Bannocks, who under the new treaty are placed under the 
control of this agency. The proportions are about the same as 
herein detailed, as relating to ages and sexes among the Shoshones. 

The general social condition of the Indians in my care is good. 
A few small bands have for a year or two past failed to visit the 
buffalo country, being unwilling to expose their property to the 
predatory visits of hostile Indians. These have remained near 
here, on Green river, where a sufficiency of game is found to 
subsist them, and whereby they obtain a large quantity of salable 
skins. This diminution of his strength is not satisfactory to 
Washakie; hence I have instructed all who have the means and 
are not too aged belonging to these bands to follow Washakie, 
impressing them with the fact that he alone is recognized as their 
head, and assuring them that if they expect to share the rewards 
they must participate in all dangers incident to the tribe. 

For the purchase of medicines and medical attentions, and for 
other incidental expenditures, I deem a small contingent fund for 
the use of this agency advisable. Such articles of traffic as the 
Indians themselves possess are usually exhausted in the purchase 
of sugar, coffee, tea, and ammunition, articles very scantily and 
mostly not at all supplied among annuities. Every year numbers 
of them bring me arms needing repairs, funds for which purpose I 
am not supplied with; hence I have either to supply them from 
private means, which I do not think the salary of this office 
justifies, or I have to refuse them altogether. , , . 



Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to F. H. Head, Supt. of 
Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger, Sept. 14, 1868.-^^ 


I have the honor to transmit herewith Statistical reports of 
Education and Farming There is Very little to reporte on these 
Subjects No Schools and no farming I hope the reports will be 
satisfactory if not please instruct. . . . 


F. H. Head, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to N. G. Taylor, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Salt Lake City, 

Sept. 16, 1868. Extract. ~^^ 

Sir: I have the honor to submit my annual report of the 
general condition of Indian affairs within the Utah superintendency 
for the past year. 

INDIAN population 

The numbers and classification of the Indians within this 
superintendency as given in my last annual report is, I am satisfied 
from careful investigation made during the past year, substantially 
correct. For convenience of reference the tabular statement is 
repeated, and is as follows: 

Tribes speaking the Utah language. 

1. Uintas _ 100 

2. Timpanoags _.. 800 

3. Sanpitches 400 

4. Yampah-Utes 500 

5. Fish-Utes 100 

6. Goshen-Utes 400 

7. Pah-Vents 1,500 

8. Pah-Edes 4,000 

9. Pah-Utes 1,600 

10. Pahranagats 700 

11. She-ba-retches 1,500 

12. Elk Mountain Utes 2,500 


288. Utah Field Papers, 1868. 

289. 40th Congress, 3rd Session, House Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1366) pp. 608-614. 



Tribes speaking the Shoshone language. 

1. Eastern Shoshones 2,000 

2. Northwestern Shoshones 1,800 

3. Western Shoshones 2,000 


Tribes speaking dialects containing both Utah, Shoshone, and 
Bannock words: 

1. Cum-min-tahs, or Weber Utes. This tribe is formed 
from numbers of different Utah and Shoshone bands, the 
Utah element largely predominating in their language, 
and numbers about 650 

2. Goship, or Gosha Utes. This tribe is similarly formed 
to that last named, the Shoshone element, however, 
largely predominating. There are also numerous Ban- 
nock words in their language, and many Goships marry 
Bannock squaws. They number about 1,100 

3. Mixed bands of Bannocks and Shoshones. About three- 
fourths of this tribe are Shoshones, and one-fourth Ban- 
nocks. This tribe, as its name indicates, is formed from 
the two tribes last mentioned. Its members speak a 
language mostly of Shoshone words, although some of 
the more recent additions to the band speak only the 
Bannock tongue. This tribe numbers — 

Shoshones 1,800 

Bannocks 600 




Utah tribes 15,300 

Shoshones 5,800 

Mixed tribes 4,150 



This band has been, since 1861, under the immediate care of 
Agent Luther Mann. Chief Washakee retains the same upright 
and manly character he has ever sustained from the first settlement 
of Utah. His control over his Indians is more absolute than that 
of any other chief within the superintendency, and such influence 
is uniformity [sic] exercised wisely and for the best interests of 


the Indian. In the full and well-considered report of Agent Mann, 
which is herewith transmitted, a detailed account is given of the 
conference between General Augur, of the Indian peace commis- 
sion, and the eastern Shoshones and Bannocks, with its successful 
results. The setting apart of a portion of the Wind River valley 
as a reservation for the eastern Shoshones is calculated to per- 
petuate the good feeling now existing between these and the whites, 
since this has long been an object of their most ardent desire. 


No especial effort has yet been made to engage the northwestern 
Shoshones in agricultural pursuits. They are very anxious to have 
cattle given to them, from which to raise stock; and during the 
past summer I presented to some of their most reliable chiefs 
fifteen cows, which they promised to keep as breeding animals. I 
visited them again a few days since, and found that they had as 
yet eaten none of the cows. They promised faithfully that these 
cows and their increase should be kept until they had a large herd 
of cattle of their own. The western Shoshones during the past 
year have shown a most commendable zeal in their farming opera- 
tions. At Deep creek and at Ruby valley are the two principal 
bands of the tribe, numbering about 600 each. Shortly after my 
last annual report, when I visited the tribe, I gave to them some 
working oxen and ploughs, and in the spring furnished them some 
seed grain. With very slight aid from a white man at each place, 
to occasionally instruct them in the manner of their cultivation, 
they have put in about forty acres of land, the crops upon which 
are excellent, and will greatly aid in their support during the 
coming winter. Their success has greatly encouraged them, and 
they are eager to engage still more extensively in farming the 
coming year. 


No schools or missions of any character have been established 
among any of the tribes within this superintendency. 

Some tribes have a considerable number of ponies, some also 
a few goats and cattle. The number of each is as follows: 

Ponies. Cattle. Goats. 

Eastern Shoshone and Bannock 700 

Northwestern Shoshones 166 

Western Shoshones 90 

Weber Utes 70 

Goships 50 

Pah-Vents 175 

Uintah Utes, Yampah Utes, Fish Utes 1,200 

Total 2,451 171 67 











Price. Average value. 

Ponies $30 $735 30 

Cattle 40 68 40 

Goats 3 2 01 

Total wealth 

805 71 

The country occupied by many of the tribes is nearly destitute 
of game. The eastern Shoshones and Bannocks range during the 
winter in a country abounding in buffalo, and take annually robes 
of the value of almost $20,000. They also take considerable 
numbers of deer and beaver skins. The Indians ranging along the 
Uintah, White, and Green rivers take beaver and buck skins of the 
annual value of about $8,000. The value of furs and skins taken 
by other tribes is about $6,000, making a total value of $34,000 
for robes, skins, and furs, taken by all the tribes. There is a de- 
mand among the settlers for home use for all the robes, furs, and 
skins, and the Indians take them principally to the settlements for 
sale and receive for them probably more nearly their actual value 
than in any other portion of the United States. With the increase 
of the population the game of every sort disappears, and this 
resource of the Indians is becoming less valuable and reliable every 


The appropriations for the Indian service in this superintend- 
ency, in proportion to the number of Indians therein, are much 
smaller than in any other portion of the United States. For the 
current year the usual appropriations have been largely reduced. 
This is especially unfortunate, since, owing to the near approach 
of the Pacific railroad and the increased demand for supplies 
engendered thereby, the prices of beef and flour have considerably 
advanced. The fact that the Indians within this superintendency 
are peaceable and friendly should induce increased liberality on 
the part of the paternal government rather than a reduction of 
the supplies to which they have been accustomed. Starvation 
leads to stealing, and stealing to war, with its fearful and costly 
train of evils, retarding the settlement of this country and the 
development of its agricultural and mineral resources, imperilling 
the safety and speed of mail and passenger transit across the 
continent, and deranging the commerce of the entire Pacific 
coast. . . . 



Brevet Major General C. C. Augur to the President of 

THE Indian Peace Commission, dated Headquarters 

Department of the Platte, Omaipa, Neb., 

October 4, 1 868.290 


At the last meeting of this Commission, held at Fort Laramie, 
A.D. May 9th 1868, it was "Resolved," That General Augur 
proceed to Fort Bridger, to make arrangements with the Snakes, 
Bannacks, and other Indians along the line of the Union Pacific 
R. R. in Utah." The "arrangements" referred to in the resolution, 
were understood to be the making of a treaty with the tribes 
referred to, on the same basis as those made with the Sioux and 
other tribes already treated with by the Commission. The "Snakes 
and Bannacks" were the only tribes it was Supposed I would meet, 
and these had been notified through their agent to meet me at 
Fort Bridger on the 1 5th of June. Certain presents for them had 
been already ordered by the Commission, and were then Supposed 
to be on their way to them. 

In pursuance of the above-cited resolution I proceeded to Fort 
Bridger, where I arrived on the 15 th of June, and found the 
Indians already assembled in that vicinity. But the presents had 
not arrived, and it was found that by reason of bad roads and 
high waters, they could not reach there under two weeks. The 
indians preferred to wait until their arrival, before "talking." The 
goods eventually arrived, and I held a council with the assembled 
tribes on the 3rd day of July. All of Wash-a-kees' band or the 
"North-eastern band of Shoshones" and which really constitutes 
the principal part of the Shoshone nation, and the larger part of 
the Bannacks under the head chief of the nation "Taggie" were 
present, and participated in the council. Washakee claims in 
general terms as being the country of his people, all the country 
lying between the paraUell of the highest point of the Winter [cor- 
rected to Uinta] Mountains, and that of the Wind river valley, and 
between the meridian of Salt Lake City and the line of the North 
Platte rivers to the mouth of the Sweetwater. "Taggie" claims 
for the Bannacks in terms more general even, all the country 
about Soda Spring, the Porte Neuf river and the big Kamas prairie 
to the northwest of it.^^^ 

290. Office of Indian Affairs, Irregularly Sized Papers, Drawer 6, No. 5. 

291. The Kamas Prairie here described seems not to have been the one 
identified in Document LXXXVI, note 183, but the valley of Camas Creek, 
a western tributary of the present Big Wood River, southeast of modern 


I Spoke to the Chiefs as follows: — 

"Washakee, Taggie, and Chiefs of the Shoshones and Bannacks. 

About a year ago, the great council and your great 
Father in Washington sent out a Commission to have a talk with 
the Indian tribes in the west, — to make peace with such as were 
hostile, and to arrange with all of them that hereafter, there should 
be no more war between the white men and the Indians. This 
Commission have already made treaties of peace with the Chey- 
ennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas, and Comanches, and most of the 
Sioux. Part of them are now treating with the remaining Sioux 
and part have gone to meet the Navajoes in New Mexico. I have 
been Sent to meet and talk with you. The Shoshones and Ban- 
nacks are at peace with the whites, and have been for years. All 
we have to do therefor, is to so arrange matters, that there may 
never hereafter be cause of war between them. There are a 
great many white men in your country now, and as soon as the 
Railroad is completed there will be many more. They will wish 
to remain and make homes here, and your great Father desires 
that they should do so, and he will make the Same arrangements 
for acquiring such title as you have to this country, as the com- 
mission has heretofore made with the other Indian tribes. He 
wishes however, to set apart a portion of it for your permanent 
homes, and into which no white men will be permitted to come 
or Settle. Upon this reservation he wishes you to go with all your 
people as soon as possible, and to make it your permanent home, 
but with permission to hunt wherever you can find game. In a 
few years the game will become Scarce, and you will not find 
sufficient to support your people. You will then have to live in 
Some other way than by hunting and fishing. He wishes you 
therefore to go to this reservation now, and commence to grow 
wheat and corn, and raise cattle and horses, so that when the 
game is gone you will be prepared to live independently of it. 
Your agent will live there with you, and you will be provided 
with Store-houses, and Saw mills and grist mills to make your 
flour, and a place to teach your children. Men will be Sent to 
teach you to cultivate your farm, and a blacksmith and a carpenter 
will be Sent to assist you, and a physician to cure you when sick 
so that in a few years your people will be able to live comfortably 
in their new homes. No people prosper who are continually at 
war. Your great Father desires therefore, that you should remain 
at peace, not only with white men, but with all other Indian tribes. 
Should you be at war now with other tribes, or have cause of 
complaint against them, he will try to arrange matters between 
you, without your going to war, or continuing it. It is desirable 
too, that as ma[n]y Indians as possible be gathered together on 
one reservation. More can be done for them in this way then [sic] 
if they are Scattered over the country in Small reservations. He 
wishes the Shoshones and Bannacks to be together, where you 


can have one agent to attend to you, and the benefit of the Same 
men sent to instruct and care for you. I will have a treaty pre- 
pared embracing all that is proposed to be done for you. Its 
provisions will be carefully explained to you by the interpreter. I 
wish you to examine it carefully and to understand it before you 
sign it, for after it is signed and approved by your great Father 
and the great Council in Washington we will all have to be 
guided by it, it will be the great bond of peace between us. I have 
now done, and will hear you speak." 

The following minutes of the reply of Washakee and Taggee 
were taken down at the time and are Substantially correct: 

Washakee chief of the Shoshones was apparently greatly pleased 
and spoke in effect as follows. I am laughing because I am happy. 
Because my heart is good. As I said two days ago, I like the 
country you mentioned, then, for us, the Wind river valley. Now 
I see my friends are around me, and it is pleasant to meet and 
shake hands with them. I always find friends along the roads in 
this country, about Bridger, that is why I come here. It is good 
to have the Railroad through this country and I have come down 
to see it."^- When we want to grow Something to east and hunt 
I want the Wind river Country. In other Indian countries, there 
is danger, but here about Bridger, all is peaceful for whites and 
indians and safe for all to travel. When the white man came 
into my country and cut the wood and made the roads my heart 
was good, and I was Satisfied. You have heard what I want. The 
Wind river Country is the one for me. We may not for one, two 
or three years be able to till the ground. The Sioux may trouble 
us. But when the Sioux are taken care of, we can do well. Will 
the whites be allowed to build houses on our reservation? I do 
not object to traders coming among us, and care nothing about 
the miners and mining country when they are getting out gold. 
I may bye and bye get Some of that myself. I want for my home 
the valley of Wind river and lands on its tributaries as far east as 
the Popo-agie, and want the privilege of going over the mountains 
to hunt where I please." 

Taggie chief of the Bannacks then speaks. 

As far away as Virginia City our tribe has roamed. But I want 
the Porte-neuf country and Kamas plains. ^^^ 

Quest. Why cannot the Bannacks and Shoshones get on 
together on the same reservation? 

Taggie replied — we are friends with the Shoshones and like to 
hunt with them, but we want a home for ourselves. 

292. At this time, July, 1868, the Union Pacific railhead had reached 
only the Laramie Plains, but the roadbed was being graded as far west as 
the valley of the Great Salt Lake. 

293. This reiterated desire for the Kamas Prairie was hopeless; the Fort 
Hall Reservation was limited by the south bank of the Snake River, 


Question by the Commission. If you have a separate home 
can you and the Shoshones get along with one agency and come 
to the Shoshone reservation for your annuities? 

Taggie. We want to receive anything that is for us on our own 

Taggie was then told that at present the Commissioner, was 
not Sufficiently acquainted with the country they wanted to mark 
out a reservation, but that when the Bannacks were ready to go 
on a reservation, the President would Send Some one to lay off 
one, which shall include portions of the country they want and 
that until the Shoshones go on their reservation in the Wind river 
valley, the goods for the Bannacks will be delivered at Bridger, 
separate from those for the Shoshones. Such buildings as the 
Government thinks they require, will be built on the reservation. 
If hereafter the Bannacks and Shoshones agree to go on the Same 
reservation, they will all have the same buildings. 

Tomorrow the 4th of July, the Commission wants all the head 
men of the Shoshones and Bannacks to come here, at twelve 12 
o'clock to sign the treaty. 

The great Father at Washington and the grand Council have 
always known Washakee as a good friend of the white man, and 
look upon him as chief of the Shoshones and good adviser of all 
the peaceful tribes about here. He always gives them good advice, 
and we hope they will always follow it. 

The following day, the chiefs again assembled, and the Treaty 
was interpreted to them. Article by Article. It was perfectly 
Satisfactory to them and was signed by all the Chiefs present. 
The treaty is herewith respectfully submitted to the Commission. 

In connection herewith, I desire to Submit a copy of a memor- 
andum made for me by Mr. Head, Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs of Utah. 

On the 2^ day of July, 1863, Governor Doty pursuant to instruc- 
tions from the Indian Bureau concluded a treaty with the Eastern 
Shoshonees, providing for the payment of an annuity of $10,000 — 
they ceding rights of way, &c. 

On the 30th of same month, he concluded a treaty in all respects 
similar with N. W. Shoshonees; they receiving an annuity of 
$5000, and Octo 1, of same year, a similar treaty with Western 
bands — providing for same annuity. 

After these treaties were concluded he made a similar treaty with 
the "mixed bands of Bannocks and Shoshonees" at Soda Springs, 
Idaho, by which it was provided that they should share in the 
annuities of the Shoshonees. 

When this treaty went before the Senate for confirmation, it 
was amended by the addition of a new article and directed to be 
re-submitted to the tribe for ratification, which has never been 


The treaty as made by Gov. Doty requires to be modified in 
two particulars — 

1^^ By adding the new article pursuant to the requirement of 
the Senate. 

2'^. By striking out the last ten words of Article 2, of said 
treaty and inserting in lieu thereof the words "receiving the same 
annuity as the Northwestern bands of the Shoshonee nation." 

It is impossible to reconcile the provisions of the treaty as made, 
with good faith on the part of the Government toward the Sho- 
shonees. It simply diverts from them, a portion of their annuity, 
without their Consent. 

The original treaty, with the Senate amendment are enclosed. 

(Signed) F. H. Head. 

Under this defective arrangement the Bannacks have never 
received a cent from the Government, except a few casual presents 
the Superintendent was able to give them from funds of an 
incidental nature. 

I am also advised by Superintendent Head and Agent Mann at 
Fort Bridger that it is a Misnomer to call them "the mixed Bands 
of Bannacks and Shoshonees." That no such band exists and 
never did. The band treated with by Governor Doty as the 
Shoshonee Goship Band — is not a band of Shoshonees at all, but 
a band of Utes, known as Gosha Utes after their chief Gosho.^^^ 
Still they are drawing their annuities and have been, as a band of 
Shoshonees known as the Northwestern and Southwestern bands 
are inconsiderable ones, and that their annuities not being per 
capita are probably out of proportion to those given by present 
treaties to Shoshonee band. 

The presents to the Indians at Bridger were issued to them by 
their Agent and Colonel Morrow, Commanding officer Fort 
Bridger, and the necessary receipts are here presented. The issue 
was in the name of General Sanborn, as the purchases were made 
by him. 

I also procurd for them from the post of Fort Bridger, thirty- 
seven old arms and two thousand cartridges. These are invoiced 
also to General Sanborn. On my return I visited the Sweetwater 
mines which are about thirty mlies south of the proposed reserva- 

294. Head's views to the contrary notwithstanding, the Gosiute, as now 
called, linguistically have been found by ethnologists to be wholly Shoshoni. 
See Julian H. Steward, Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups 
(Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 120), Washington, 1938, pp. 
133-134. The chief from whom it is presumed the Gosiutes took their 
name died so long before as 1850, as recorded in the MS. Journal of Lieut. 
John W. Gunnison with the Stansbury Survey, 1849-1850, Records of the 
U. S. Topographical Engineers, National Archives. 


tion for the Shoshonees. I found the miners there entirely satisfied 
with the location of the reservation, and in fact rather pleased, as 
the location of friendly bands there would be a protection to them 
against the hostile Sioux and Blackfeet. 

In connection with the recent departure of Spotted Tail and 
others [of the Sioux] for their reservation, I have to report that 
on the 6th of Sept. I sent for Spotted Tail to come in as I wished 
to see him about going to reservation. I also requested Colonel 
[H. B.] Denman, Supt. Indian Affairs [northern Superintend- 
ency], to have the other bands sent for to come in at the same 
time. I went on the 8th to North Platte to meet them. 

Spotted Tail with Seventy three Lodges. 

Swift Bear " Thirty-four " 

Ogallallas white Eyes 

(walk under the ground) Thirty " 

Brules, Iron Shell and Bad Hand Twenty four " 

Lower Brules, Big Foot Eighteen " 

In addition, were many families living under bushes and pieces 
of canvas reported equivalent to twelve lodges. Making all- 
together Two Hundred and Three lodges — a little exceeding twelve 
hundred souls. Iron Shell I did not see he being already on 
Thickwood Creek. Spotted Tail, claimed that by the arrangement 
at Laramie he and his people were to be permitted to remain on 
Republican [fork of Kansas River] this winter, and go to reserva- 
tion next spring. I explained to him that [it] would be impossible 
for him to remain there without becoming involved in war, and 
that I advised him to go at once with all his people to his reserva- 

After some consultation among themselves he replied that he 
would go, and all those with him. That he had separated himself 
from the Indians on the Republican and would never have any- 
thing more to do with them — that they had acted very badly and 
that he would never try to do anything more for them. I asked 
him what reasons those Indians assigned for their recent outbreak. 
He replied None, — they did not pretend to have any excuse or 
cause of complaint, that the Cheyennes, or most of their young 
men had never wanted peace, and were tired of it. 

Superintendent Denman detailed interpreter Tod Randall to 
accompany these Indians to the reservation. I hired fifteen wagons 
for their use, to be paid the same that was paid for those that went 
with first party, and bought provisions and a small quantity of 
clothing and ammunition The provisions and what ammunition I 
gave them I placed under the charge of the interpreter. They left 
North Platte on the 18th September. 

I submit copies of two letters just received from Laramie and 
Fetterman on the subject of Indian Affairs. 

I neglected to mention in the proper connection that I found 
it impossible to induce the Shoshonees and Bannacks to unite in 


accepting a common reservation. AUthough friendly and allies, 
they each prefer to live in their own country. I do not think it 
improbable however, that the Bannacks may be induced eventually 
to go to the Shoshonee reservation, and that the latter will consent 
to this arrangement. . . . 


James Van Allen Carter, Interpreter, to F. H. Head, Supt. 

OF Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger, Wyoming, 

Jan. 11. 1868 [1869]295 

Dear Sir: I enclose a communication addressed to Col. Mann, 
which came under address of Judge Carter. This is the first time 
I have heard this complaint, but I am quite fearful that Major B's 
influence is not in the interests of the Indians upon other matters. 
He is much dissatisfied with the treaty made here in July last & has, 
I have heard, used his influence to awaken opposition to it upon 
the part of the settlers in their country. -^^' 

As to this matter you have in this letter such evidence as myself. 

I hand it to you supposing if anyone may, you can remedy the 
matter. ... 


F. H. Head, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to E. S. Parker, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Salt Lake City, 

April 29, 1 869.2^7 


On the 22^ day of Feb. ult. in a communication to your prede- 
cessor I urged the immediate purchase of certain goods to the 
amount of $3500. or thereabouts from the appropriation for ful- 
filling treaty with Eastern Shoshonees If such goods have not 
already been purchased and forwarded, I would respectfully urge 
that they be so purchased and shipped at once — The Indians will 
be at the Agency in about a month to receive their annuities and 
dissatisfaction can scarcely fail to ensue from the amount of goods 

295. Utah Field Papers, 1868. Both the context and the reference to 
Wyoming in the heading demonstrate that the letter is misdated 1868. 
James Van Allen Carter, who was born Feb. 4, 1838, was not a blood 
relation of W. A. Carter, but married his daughter Annie and lived at Fort 
Bridger until his death, Jan. 5, 1896. 

296. Is the reference perhaps to Jim Bridger? He left the mountains 
in the late summer of 1868 and spent the rest of his life at Westport, 
though it is said that in the fall of 1868 he went out to Fort Hays, Kansas, 
in an unavailing effort to dissuade General P. H. Sheridan from his winter 
campaign into the Indian Territory. See Alter, op. cit., p. 474. 

297. H/154-1869. 


now on hand, being so much less than they have usually received, 
as stated in my former letter. . . . 


E. S. Parker, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, to J. E. 


D. C, June 25, 1869. Extract.-''^ 

The Special Agency for the Bannocks and Shoshonees hereto- 
fore under the Utah Superintendency, being now within the bounds 
of Wyoming Territory,-'^'-* will hereafter be embraced in the Super- 
intendency for Wyoming Territory, and the Agent to be appointed 
for it, will report to the Governor of that Territory who, by virtue 
of his office as Governor, is Ex Officio Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs. . . . 


F. H. Head, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to E. S. Parker, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake 

City, Aug. 1, 1869. Extract. ^^^ 

Sir: I have the honor to submit my last annual report of the 
condition and progress of Indian affairs within the whole super- 


In my previous annual reports as full and accurate classification 
and numbering of the different tribes as it was practicable to 
obtain have been given. My investigations during the year have 
satisfied me that the census heretofore transmitted is substantially 
correct. Since my last report, however, the Territory of Wyoming 
has been organized, and the Eastern Shoshones and mixed bands 
of Bannacks and Shoshones heretofore in Utah superintendency 

298. Utah Field Papers, 1869. Col. J. E. Tourtelotte succeeded F. H. 
Head as Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Utah in 1869, an appointee 
of the new Grant administration, which adopted the policy of appointing 
unassigned army officers to posts within the Indian Bureau. Under the 
same circumstances, Luther Mann, Jr., was replaced as Agent for the 
Shoshoni and Bannacks by Capt. J. H. Patterson. This policy was over- 
turned when Congress subsequently provided that officers remaining in 
the Indian service must resign their commissions in the Army. 

299. Wyoming Territory was created July 25, 1868, and organized 
April 15, 1869. 

300. 41st Congress, 2nd Session, House Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1414), Part 3, pp. 668-671. The use of "Great Salt Lake City" in the 
heading was anachronistic, the Utah legislature in 1868 having shortened 
the name to Salt Lake City. 


have been transferred to Wyoming superintendency. This would 
reduce the number of Indians in Utah superintendency nearly five 
thousand. In my last report the number was stated to be twenty- 
five thousand. The natural decrease would be nearly one 
thousand. This, and the transfer above named, would leave the 
number of Indians in this superintendency at the date of this 
report nineteen thousand. . . . 


Since the transfer of the Eastern Shoshones to Wyoming super- 
intendency, there are no Indians in the Territory who range over 
other than a desert country nearly destitute of game. The Indians 
upon the Uintah reservation, and also the Northwestern Shoshones 
and Weber Utes, take some few deer and beaver skins. These 
furs and skins are all needed for manufacture among the people 
in the Territory, and the Indians get much higher prices for them 
than in any other part of the country; nearly their value in New 
York. The whole value of the furs and skins so taken is about 
nine thousand dollars. . . . 

With this document we conclude our long presentation of the 
history of Washakie and the Shoshoni as reflected in the records 
of the Utah Superintendency of Indian Affairs in the National 
Archives at Washington. The later experiences of this great chief 
and his tribe as reflected in the documentary record are left to 
later scholars who may be interested to explore the potentialities of 
the records of the Wyoming Superintendency. 

Wyoming Archaeological J^otes 

FOR 1958 

Through cooperation with the National Park Service and the 
United States Forest Service, two major archaeological research 
programs are being planned for the summer of 1958. 

A joint research program sponsored by the University of Wyo- 
ming and the Wyoming Archives and Historical Department will 
place a large crew in the field in the Glendo region in June. The 
crew, consisting of both excavating and mapping units, will be 
under the supervision of Dr. William MuUoy of the University of 
Wyoming and Louis C. Steege of the Wyoming State Museum. 
This joint project is a continuation of research started in the area 
in 1957 by a field crew of the University of Wyoming. The 
tentative plans are for the complete excavation of one site, and 
detailed mapping of other sites in the area. 

The second major field operation is tentatively set for the month 
of August. The exact starting date has not been set as yet. This 
program will be sponsored by the Wyoming Archaeological Society 
of Sheridan, Wyoming. The crew, made up of members from the 
Society, will be under the direction of Dr. Raymond Bentzen. The 
project will be the complete mapping of the famous "Medicine 
Wheel", and the surrounding area on Medicine Mountain near 
Kane, Wyoming. 



L. C. Steege 

On October 20, 1957, Mr. W. W. Morrison, authority on Emi- 
grant Trail Burials, Mr. H. W. Ford, engineer from the Glendo 
Area Construction office of the Bureau of Reclamation, and Mr. 
L. C. Steege, archaeologist for the Wyoming State Historical 
Society, investigated all the known locations of pioneer burials in 
the Glendo Reservoir Area. Nine questionable sites were checked 
as non-burial locations. One was marked for later examination. 
Two known burials were located with some difficulty in Section 1 , 
Township SON, Range 69 W. 

The rocks which covered one grave had sunk into the ground 
and vegetation had grown over the entire area. By probing with 
bars, one burial was located. The second burial had not been 
covered with rocks and consequently a considerable amount of 


time was spent in trying to locate it. The only information 
available on these two burials was given by Mr. L. C. Bishop and 
is as follows: "The identity of these two men is unknown. Their 
bodies were found in a drift in a bend of the North Platte River 
by a Mr. Roedigger in 1890. The remains had been in the river 
for some time before they had been discovered. They were buried 
in two graves near the drift". 

These remains were relocated on a point above high water level 
about 500 feet southwest of the original burials on October 22 by 
L. C. Steege, H. C. Towns and H. W. Ford. The relocated 
burials were covered with talus from the slopes of the surrounding 
hills. A large boulder serves as a headstone. 

On the same date, the site marked for later examination was 
rechecked. This site was located near the bottom of the reservoir 
and consisted of a scattered pile of large boulders. This location 
was criss-crossed with three exploratory trenches about ten inches 
in depth in brule. One wall of each trench was profiled. By this 
method it was revealed that the earth beneath the rockpile had 
never been disturbed previously. The site was then abandoned 
as a possible burial. 

This project was carried out through the cooperation of the 
National Park Service and in compliance with Federal regulations 
concerning the relocation of burials within a reservoir area. 

Preliminary Report on 



Raymond C. Bentzen, D.D.S. 


The Wyoming Archaeological Society was organized in January 
1953, by a group of northern Wyoming people who felt the need 
of joining themselves together to increase their knowledge of 
archaeology, and to assist in further strengthening of the State's 
unenforced laws relative to archaeological exploration. When the 
writer accepted the presidency of the organization in January, 
1957, he suggested to the membership that the society conduct a 

* NOTE: The participating members of the Wyoming Archaeological 
Society should be commended for their accomplishments at the Little Bald 
Mountain Site. This was the first attempt of the Society at a systematic 
excavation of a prehistoric site of major proportions. With the completion 
of the final report, this archaeological research will be recorded as one of 
the major investigations in Wyoming during 1957. This report by Dr. 
Bentzen was read at the 15th Annual Plains Conference for Archaeology 
held at the University of Nebraska on November 21-23, 1957. — L. C. 


scientific exploration of one of the numerous ancient campsites 
in the Big Horn Mountains adjacent to Sheridan, the headquarters 
town of the group. The suggestion was accepted with great 
enthusiasm, and plans were then developed which culminated in 
the successful completion of the "dig" which is hereafter described. 

Noteworthy in significance is the fact that 27 out of 45 members 
(60%) participated actively in the actual excavation and among 
these were six grandmothers. 

I wish to give special thanks to an honorary member of our 
society. Dr. William Mulloy, for his kindness in the willing sharing 
of his knowledge during a week spent by the author in June at 
the Glendo Site to learn the accepted technic of mapping, excava- 
tion, and care of material; also for his assistance in the evaluation 
of the material unearthed in our excavation of the Little Bald 
Mountain Site. 

My thanks also to the following members of our society who 
participated in the dig: Irene and Thad Custis, Alice and Fred 
Hilman, Elaine and Zane Hilman, Margaret Powers, and Clara 
White, all of Big Horn; Mr. and Mrs. Kester and Eddie, Mr. and 
Mrs. Bill Sands and Billy, Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Zumbrunnen, all 
of Buffalo; Mr. and Mrs. Hans Kleiber, Clarice and Jim Russell, 
of Dayton; Charles and Otto Nelson of Jackson; George Butler of 
Newcastle; Chuck Bentzen, Mr. and Mrs. Herman Kusel and 
family. Chuck Mcintosh, Frances and Robert Nantkes, Glenn 
Sweem and Glenn, Jr., all of Sheridan. 

The following non-members also participated: Mrs. Temple of 
Dayton; Linney Calquist and Charlotte Wells of Hulet; Celeste 
Caldwell and George Chestnut of Winston, New Mexico; and 
Charles Ramstein of Basel, Switzerland. 

In 1945, while surface-hunting for artifacts in the high country 
of the Big Horn Mountains, I discovered what appeared to be 
an ancient village site and buffalo-killing area situated in a saddle 
on the main divide immediately south of Little Bald Mountain 
at an elevation of 9,000 feet. Two small drainage ditches for the 
then little-used Wyoming Highway #14 had exposed arrowheads 
and bison bones, and an itinerant sheepherder informed me that in 
past years his daughter had gathered many buffalo skulls from 
that immediate area, stacked them up by the road and sold them 
to the occasional tourists who ventured that way. 

The apparent area of occupation covered about ten acres, all 
of which except the road and ditches was heavily sodded. In 1955 
five acres in the middle of the area was destroyed by the building 
of a new highway across the site and brought in dozens of artifact- 
collectors who literally followed the earth-moving machinery to 
pick up the exposed artifacts. 

Our expedition on this site was scheduled to start on August 
3rd, and a week earlier a contract was let by the U.S. Forest Ser- 
vice for the construction of a new Hunt Mountain road which 


would cut right through the proposed site of our excavation. The 
forest supervisor very kindly informed the road-builders to keep 
off our site until we were finished. So, by split-timing, we have 
been able to contribute to the science of archaeology a site which 
would otherwise have been lost forever. 


Mr. William Rogers, of Centerville, Iowa, who was working on 
his master's degree in geology at the University of Iowa, visited 
our camp and very kindly gave us the geology of the site. The 
site is a delta 60 feet in depth, lying on top of the Flathead 
Sandstone, and composed mostly of flat-petal conglomerate lime- 
stone washed down from the Gros Ventre Limestone formation in 
the higher Bald Mountain to the north and the Hunt Mountain to 
the south. A canyon gradually eroded on the west side, carrying 
all the drainage and leaving the delta high and dry. Decomposi- 
tion and erosion of the limestone together with beginning plant 
life gradually began the up-building of the soil process until the 
present stage when a cover of dark, humus soil from 14 inches 
to 24 inches thick overlies the sterile subsoil and limestone base. 
An extremely abundant cover of forage grasses and wild flowers 
furnishes food of sufficient quality to grow lambs from two months 
of age to market size in 60 days. 


The site being situated on a saddle of the main divide, with 
high mountains both to the north and south, and with the North 
Fork of Tongue River draining to the east and Beaver Creek drain- 
ing to the west, it is apparent that the site was a main crossing 
point for game animals. This fact was capitalized on by ancient 
man in his never-ending quest for food, and he either waylaid the 
bison in its natural crossing from one side of the mountain to the 
other at this point, or else held drives up either canyon and slaugh- 
tered the animals as they filed through the pass. 

The altitude being 9,000 feet, this was a summer campsite only, 
the average winter snow depth being over five feet. However the 
summer climate is ideal for a hunting camp, with a nearly constant 
cool breeze from the west, and a temperature range of 40 to 60 
degrees F. Very few flies and mosquitos were present. 


A concrete datum post with brass insert was set at a high point 
on the north extremity of the arc to be excavated. An east- west 
exploratory trench 130 feet in length was dug 100 feet south of 
the datum post, and a north-south exploratory trench was dug at 
right angles to the east-west trench south from datum to a 
length of 100 feet. These trenches were excavated to sterile 
hard-pan or limestone, a depth of fourteen to twenty-eight inches. 



The north wall of the east-west and the east wall of the north- 
south trenches were troweled to a smooth flat surface to reveal 
the soil layers and any evidence of stratification. A profile map 
of each trench was made. Although no screening of the trench 
dirt was done, a number of artifacts were recovered as the trenches 
were being excavated with shovels. 

At point 0.15 west in the south wall of the east-west trench, 
there was evidence of a fire-pit, so a careful excavation was later 
made of this area with trowels and brushes which disclosed a 



well-formed formation of burnt sandstone rocks lying seven to ten 
inches below the surface in a rectangular formation measuring 22 
inches east- west and 28 inches north-south. From between the 
rocks, a two inch point fragment of a projectile point and an 
obsidian pendant one inch in length were recovered, along with a 
good amount of charcoal. After removing all the stones, about 
two inches of the dirt was removed, underneath which was another 
complete layer of fire-blackened stones of the same extent as the 
upper layer and 14 inches below ground level. All were of flat 


sandstone from 1 to 2 inches thick and 2 to 7 inches long. More 
charcoal but no artifacts were recovered. 

A grid system of 5 -foot squares was laid out parallel to the 
trenches. These were excavated in mostly a checkerboard pattern 
by shaving a thin layer of sod (1 inch) from the surface, then 
removing and screening through a V4 inch mesh hardware cloth 
screen all the dirt to a depth of 6 inches. All artifacts, chips and 
flakes were saved along with bones and put in labeled bags. Then 
the 6 to 1 2 inch layer was excavated and screened, etc. 

Of a total of 36-5 by 5 foot pits excavated, every one produced 
artifacts for an average of nearly 6 per pit. This would average 
one artifact for each AV2 square feet or over 9,000 per acre. The 
original 10 acre site probably contained 90,000 artifacts! A good 
indication of the intensity of use of this part-year hunting camp. 

Pit #15, at location 0.80S-0.30W, proved to be the most pro- 
ductive, with six artifacts in the top strata, including a rare corner- 
tang knife and the only iron arrow-point of the site; four artifacts 
in the middle strata, and three in the 12" to 16" depth. 

Pit #18, at location 0.80S-0.30W, contained fire pit or hearth 
#2 which yielded a good supply of charcoal, several bones and a 
plano-convex scraper beneath the hearth. This hearth measured 
30"x36" and lay 8" beneath the surface. 

The third and last hearth discovered lay in the southeast corner 
of pit 0.60S-0.10W. This was the deepest of the three and lay 
just on the top of the subsoil at a depth of 14" below the surface. 
It contained a good sample of charcoal but no artifacts. It was 
roughly circular in form with an outside diameter of 22" and 12" 

The first shovel of dirt from pit #30 yielded a perfect gem of a 
chalcedony drill. The most beautiful blade recovered was a 
lenticular-shaped one of light brown chert measuring iy8"x5", 
from the top strata of 0.90S-0.10E. 

An exploratory pit was dug and screened about 300 yards north 
of the datum post to ascertain whether the campsite extended that 
far. The top 6" produced two plano-convex scrapers, one arrow- 
point and a few flakes, but the 6" to 15" strata was sterile. 

Pit 0.10S-0.60W contained a lower jawbone of a bison with 
molar teeth in place and with V2 of a large jasper blade lying 
directly on the teeth at a depth of 6" below surface. This was 
carefully exposed and photographed in situ. Nearly all of the pits 
produced bones and teeth, mostly bison, but two smaller jawbones 
are apparently those of deer. All the leg bones were fractured 
so that marrow could be removed for food. 

Only one fragment of mano was found in the E-W trench, but 
the writer excavated a complete metate measuring 10"xl4"x 
VA" from a drainage ditch on the north side of this site where 
erosion had exposed it several years ago at a depth of 16". 

Scarcity of agricultural artifacts and the preponderance of 


arrow-points, scrapers and blades, together with the plentiful 
supply of animal bones, would indicate that this^site was primarily 
a meat-hunting camp. 

No evidence at all of habitation was found at the site and the 
nearest tipi rings known to the writer are a small group of about 
a dozen which lie about IV^ miles south southeast at an elevation 
of about 10,000 feet. This group is devoid of fire pits and may 
be religious worship sites rather than a habitation locus. 

The famous prehistoric Medicine Wheel which lies on a bare 
ridge one mile northwest of Medicine Mountain and nine miles 
west northwest of the Little Bald Mountain Site at an elevation of 
9600 feet, may have been used or even made by the same people 
who slaughtered bison and other animals and left their artifacts 
at Little Bald. 

Several sites containing great numbers of tipi rings lie along the 
main divide from northwest to southeast, and it is hoped that 
studies may be made in the future in an effort to determine the 
significance of these structures — whether they were actually the 
weights to anchor the periphery of hide tipis, or whether, as Dr. 
Mulloy has postulated, they were merely symbols representing 
homes or churches and used as places of worship by ancient man. 
The routine absence of hearths and artifacts from tipi-ring sites, 
plus their common location on high, dry, wind-swept ridges, far 
from wood and water, would bear credence to the latter theory. 

Of the total of 38 arrow-points recovered from the upper level 
of the 36 pits, 4 were of the side notched square based type identi- 
fied with the period 1 500 years ago to present time, while the lone 
iron point would of course be no older than perhaps 100 years, 
along with a single crude glass bead found in the upper level. The 
remaining 33 points were either of the corner notched or wide, 
square based triangular type attributed to the late Middle Period, 
2500 to 1500 years ago. 

From the lower level, 6" to 12" below the surface, 14 arrow- 
points were recovered, of which only one was of the side notched 
variety, the remainder being corner notched or triangular un- 
notched. Two were unilaterally notched. It would appear from 
this typology that the heaviest usage of this site took place in the 
era 500 B. C. to 500 A.D. Only the base of one Yuma point 
was recovered in the upper level, and that was doubtless brought 
in as a surface find from some other location. 

The variety of artifacts recovered from this site was quite 
extensive. Besides the arrow-points, a large number of scrapers 
of all types were found, along with various types of blades, awls, 
drills, spoke-shavers, a hafted chisel, a shaft smoother, sinew 
dresser, a bone awl, several pieces of hematite, or red paintstone, 
and a single potsherd of baked clay. No spearheads were found, 
but the writer was fortunate several years before in finding a 
perfect corner notched red jasper spearhead, 4^/4 " x 1 %", partly 



exposed by erosion in the wall of a drainage ditch on this same 
site, so spears or lances must have been used to some extent by 
these people. 

A plentiful supply of bones and teeth were recovered, most of 
which were in an excellent state of preservation. Pending further 
study, the majority of these bones and teeth appear to be those 
of bison. No human bones or teeth were recovered. 

It is anticipated that a carbon 14 dating will be obtained from 
the good samples of charcoal which were recovered from the 
fire pits, and then, perhaps, the age of this culture can be integrated 
with those of other sites in the plains and intermountain areas. 

Ceremonial and Protleuiatical Artifacts 




Eigle fff,^^ Turtle Uf^ 



Discoidal Dish 




L. C. Steege 


Artifacts in this category include Pendants, Gorgets, Amulets, 
Effigies, Pipes, Discoidals and Perforated Disks. 

Pendants (Figure A) appear occasionally in Wyoming in limited 
numbers. A majority of these are of the notched type and are 
triangular in shape with some variant specimens being more rec- 
tangular in shape. Some perforated specimens have also been 
found. Most of the pendants which have been seen by the author 
in various collections are made of some unusual stone such as 
clear quartz or obsidian. A notched pendant of obsidian was 
found during excavations at the Little Bald Mountain Site. A 
preliminary report on this research is pubUshed elsewhere in this 
Annals. These pendants were undoubtedly "good medicine" and 
were the decorative ornaments of only a few people. 

Gorgets, Amulets, Discoidals and Perforated Disks are seldom, 
if ever, found in Wyoming. They are generally associated with 
Mississippian cultures of the Southeastern portions of the United 
States. They also appear in the Great Lakes Region of the United 
States and Canada. 

There does not seem to be a limitation as to the size and shape 
of a gorget (Figure B). The general overall description is a 
flat surfaced stone containing one or more holes. They are usually 
made of a softer stone such as slate, although gorgets of hematite 
are not uncommon. The majority of gorgets are rectangular to 
oval in shape and rarely exceed one quarter inch in thickness. 

Amulets (Figure C) are generally cigar-shaped and are longer 
and thicker than a gorget. They are not as common as a gorget. 
Amulets are made of slate, greenstone, quartz and hematite. They 
may have grooves cut around the body or drilled holes through 
the ends. Some specimens have both grooves and holes. 

The use of these two artifacts is decidedly problematical. Some 
authorities have concluded that these are atlatl weights, but in my 
opinion they would not be practical for such use. Perhaps the 
gorgets were the predecessors of the modern string or bolo tie. 
Cords could be lengthened or shortened by sliding the gorget along 
them. This theory can be supported by the fact that some gorgets 
show cord wear in the edges of the holes. Amulets could have 
been used as a handle on the end of a rope or cord. They could 
also be used as a weight on a fish net. 

Effigies (Figures D,E) are another rare item in the Plains region. 
The greatest concentration of these artifacts appears to be in the 
Mississippi Valley and Northeastern Oklahoma, even then they 


are found only on rare occasions. Many items of this nature are 
displayed in collections but the authenticity of these artifacts, in 
most cases, is rather doubtful. 

The eagle and the turtle are the most popular in design. Some 
snake, lizard and flying bird designs and profiles of human faces 
also appear. It is quite possible that a few highly skilled flint 
chippers of prehistoric origin did fashion a few effigies for cere- 
monial purposes but these number very few in comparison to the 
number of practcial artifacts which were made for a definite 
purpose or use. 

Other chipped artifacts of unusual shapes are called "eccen- 
trics". Thsse can be a multitude of sizes and shapes. The general 
shape is triangular and often resembles a projectile point with a 
weird array of notches and barbs. A high percentage of these 
eccentrics are of modern manufacture. The largest outlet for 
these fake pieces is a dealer in Arkansas. If you must purchase 
an eccentric, make certain that it comes from a reliable source. 
There is no practical use for these artifacts other than ceremonial 
or ornamental. 

A pipe (Figure F) is truly an American originality and seems 
to have been used throughout the entire United States. Until the 
discovery of America, smoking was unknown to our European 
ancestors. Even the prehistoric man of Europe knew no pipe. 
The exact age when smoking began in America has never been 

The pipe was an article of great importance to our stone age 
man and was made with intricate care. The stone material used 
was catlinite, sandstone, steatite, slate and shale. There seems 
to be no limitation as to size. Some held about a thimble full of 
tobacco while some large ceremonial pipes held nearly a pound of 
tobacco. Shapes were not restricted either. Some were T-shaped, 
L-shaped, platform and tubular. Some were plain and some were 
carved into animals, birds and even human figures in minute detail. 
Some pipes of the historic times were inlaid with silver. 

There is no doubt as to the classification and use of the pipe. 
It was strictly ceremonial. 

Discoidals (Figure G) are found in that portion of the United 
States lying east of the Rocky Mountains. They vary in sizes 
from an inch to five inches in thickness and up to ten inches in 
diameter. They are circular in outline and usually bi-concave, 
or cupped on each side. There are some which are uniconcave or 
single cupped, and some which have plane parallel sides. The 
latter are known as the biscuit types. 

A study of the bi-concave variety of discoidal reveals the skill 
used in making the specimen. The uniformity of diameter, sym- 
metry and thickness of the two cups leads one to believe that it 
could have been turned on a lathe. A few rough specimens have 
been found which I would term as unfinished. The majority are 


highly poHshed. They are usually made of a hard stone, such as 
quartz, greenstone or hematite. , 

The use for a discoidal has never been successfully explained. 
The most logic use could have been for a gaming piece. This, of 
course, is merely an assumption and until a definite use is dis- 
covered, the discoidal will have to remain a problematical form. 

Perforated Disks (Figure H) are sometimes classified as pend- 
ants although it is doubtful if some were ever worn due to their 
weight and size. These disks or "doughnut stones" are found 
in the Southeastern United States and on the Pacific Coast. They 
are made of hard stone, carefully drilled and ground and in some 
cases are highly polished. The more symmetrical varieties could 
have been used as spindle whorls on shafts of rotating drills. This 
added inertia would make the bow-drills more effective. In my 
opinion these perforated disks are a further development of the 

Wyoming State Historical Society 



T. A. Lakson 

When I was elcclecl President ol' tlie Wyoming State Historical 
Society in Cody last September I vowed that during my presidency 
I would visit all twelve of our county chapters at my own expense. 
So Car I have visited eight chapters: Johnson, Washakie, Park, 
Goshen, Laramie, Sweetwater, IJinta, and Albany in that order. 
I have visited also a Sheridan county group which has not yet 
formed a chapter, but is considering it. That leaves Carbon, 
Campbell, hremont, and Natrona chapters yet to be visited before 

In our chapters, as in the state of Wyoming, one detects both 
diversity and uniformity. Our Wyoming communities have been 
far enough apart so that they have been able to retain considerable 
individuality even though the trend in American culture is toward 
more and more uniformity. But this is a subject far too big for 
elaboration here. On the side of uniformity, everywhere 1 have 
found friendly, congenial, and enthusiastic members. 

I want to take a few paragraphs to discuss four items of State 
vSociety business. 

Although no one has said so in so many words, I sense that some 
people think that our organization is only for old-timers — that it 
is at least primarily for pioneers. Cven some members of the 
Society apparently hold this opinion. 

Certainly old-timers are very desirable members, and they can 
do a lot to make the Society and its chapters worth while. They 
often know a lot about early Wyoming history. They can con- 
tribute first-hand information when Wyoming history is discussed. 
In short, old-timers are pillars of strength around which younger 
members may rally. 

Yoimg people, however, are also welcome in the Society. De- 
scendants of Wyoming pioneers have a special reason for partici- 
pating in the Society's activities. But other young people who 
have just come to Wyoming are also welcome, if they have the one 
essential t|iialificalion — interest in Wyoming state and local 

Unless members keep in mind that the Wyoming State Historical 
Society is not primarily a pioneer association we are destined to 
find our membership declining and our efforts to establish histor- 
ical truth becoming more difficult in years to come. My visits to 
county chapters show fortunately that young people are participat- 
iqg, though in some chapters there are not enough of them. 


Another matter of State Society business is this: Wc need more 
county and community histories. 

We already have a lew good local histories. Mrs. Stone's work 
on Uinta County, Mokler's History ol' Natrona County, l.ola 
Homsher's History of Albany County to I8K(), and Lindsay's 
History of the Big Horn Basin come to mind. Sydney Spiegel is 
working on a history of Laramie County. 

Preferably it takes someone attached to a county, rather than 
an outsider, to write a satisfactory county history. Fhe outsider 
may be more objective but he is apt to lack the interest and the 
time. I urge each county chapter to consider whether it might be 
possible to interest a local school teacher in writing a county his- 
tory. A teacher of social studies or history, for example, can write 
a county history as an M.A. thesis at the University of Wyoming, 
getting supervision, academic credit, and even financial assistance 
from the Wyoming State Historical ^Society and/or the University. 
Such a teacher need not be a member of the county chapter, but no 
doubt he or she would soon become a member. Of course, active 
members of our county chapters may be better qualified to write 
such a history, but in the case of the school teacher the incentives 
mentioned above can be brought to bear, and the school teacher 
moreover may be able to find the time, especially during summer 
school sessions when working toward an advanced degree. 

Another matter calling for comment is the slow progress of Ihe 
Historic Sites Survey. Mr. E. A. "Tony" i-ittleton of CJillette is 
chairman of this committee. He has been doing a good job, but 
he is finding it hard to get cooperation from some of our chapters. 
He would very much like to have each county chapter send him 
its list of important sites in the county. Thus wc can assemble 
a state master list of important historic sites as recognized locally 
in each chapter. 

Finally, let us begin planning to attend the State wSociety's next 
convention in Cheyenne in early September. For some of our 
members it is quite a ways to Cheyenne, but when it is remembered 
that our first four conventions have met in Casper, Lander, Gil- 
lette, and Cody, a southern Wyoming meeting this year seems to 
recommend itself. 

All members are welcome and no county chapter should fail 
to be represented by at least an official delegate. 

After the admirable work done by the host groups at our first 
four conventions it may appear remarkable that a chapter has the 
nerve to come forward with an invitation. Llowcver, the [>aramie 
County chapter has invited us, and its members are already laying 
plans. They need not feel that they are compelled to try to make 
the convention bigger and better than those in the past. All they 
need to do is to supply us with some opportunities for entertain- 
ment and enlightenment in doses of reasonable size. The Laramie 
County chapter can't miss. The State Museum by itself is worth 


a trip to Cheyenne if you haven't been through it. And Cheyenne 
and its environs offer other attractions. 

In conclusion, I urge officers of county chapters to keep in mind 
four things: 

( 1 ) Let's add a few younger members. 

(2) Let's see if we can find persons to write county histories. 

(3) Let's help Tony Littleton with his Historic Sites Survey. 

(4) Let's begin making plans to attend the 1958 convention. 

Wyoming State Historical Society 
Fourth Annual Meeting September 28, 1957 


The Fourth Annual meeting of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society met in the American Legion Hall in Cody on September 
28, 1957 at 8:30 a.m. 

The minutes of the Third Annual meeting, which had been 
published in the Annals of Wyoming and which had been sent to 
all delegates in mimeographed form, were approved. Minutes of 
the Executive Committee meeting held in Cheyenne in January 
were read and approved. 

Miss Homsher moved that a charter be given to Uinta County 
as they have met all the necessary requirements for a chapter. 
Seconded. Carried. 


September 15, 1956-September 28, 1957 

Cash and Investments on hand Sept. 15, 1957 $4,915.28 

Receipts and Interest: 

Dues $2,734.00 

Charter fees 10.00 

Colter booklet 67.72 

Interest on savings 139.81 2,951.53 

Disbursements, 9/15/56 — 9/28/57 

Annals of Wyoming $1,361.00 

Office Supplies 346.20 

Postage and phone 76.60 

Meetings, expense for 117.96 

Colter booklet publication 380.45 

Esther Morris statue fund 100.00 

Archaeological Bill 26.03 .$2,408.24 

Balance on Hand September 28, 1957 $5,458.57 



September 28, 1957 

Cheyenne Federal Building and Loan $4,955.14 

Stock Growers National Bank checking account _ 503.43 


Present membership of the Society as of September 28, 1957 is as 
follows : 

Life members 24 

Joint life members 10 

Annual members 470 

Joint annual members 326 

Total 830 

Counties Chapters organized 12: Albany, Carbon, Campbell, 

Fremont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona, Park, Sweet- 
water, Uinta and Washakie. 

Attendance at Fourth Annual Meeting 112 

The President asked Mr. William Martin and Mr. Dudley Hay- 
den to audit the books and report at the afternoon meeting. 

He then asked for reports from the following standing com- 
mittees - 

absent, Mr. E. A. Littleton read the report of the committee. 
It stated that the Archaeological Bill died in the House Com- 
mittee of the 1957 Legislature. A report is being prepared 
on the diggings made in the Glendo region in the summer of 
1957 before waters were turned into the reservoir. It was 
moved and seconded the report be accepted and filed. Carried. 

2. SURVEY OF HISTORIC SITES. The chairman, Mr. Little- 
ton, reported that the project had turned out to be much 
larger than anticipated. He asked that each county make a list 
of historic sites and send it to him. This should be completed 
by the 1958 Annual Meeting. Mr. Littleton explained that 
lists of Post Offices by county, another project being worked 
on, is not to be confused with the historic sites survey. He 
accepts both lists and they are being held in separate cate- 

The question of changing geographic names of long standing 
also was discussed. It was moved and seconded the report be 
accepted. Carried. 

3. LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE. Miss Homsher reported for 
Mr. Mockler that the Archaeological Bill was lost. Necessary 
changes had been made in the bill but too many people did not 
realize this had been done and so worked against it. 


4. SCHOLARSHIP COMMITTEE. Dr. T. A. Larson reported 
that only Sydney Speigel is working on a County history (Lar- 
amie County). He also reported that Mr. Fuller has left 
$1500 in his will for anyone who will write a history of Crook 
County under the supervision of Dr. Larson. 

5. AWARDS COMMITTEE. Mr. A. H. MacDougall stated 
that he would announce the awards at the Banquet in the 

6. Miss Homsher stated that two sets of slides of historical inter- 
est, accompanied by narratives, have been received and that 
copies should be made so that sets can be loaned to schools 
and organizations. These sets are Din woody Petroglyphs 
series by L. C. Steege and the Oregon Trail across Wyoming 
by Mrs. Perry Weston. One set of each would be retained at 
the Historical Department to be used as copy negatives and 
four would be on loan. Miss Homsher stated that the approx- 
imate cost would be $75.00. It was moved and seconded that 
five sets of each of the two historic series be made, one for 
reserve and 4 for lending. Carried. 

Mrs. Lucille Wiley called attention to the John Colter cachets 
which could be purchased at a cost of 250 each. She stated that 
collectors from 46 states had sent in orders. 

Since no one on the NOMINATING COMMITTEE was pres- 
ent, the President appointed Mr. Merrill Mattes and Mr. Peter 
Fritzjofson to count the ballots and make a report at the Banquet. 

Reports of progress by the County Chapters were given verbally. 
The following reports preceded by an asterisk were written and 
are now on file. 

Albany County Chapter Dr. T. A. Larson 

Campbell County Chapter Mr. E. A. Littleton 

*Carbon County Chapter Mrs. L. Pierson 

Fremont County Chapter Mr. William Marion 

Goshen County Chapter (no one present) 

*Johnson County Chapter Mrs. Thelma Condit 

* Laramie County Chapter Mrs. J. H. Carlisle 
*Natrona County Chapter Mrs. Charles Hord 

Park County Chapter Mrs. Maud Murray 

*Washakie County Chapter Mrs. W. F. Bragg, Sr. 

Sweetwater County Chapter (no one present) 

* Uinta County Chapter Mrs. Dwight Wallace 

Under new business Miss Homsher explained the plan for the 
Westinghouse Historical Awards. Information has been sent to 
all County Chapters but rules will be sent again if desired. The 
President announced that a state committee would soon be ap- 


pointed to handle the matter. Material for the contest must be 
sent to Westinghouse by February 1958. 

The treasurer asked that the members try to sell more of the 
pamphlets "Behind the Story of Colter's Hell" as the State Society 
is still $200 in the red from the venture. Each chapter can make 
100% profit by selling these pamphlets as they cost the chapters 
25 cents each and are to be sold for 50 cents. 

President Dominick announced that he has signed a lease agree- 
ment with the County Commissioners of Carbon County whereby 
the land, on which is located the recently dedicated Rawlins 
Plaques, is held by the Wyoming State Historical Society for a 
99 year period. The Society through the Carbon County Chapter 
agrees to keep up this site. 

Mr. I. H. Larom graciously invited the state members to his 
Valley Ranch for luncheon on Sunday. 

The President appointed Mrs. Hazel Ward, Miss Homsher and 
Mr. Homer Mann on the Resolutions Committee. 

The meeting adjourned at 10:00 a.m., following which the 
members were taken on an interesting tour of historical sites in 
the vicinity of Cody. 

Maurine Carley 


SEPTEMBER 28, 1957 

At the dinner meeting given by the Park County Chapter of the 
Wyoming State Historical Society, Mr. I. H. Larom was toast- 

Dr. Dominick thanked the many people who had made the 
three day celebration successful. 

He introduced Mr. A. H. MacDougall, Second Vice President, 
who presented the following awards, one for each category as 
set-up by the Society. 

Historical Awards 

1. Newspaper: Laramie Boomerang for contributing most to the 
history of the community or the state through publication of 
articles of historical nature. 

2. Group restoring historical sites: Carbon County Chapter (Lu- 
cine Rettstatt) for locating and marking Rawlins Spring. 

3. Radio: KSPR in Casper for its emphasis on Wyoming History. 

4. Historical Pageant: Mr. and Mrs. James McNair of Casper for 
the writing and directing of the pageant "Fight at Platte Bridge 
Station" presented by the Fort Caspar Benefit Association, Inc. 


5. Non-fiction book: Lola M. Homsher and Mary Lou Pence for 
Ghost Towns of Wyoming. 

6. Special: Mrs. Evelyn Bartholomew, Washakie Chapter, for 
finding the mounted head of the famous old horse "Muggins" 
and arranging for its return to Wyoming. 

Mr. Homer Mann read the following Resolutions - 

WHEREAS: the Park County Historical Society has been the 
host for the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Wyoming State 
Historical Society, and 

WHEREAS: the membership of the Park County Historical 
Society, the merchants, and the City of Cody have extended 
every courtesy to make this an outstanding meeting, therefore: 
Be It Resolved that we extend our sincere appreciation for the 
excellent program and for the hospitality extended, and that we 
especially thank the following people for the part they played 
in making this meeting a success: 

Mayor Hugh Smith 

Mrs. Mary J. Allen, Miss Cody Allen and the Trustees of the 

Buffalo Bill Museum 
Mr. Malcolm Lewis, President of the Park County Historical 

Mrs. Adolph Spohr, Registration 

Mrs. DeWitt Dominick, Mrs. Babs Smith, Mrs. Henrietta Sturm 
Mrs. Lucille Patrick, Mrs. Katie Brown, Mrs. Sarah Fritzjofson 
Mr. Ned Frost and Mr. Earl Newton 
Mrs. Harley Kinkade and the Boot and Bottle Club 
Mrs. Lucille Wiley, Harrison Brewer, Dr. M. J. Smith 
Mrs. Price McGee, Mrs. Frank O'Dasz and Mrs. Harrison 

Mr. Hal Bowen 
National Muzzle Loading Association and Merchants of Cody. 

Respectfully submitted. 
Committee on Resolutions 
Homer Mann 
Hazel Ward 
Lola M. Homsher 

Election of Officers 

The secretary announced the result of the election of officers 
for 1958. 

President Dr. T. A. Larson (Albany County) 

1st Vice President Mr. A. H. MacDougall (Carbon County) 

2nd Vice President Mrs. Clark Condit (Johnson County) 

Sec'y-Treas. Miss Maurine Carley (Laramie County) 



The stage was outstanding with its huge map "of Colter's route 
flanked by two large Indian motifs done in red, blue and white 

Table decorations featured fall leaves, and all kinds of ducks — 
real and decoys. At the head table a large centerpiece depicted a 
scene of the Teton Mountains, even to the snow on high peaks. 
Each guest at the head table had as a favor a miniature trapper's 
cap made of real fur. 

The Shoshone Indians added greatly to the atmosphere of the 
Pageant in the afternoon as well as at the banquet with their 
beautiful costumes. 

The program consisted of an interesting talk by Mr. Merrill 
Mattes, Regional Historian for the National Park Service, on "The 
Rediscovery of Colter's Hell," in which he placed Colter's Hell 
at the site of the De Maris Springs near Cody. 

A novel form of entertainment lasted until midnight. It was a 
debate on the authenticity of the "Colter Stone" which was on 
display on the stage. Burton Harris of Colorado took the affirma- 
tive and W. K. Cademan of Kansas the negative. The moderators 
were Dr. T. A. Larson and Mr. Frank Oberhansley. At the close 
of the evening no decision had been reached. Did Colter carve his 
, name on this peculiar stone in 1 807? 

Maurine Carley 
Secre tary-Treasurer 

Highlights of the Convention 

On Friday, September 27, an historical tour to John Colter's 
campsite of 1807 on Clark's Fork and to the site of the General 
Miles battle with the Bannack Indians was led by Earl Newton. 
The people of Cody provided transportation by jeep for all 

A tea at the Buffalo Bill Museum, sponsored by the Trustees of 
the Museum and Mrs. Mary Jester Allen and Helen Cody Allen, 
was given for all registrants at the Convention following the 
historical tour on Friday. 

The Society expresses appreciation to the Trustees and Mrs. 
and Miss Allen for postponing the closing date of the Museum 
until after the Annual Meeting of the Society. 

On Saturday, following the Annual Business Meeting, a tour 
of historical sites north and west of Cody was conducted by Earl 
Newton and the late Ned Frost, both early pioneers of the Big 
Horn Basin. 

A barbecue was held by the Boot and Bottle Club of Cody at 
the City Park on Saturday noon. Following the picnic members 
of the Society, who had dressed in costumes as requested by the 
Park County Chapter, participated in a parade through the main 



business street of Cody under the direction of Mrs. Katie Brown, 
Parade Chairman. The parade ended at the pageant site west of 

The Park County Chapter of the State Historical Society pre- 
sented the pageant "John Colter" before a large crowd at 
2:30 P.M. Saturday. The site of the pageant was approximately 
IVi miles west of Cody on the north side of the highway in an 
open area which served as an excellent outdoor stage. The 
pageant followed the action of the early explorers, trappers and 
Indians as the actors depicted the history of the Lewis and Clark 
Expedition, the exploits of John Colter after leaving that expedi- 
tion and becoming a trapper under Manuel Lisa, and his trek 
into present-day Wyoming. Dr. DeWitt Dominick read the script 
as the action unfolded. Mrs. Lucille Patrick of Cody was in 
charge of the Pageant. 

Mr. and Mrs. L H. Larom were hosts to members of the Society 
on Sunday at a buffet luncheon at their beautiful ranch at Valley, 
Wyoming, forty-five miles southwest of Cody. 

On the tour to Valley, a plaque bearing a brief legend on John 
Colter was dedicated on the Southfork Road near Castle Rock. 
The plaque was made and set in place by the Park County His- 
torical Society. 

Historical Marker dedicated 
Sept. 29, 1957 


Committees — 1957-1958 

Dr. T. A. Larson appointed the following committees to serve 
for the coming year: 

AWARDS COMMITTEE: Mrs. Thelma Condit, Chairman 

Two members to be appointed by 
Mrs. Condit 

SCHOLARSHIP COMMITTEE: Dr. T. A. Larson, Chairman 


Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins 
Mr. Earl T. Bower 
Mr. David Boodry 
Mr. Ralph Kintz 



Additional members to be 
appointed later 


Charles Ritter 

Convention Committee 

Malcolm Lewis and Dr. DeWitt Dominick, Co-Chairmen 

Mrs. Adolph Spohr, Registration 

Mrs. DeWitt Dominick and Mrs. Babs Smith, Banquet 

Mrs. Henrietta Sturm, Costumes 

Mrs. Lucille Patrick, Pageant 

Mrs. Katie Brown, Parade 

Mr. Ned Frost and Mr. Earl Newton, Historical Tours 

Mrs. Harley Kinkade and Boot and Bottle Club, Barbecue 

Mrs. Lucille Wiley and Harrison Brewer, Co-Publicity Chairmen 

Dr. M. J. Smith, Chairman of Finance 

Mrs. Price McGee, Decorations 

Mr. Frank O'Dasz, Decorations for Scouts 

Mrs. Harrison Brewer, Chairman of Makeup. 

Mook Keviews 

The Best of the American Cowboy. Compiled and edited by 
Ramon F. Adams (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 
1957. xiv 289 pp. $4.95). 

Those who teach courses in the history of the American Frontier 
frequently have remarked that in other branches of the historical 
field supplementary readings, excerpts taken from the sources, are 
available for student use, but for western history there is little of 
this to be had aside from reprints of entire books. Ramon Adams, 
the well-known Southwest bibliophile and author, now takes a step 
toward the fulfilment of that deficiency by offering a kind of 
source book for one aspect of western history — the cattle industry. 
When he dedicates the work to "All those native historians of the 
past generation who, by leaving us their personal experiences in 
America's most picturesque industry, prepared the way for our 
present and future historians," he explains the purpose of his book. 

Few aspects of western history have been more exaggerated 
and overly romanticized than the cowboy and his work. In an 
attempt to get at the truth Adams figuratively puts some of the 
witnesses on the stand to hear their version. The reader will 
"hear from" old time cattlemen, ranging all the way from well- 
known Andy Adams and Joseph McCoy down to the hard-to-find 
accounts of Edgar Rye, Peter Wright and Bob Grantham Quick- 
fall. A thorough search of sources produces a surprising number 
of these old-time accounts. Adams has selected twenty seven of 
the most representative, dividing his work into three sections: The 
Cowboy, The Range, and The Trail. Understandably, some of 
these are high in literary excellence while others are poorly written 
reminiscences, but all of them contain historical pay dirt. 

The editor has used a number of English writings, and well he 
should, for they are some of the best we have today. Englishmen 
were much interested in the financial possibilities on the western 
range and a good many of them came to cash in on the "beef 
bonanza." As a rule they were highly literate individuals, with 
keen perception, whose accounts are both valuable and enter- 
taining reading. With no intention of criticizing, the reviewer 
suggests that William A. Baillie-Grohman's Camps in the Rockies 
(London 1882), his "Cattle Ranches in the Far West," Fort- 
nightly Review (June 1888), and John Baumann's "On a Western 
Ranche," Fortnightly Review (April 1887) would have made ex- 
cellent inclusions. 

For the student who wants to sample the real stuff, and for the 
general reader who would like to cut away the underbrush of myth 


for a look at raw range history, The Best of the American Cowboy 
fills the bill. It is beautifully set off with sketches by the incom- 
parable Nick Eggenhofer. 

University of Colorado Robert G. Athearn 

This Is the West. Edited by Robert West Howard. (New York, 
Chicago and San Francisco: Rand McNally and Co., 1957. 
248 pp. Illus. $6.00.) (New York: New American Li- 
brary, 1957. 240 pp. without illus., paperback, 350.) 

The full panorama of the West — from a fleeting dip into the 
prehistoric up to "the now" — enfolds before one's eyes in this 
fascinating collection of essays. 

Robert West Howard has done a splendid job of editing and 
arranging the chapters under six main subject headings. Walter 
Prescott Webb, the eminent scholar of Western Americana, wrote 
the brilliant and penetrating introduction, "What Is the West?" 
Other chapters carry by-lines of well-known historians, journalists, 
and college professors, such as Stanley Vestal, S. Omar Barker, 
Mitzi Zipf, and Don Russell. 

Howard himself, in the first division "The Land," briefly gives 
the geology of the area, explaining how the physical environment 
— the rolling plains, the majestic mountains with their fertile 
valleys, and the desert — always the desert — have determined the 
flora and fauna of this vast geographical division — The West. 

Western prototypes — mountain men, scouts, soldiers, cowboys 
and herdsmen, lawmakers, preachers, teachers, saddle-bag docs, 
and prospectors — each have been portrayed with an incisive chisel. 
The women are not forgotten — we find ladies and "The Ladies" — 
those respectable and those less so. 

The last section, "The West You Can Enjoy," brings us up-to- 
date in three fields. "Places to See" was compiled by five of the 
largest Corrals of the Westerners. It was not prepared as a com- 
prehensive guide, but rather as a "taste-panel," stressing historical 
sites primarily. "West on the Range" gives in detail twelve of 
the most famous — and most typical — western recipes. The list 
of 1 25 of the "all-time books of the West" also was chosen by the 
Westerners, with the "top ten" receiving most frequent mention. 

Much of the book's charm comes from the illustrations. There 
are many of them ranging from small chapter headings to double- 
page spreads by Charles Russell and Frederic Remington. David 
Vernon deserves special commendation for his magnificent job 
as illustration adviser. 

All interested in Western lore are indebted to the Chicago 
Corral for this splendid addition to Western Americana — it was 
their idea and their project. You may disagree with some state- 


ments in the book; but taken as a whole, its authenticity is above 

"This Is the West" is not a history — it is the spirit of the West. 
The acrid smell of gun smoke mingles with that of sage brush and 
juniper. The bawling of the moving herds is heard above the 
tinkling piano of the honky tonks. The Indians, the soldiers, the 
lawmen all march across the scene along with the gunmen and 
the badmen. The "Toters" run the gamut from the Pony Express 
to the driving of the Golden Spike in the first transcontinental 

Yes, this is the spirit of that gusty, lusty, dusty land west of the 
100th meridian— "The West." 

Cheyenne, Wyoming Mary Read Rogers 

From Wilderness to Statehood, a History of Montana, 1805-1900. 
By James McClellan Hamilton. (Portland, Ore., Binfords & 
Mort, 1957. 620 pp. $6.) 

At the present writing, "From Wilderness to Statehood" is the 
only general history of Montana in print, and so replaces its 
several predecessors in the current book market. There is great 
need for another volume to interpret the profound economic, 
social and political changes in the State since 1900 to the present, 
the dawn of another rapidly changing era. 

Dean J. M. Hamilton, born in Illinois in 1861, came to Montana 
in 1889 as Superintendent of Schools in Missoula and later as a 
member of the University faculty there. In 1904 he moved to 
Bozeman where he served on both the administrative and teaching 
staffs of Montana State College. Here he died in 1940. Collect- 
ing data on Montana's history had long been a prime interest of 
this beloved and honored citizen, so it was with much satisfaction 
that Montanans welcomed his book in 1957. The devoted and 
perceptive editing of Dr. Merrill G. Burlingame, Head of the 
History Department at Montana State College, not only put the 
book through the press, but added the benefit of studies made 
since 1940. 

The book's arrangement is chronological in subject treatments, 
beginning with an excellent epitome of the Lewis and Clark expedi- 
tion and ending with a clarifying chapter, "Making Montana a 
State", a period of utmost political and legal confusion. In be- 
tween are chapters on the fur trade, early explorations of the 
Rocky Mountains between the Missouri Valley and the Columbia 
Basin, emigrations of settlers, the sorry tales of the government's 
acquisition of Indian lands and of the Indian Wars of the 1 870s, 
the harsh violence of the mining era, the rise of agriculture and 
business, educational, social and religious institutions. 


There is so much of drama and high tragedy in Montana's 
history that some episodes have been overstressed in its hterature: 
the Vigilantes, the steamboats coming to Fort Benton, the Battle 
of the Little Big Horn, the Clark-Daly feud, the cattlemen's era. 
Dean Hamilton has fitted these gaudier pieces into the overall 
pattern of the mosaic so that they do not outshine that pattern 
of solid growth and progress achieved by a remarkable group of 
men, an achievement too often in spite of, rather than with the 
help of the federal government. Curiously, however, his under- 
statement carries its own impact and points up the drama and the 
enormities more than a moral homily might have done. Perhaps 
this is a reflection of the writer's own warmth and deep personal 
integrity. His "heroes" emerge from the pages and they are good 
to know: Lewis and Clark, Isaac L Stevens, Lt. John MuUan, 
Granville Stuart, Wilbur Sanders, James WilUams, T. F. Meagher, 
B. F. Potts, Gen. Nelson A. Miles, Chief Joseph. . . 

This volume will remain an indispensable reference tool for 
historical research in this area of the West. The bibliographical 
references at the end of each chapter lead the student to further 
material. Print, bookmaking and index are excellent — but more 
maps than the one on the endpapers would be useful to the reader. 

Bozeman, Montana Mrs. Lois B. Payson 

Yesterdays' Wyoming: the Intimate Memoirs of Fenimore C. Chat- 
terton. (Aurora, Colorado, Powder River Publishers, 1957. 
Illus. 133 pp. $4.50) 

This short autobiographical work covers a long period of Wyo- 
ming history. Born and brought up in the East, Fenimore C. 
Chatterton came to Wyoming in 1878, at the age of 18, to take 
a job as a bookkeeper in a general store at Fort Steele. Before 
long he became a partner in the store. But he tired of merchan- 
dising and turned to law. In later years, besides practicing law 
at Rawlins, Riverton and Cheyenne, he got into banking and the 
promotion of railroads and reclamation projects. He also entered 
politics. He served two terms, 1899-1907, as Wyoming secretary 
of state, and during two of these years, 1903-1905, he was acting 
governor. He is still living at the age of 97 in Aurora, Colorado. 

Chatterton is a conservative Republican who is scornful of 
"bureaucrats", the Interior Department, the New Deal, and 
"Spendthrift" Harry Truman. 

In politics Chatterton made a fateful decision in 1893 that has 
haunted him all his life. In the legislature which was trying to 
choose a U.S. Senator, Chatterton led a small group of Republicans 
who preferred even a Democrat to Francis E. Warren. Chatter- 
ton's work may well have been what brought a stalemate. In 


consequence, Wyoming had only one Senator in Washington the 
next two years, but thereafter Warren got the upper hand and 
maintained it. He served as U.S. Senator for the next 35 years, 
having served two years previously. Naturally Warren had much 
influence in both Wyoming and Washington. After two years as 
acting governor, Chatterton wanted to be his party's candidate for 
governor in 1904. The Warren machine rolled over him. The 
Republican convention picked B. B. Brooks as the party standard- 

Again, when trying to get concessions in Washington for one of 
his reclamation schemes, Chatterton was rebuffed. He explains 
that he later learned that "a Senator" had sent a note to the 
President, and presumably also to the Secretary of the Interior, 
which read: "Don't grant Chatterton any favors." The "machine", 
Chatterton asserts, also blocked one of his railroad projects. 

Chatterton devotes a few pages to the Tom Horn case. As 
acting governor, he resisted tremendous pressures and refused to 
commute Horn's death sentence. This may have helped to side- 
track Chatterton politically. He reports that "a very prominent 
character" told him that a $100,000 fund was ready to block his 
political ambitions if he would not commute the sentence. 

As is normally the case with memoirs, Chatterton's treatment 
of controversial matters is one-sided, and he is cautious about 
"naming names." The buffeting he took in politics led him to 
conclude: "I found that very few political promises are worthy of 
credence. There are too many 'highwaymen' in politics." One 
could wish that Chatterton had given more "inside information" 
about his promotion of railroads and reclamation projects. The 
story of the promoter has been neglected in Wyoming history. 
Chatterton was a busy one, who could cast a lot of light, but he 
is so vague that one can only guess at what was going on. 

In a foreword, Chatterton writes that his manuscript "has been 
arranged with some editing and suggestions by the publishers." 
Unhappily the publishers are probably the sloppiest in the country 
today. They need to hire a proofreader who is familiar with Wyo- 
ming proper names and who can spell. This slender volume 
suffers from far too many misspelled words, typographical errors, 
and garbled sentences. Without exhausting the possibilities this 
reviewer counted 100 misspelled words. Also, short sections 
dealing with the history of Wyoming before Chatterton's time 
might well have been omitted, or, if not omitted, these sections 
should have been corrected to, eliminate such errors as bringing 
Lewis and Clark into Wyoming, and having Robert Stuart go west 
through Wyoming. 

Despite the wretched way in which the manuscript has been 
handled by the publishers, Chatterton's memoirs make fascinating 

University of Wyoming T. A. Larsen 


Sun Circles and Human Hands, the Southeastern Indians — Art 
and Industry. Edited by Emma Lila FunSaburk and Mary 
Douglass Foreman. (Luverne, Alabama, 1957, 232 pages, 

This volume includes an excellent collection of photographs and 
line drawings of archaeological material culture from southeastern 
United States brought together under one cover in such a manner 
that useful comparisons may be made and the non-specialist quick- 
ly can gain considerable insight into the general character of many 
material products of Southeastern Indians. The book is clearly 
aimed at the lay reader, but the photographs and drawings are 
also useful to the serious student of American archaeology. This 
is especially true because many items usually seen at different 
times in different publications may be compared easily. 

Interspersed among the sections of pictures are long quotations 
(sometimes substantially complete papers) from the works of 
modern specialists and early eye witness observers of Southeastern 
culture. These are readily available elsewhere in the literature the 
student commonly uses, though some people of casual interest may 
not have had their attention drawn to them. Some are fairly 
technical papers aimed at the professional. The lay reader might 
have some difficulty in understanding some of these and especially 
their implications without a general knowledge of basic problems 
and knowledge of American archaeology as a whole. The book 
would have been improved for popular consumption by the addi- 
tion of a glossary of technical terms. Better than that the editors 
might have rewritten the sections they quoted for more direct 
orientation to specific photographs, for explanation in more popu- 
lar terms, and for removal of unnecessary obscure references. 
Something of the sort is also true of the picture captions many of 
which are rather long quotations. The editors probably followed 
the plan they used in order to preserve unequivocally the meanings 
of the specialists and there is merit in their idea. This writer's 
view that more rewriting would have produced a more readable 
book is no more than a personal opinion. 

The book begins with a short summary of Southeastern pre- 
history written by the editors which is followed by the alternating 
sections of pictures and quotations arranged topically under the 
following headings: Native Trade, Ceremonial Complex, Symbol- 
ism, Key Marco, Stone and Copper, Pottery, Wood, and Animal 
Products. One gets the feeling from the section headings of an 
inconsistent series of categories of which three are cultural activ- 
ities, one is an archaeological site, and four are materials. 

After the topical presentations the book ends rather abruptly 
without a chapter of conclusions. This writer would like to have 
seen some effort to draw the material together in some sort of 


summary statement which would express the general notions the 
editors must have developed in assembling their data. 

This book could have been improved as any book might be. 
Taken as a whole this writer, who is not a specialist in the South- 
east, liked it and was edified by it. Especially instructive is the 
large collection of excellently done pictures. It is a worthwhile 
addition to the library of anyone interested in American prehistory. 

Associate Professor of Anthropology William Mulloy 

University of Wyoming 

The Rocky Mountain Revolution, by Stewart H. Holbrook. (New 
York: Henry Holt and Company, 1956. 318 pp. Bibliog- 
raphy, maps, index. $3.95) 

The Rocky Mountain Revolution is a dramatic story. But even 
though the climax came less than 60 years ago, the principals in 
the drama are all gone now. Harry Orchard died in prison, an 
old man. Bill Borah, who became "The Lion of Idaho" is dead, 
and so also is Clarence Darrow, who was a pretty fair lion in his 
own right. Big Bill Haywood is dead in Russia. And of course 
it was the death of Idaho's ex-governor Frank Steunenberg that 
began the last act, because Harry Orchard killed Steunenberg with 
a dynamite bomb one snowy day in 1905. 

Stewart Holbrook's book is a little like a play — dramatis per- 
sonae, scenes, dialogue, stage directions and all. Substantially, 
it is the story of Harry Orchard, the stock, smiling cheese-maker, 
miner, storekeeper, bigamist, and dynamiter. Orchard got his 
orders (at least according to the prosecution) from Haywood, boss 
of the Western Federation of Miners. Borah helped prosecute 
Haywood, and Darrow defended him, and the trial rocked the 
Northwest harder than any bomb Orchard ever made. There is a 
good story here, and Holbrook has dealt faithfully with its dramatic 

Whether he has dealt equally faithfully with it as history is 
another question. Readable though the book is, it doesn't treat 
its subject in much depth. It seems to lean heavily on Harry 
Orchard's autobiography, and there are grounds for fear that other 
sources were somewhat slighted — especially primary sources. 
There is a curious "cardboard cut-out" quality about the back- 
ground of Orchard's early years, and a certain lack of development 
of the role played by the Western Federation of Miners in the 
story of the Northwest. This reviewer also sensed a lack of con- 
sistency in the author's point of view about the violence he calls 
the Rocky Mountain Revolution; at some points in his narrative 
Mr. Holbrook condemns it heartily, and at others he tends to speak 
with sympathy of the miner's justification. And there is little real 


attempt to explain what made Big Bill Haywood tick — a much 
needed explanation. 

There is still room for a careful study of the factors which pro- 
duced Haywood's character and the violence of his union. There 
has been trouble in the north Idaho mines since the 1880's, and 
the towns in the valley above Wallace are about as depressed- 
looking today as any area in the United States. The reasons for 
the trouble and the depression are things we need to know and 
understand — -but Mr. Holbrook doesn't tell us much about reasons. 
The Rocky Mountain Revolution is a recital of the events as they 

The book has already been severely handled by more than one 
primarily academic reviewer. But in spite of its shortcomings as 
history — which are, I'm afraid, real — it succeeds very well indeed 
as a story. It is hard to lay the book down, which is the real test 
of any story. Whether Mr. Holbrook intended it to be a historic 
study or a popularized story (and which sort of book one wants) 
has to make all the difference in one's judgement of it. It recounts 
the thrilling events of a thrilling and violent time, and certainly 
does it in thrilling style. 

Idaho Historical Society H. J. Swinney 

The Indian Tipi, Its History, Construction and Use. By Reginald 
& Gladys Laubin, with history of the Tipi by Stanley Vestal. 
(Norman, Oklahoma University Press, 1957. lUus. 195 pp. 

To one who, more than half a century ago, sat by the flickering 
lodge fires of the Sioux, listening to the stories of the buffalo hunt 
and the war parties, related by seamy faced old warriors, long 
since gone to hunt the white buffalo, and then to lie watching the 
stars twinkle through the smoke hole, between the lodge poles, 
this fine little book stirred up nostalgic memories which have 
almost faded out over the years. 

Reginald and Gladys Laubin certainly know their tipis. Their 
detailed descriptions and the introduction and history of the 
favorite dwelling of the Plains Indians by Stanley Vestal, who 
passed away in December, provides a reference work which every 
historian, writer and artist should consider a must in their libraries. 
Hollywood should buy many copies so that they would not con- 
tinue to include some of the monstrosities which have appeared 
from time to time in western movies. 

The book outlines the construction and types of lodges of several 
plains tribes, pointing out the differences, and is illustrated with 
drawings which carefully outline how materials should be cut, as 
well as a very interesting number of sketches showing and explain- 


ing the symbolic decorations which were used on the outside of 
the tipi. 

There is a section devoted to the interior of the lodge, its fur- 
nishings, fire and fuel, cooking, and the proper etiquette to be 
observed in visiting the Plains Indian in his beautiful home. 

The publisher's blurb on the jacket says "The American Indian 
was essentially a practical man. But he was also a born artist. 
As a result, his inventions were commonly as beautiful as they were 
serviceable. Other tents are hard to pitch, hot in summer, cold in 
winter, badly lighted, unventilated, easily blown down and ugly 
to boot. The conical tent of the Plains Indian has none of these 
faults. It can be pitched by a single person. It is roomy, well 
ventilated at all times, cool in summer, well lighted, proof against 
high winds and heavy downpours, and, with its cheerful inside 
fire, snug in the severest winter weather. Moreover, its tilted 
cone, trim smoke flaps, and crown of branching poles, presenting 
a different silhouette from every angle, form a shapely, stately 
dwelling even without decoration." 

The Laubins include in the work methods of transporting the 
tipi by the modern camper, a description of camp circles and 
modern Indian camps. 

They dedicate the work to the Plains Indian in the hope that 
their young people will recapture their price of race, love of color 
and beauty, and an appreciation of the good things in their own 
great heritage — a very worthwhile objective. 

The book is very interesting and well written and as our old 
Sioux friends would say, "Lila Waste!" Very good! 

F. H. Sinclair (Wi-nonpa: Two Moons) 
Sheridan, Wyoming 


Edgar Wright, born in Piano, Illinois, February 27, i: 
first came to Wyoming in the spring of 1900 for his health. Work- 
ing as a cowboy, he was with the Kendrick, Carey, Jim Shaw and 
other large ranching outfits for a number of years. He got his 
start in rodeo at the Wyoming State Fair in Douglas following 
which he performed at Cheyenne Frontier Days and all other out- 
standing rodeos over the country. In later years he promoted and 
ran many rodeos in various parts of the United States. Each 
winter for eight years he worked in pictures for such stars as Tom 
Mix, Harry Carey, William S. Hart and others. For four years 
he opened with the Barnum & Bailey show in Madison Square 
Gardens. For a number of years following World War I he was 
an outstanding clown at rodeos throughout the United States and 


in the Hawaiian Islands and London, England. ^He is now retired 
and lives in Duarte, California. Ed Wright is the author of The 
Representative Old Cowboy Ed Wright, Poor Hippy, Poison Spider 
and New Book Pardners. 

Dick J. Nelson, born in Mitchell County, Kansas, May 29, 
1875, came to Crook County, Wyoming, with his family in 1888, 
where his father began ranching and was later a member of the 
first Board of County Commissioners of the newly created Weston 
County. Dick Nelson, besides ranching, worked for the C. B. & Q. 
Railroad for 45 years, retiring as Division Superintendent at 
Sheridan, Wyoming, in 1939, at which time he moved to San 
Diego, California. He is the author of several historical booklets 
on Wyoming: Only a Cow Country (1951), Wyoming and South 
Dakota Black Hills (1953), The Old West and Custer's Last Stand 
(1956), and Wyoming's Big Horn Basin of Merit (1957). 

Dr. Raymond C. Bentzen was borir and raised in Sheridan, 
Wyoming, which is still his home. A graduate of Sheridan High 
School and the University of Minnesota (1929), he has practiced 
dentistry in Sheridan since 1929. Dr. Bentzen is the president of 
the Wyoming Archaeological Society and has held offices in 
numerous civic and state organizations. He was Chairman of the 
State Conservation Committee in 1956 and a National Director 
of the Izaak Walton League 1952-54. His hobbies include hunt- 
ing, fishing, target and trap shooting, photography, Indian artifact 
collecting and lecturing. He is the author of a number of articles 
which have appeared in dental journals and outdoor magazines 
and of two booklets, Kenai Kings (1952) and Brown Bear (1956). 

Mrs. Thelma Condit. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 29, No. 
1, April 1957, page 120. 

Louis C. Steege. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 29, No. 1, 
April 1957, page 121. 

Dale L. Morgan. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 29, No. 1, 
April 1957, pages 120-121. 

Mrs. Mae Urbanek. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 27, No. 2, 
October 1955, page 251. 


ff|2 4l9S9 






of Wyoming 


Kirkland Photo 
Wyoming State Archives & Historical Department 


I/. 30^ ff£>- Z 

October 1958 





Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

James Bentley Sheridan 

Henry Jones Hanna 

Mrs. Lora Jewett Pinedale 

Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois 

Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland 

Mrs. Margaret E. Hall Moorcroft 

Mrs. Lorraine Stadius Thermopolis 

Attorney-General Thomas O. Miller, Ex-ojficio. 



Lola M. Homsher Director 

Henryetta Berry Assistant Director 

Reta W. Ridings Director Historical Division 

Lewis K. Demand Assistant Archivist 

Loretta Taylor Secretary 

Diana Lucas Clerk Typist 


The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually in April and 
October and is received by all members of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. Copies of current issues may be purchased for $1.00 each. 
Available copies of earlier issues are also for sale. A price list may be 
obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor does 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 

Copyright, 1958, by the Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department. 

^mals of Wyoming 

Volume 30 

October 1958 

Number 2 

Lola M. Homsher 

Reta W. Ridings 




Published Biannually by the 


Official Publication 
'■ of the 


OFFICERS 1958-59 

President, Mr. A. H. MacDougall Rawlins 

First Vice President, Mrs. Thelma Condit Buffalo 

Second Vice President, Mr. E. A. Littleton Gillette 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary, Miss Lola M. Homsher Cheyenne 

Past Presidents: 

Frank L. Bowron, Casper 1953-1955 

William L. Marion, Lander 1955-1956 

Dr. DeWitt Dominick, Cody 1956-1957 

Dr. T. a. Larson, Laramie 1957-1958 

The Wyoming State Historical Socitey was organized in October 1953. 
Membership is open to anyone interested in history. County Historical 
Society Chapters have been organized in Albany, Campbell, Carbon, Fre- 
mont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona, Park, Sweetwater, Washakie 
and Uinta counties. 


Life Membership $50.00 

Joint Life Membership (Husband and wife) 75.00 

Annual Membership 3.50 

Joint Annual Membership (Two persons of same family at 

same address. ) 5.00 

Send membership dues to: 

Wyoming State Historical Society 
Executive Headquarters 
State Office Building 
Cheyenne, Wyoming 


Zable of Contents 

l/.3o /o^,Z 


Henry C. Parry 

John E. Gnam 

J. W. Vaughn and L. C. Bishop 

George N. Ostrom 

Edmund A. Bojarski 

Minnie Presgrove 
THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL, Part V, Section 3 175 

Thelma Gatchell Condit 

Compiled by Maurine Carley 

Archaeological Research in Wyoming During 1958 by L. C. Steege 

Stone Artifacts by L. C. Steege 

Fifth Annual Meeting 


Lewis, The Autobiography of the West 227 

Wister, Owen Wister Out West 228 

Whittenburg, Wyoming's People 229 

Shirley, Buckskin and Spurs 230 

Sandoz, The Cattlemen 231 

Peterson, American Knives 232 

Madsen, The Bannock of Idaho 233 

Urbanek, The Uncovered Wagon 234 

Harpending, The Great Diamond Hoax 234 

Elston, Wyoming Manhunt 236 

DeBarthe, Life and Adventures of Frank Grouard 236 

Gage, Tensleep and No Rest 237 



Letters From The Frontier— 1867 126, 130, 134, 136, 143 

The Heck Reel Wagon Burning 156 

The Beginning of a Great Emblem 166 

The Hole-in-the-Wall 176, 186 

Oregon Trail Trek No. 7 196, 207 

Stone Artifacts 216 

Cheyenne Historical Marker 226 

Maps: Heck Reel Wagon Train Site 154 

Oregon Trail Trek No. 7 194 

INDEX 241 


Ccttersfrom tke 7wntieMS67 * 

Henry C. Parry 

Dr. Henry C. Parry was born in 1839 in Pottsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, the son of a local attorney who later became a Judge. 
He attended Lititz Academy and graduated in 1861 from the 
University of Pennsylvania Medical School. During the Civil War 
he saw action at Shiloh, Chancellorsville, and, as Chief Surgeon 
to Sheridan's Cavalry Reserve Brigade, at Winchester, Cedar 
Creek and Petersburg. 

Major Parry left the Army in 1868, married and had a son and 
a daughter, and settled in Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. He 
practiced medicine there until his death in 1893. 

His son, Judge George G. Parry of Philadelphia, had seven sons, 
one of whom, Edward Owen Parry of Cleveland, Ohio, edited these 

After four Civil War years in the U. S. Army Medical Corps, 
young Major Henry C. Parry was assigned as medical officer to 
the Union Pacific Railway Commission. In 1867 the railway was 
being built from North Platte, Nebraska, to Fort Sedgwick, Colo- 
rado Territory, and planned from that point westward to its 
destination in Utah. Confronted daily with new experiences, he 
recorded them in letters to his father, Judge Edward Owen Parry, 
of Pottsville, Pennsylvania. The first four of these letters were 
written while he was on his way to join the Commission headed 
by Major General Grenville M. Dodge; the other five cover his 
period of service with the Commission. 

Life in North Platte 

In the Field Near North Platte, N. T. 
May 16, 1867 

Last night the regiment left Omaha and arrived here a few hours 
ago and went into bivouac on a pleasant piece of prarie land. 
From here we march to Forts Laramie and Sedgwick. I have 

* Reprinted by permission of the author and The General Magazine and 
Historical Chronicle, University of Pennsylvania from April 1958 issue. 


enjoyed my journey so far very much. Passing along in the cars 
I saw any number of Pawnee Indians watching their herds of 
horses. I met with an old trader who seemed to enjoy my igno- 
rance of life in the "Far West," and voluntarily gave me a great 
deal of information. He pointed out a piece of land that was 
studded with little dirt mounds, each having a hole in the top. By 
each hole sat an animal, looking like an immense squirrel. These 
animals were prarie dogs, the dirt mounds their homes. The 
ground I speak of is known as Dog Town. I saw quite a number 
of antelopes on the plains. The prarie land beyond Omaha is as 
level as a floor. On each side of the railroad, and as far as the 
eye can reach, is seen a vast level expanse of green land. The 
streams that flow into the Missouri River are filled with fish, and 
game of the best kind flutter up from the prarie as the engine 
goes by them. . . . 

I found as I passed through North Platte that the Indians had 
driven all the traders and miners in from the mountains, and at 
North Platte they (the miners and traders) were having a good 
time, gambling, drinking, and shooting each other. There are 
fifteen houses in North Platte: One hotel, nine eating or drinking 
saloons, one billiard room, three groceries, and one engine house, 
belonging to the Pacific Railroad Company. The last named 
building is the finest structure in the station. 

I observed that in every establishment the persons behind the 
counters attended to their customers with loaded and half-cocked 
revolvers in their hands. Law is unknown here, and the people 
are about to get up a vigilance committee. We march tomorrow 
or the next day. . . . 

A March on the Prairies 
In Camp Near Fort Sedgwick, Colorado T. 
June 9, 1867 

When I wrote last I was about to leave North Platte station for 
Fort Sedgwick. I was unable to obtain a horse at Omaha, and 
therefore, was compelled to walk one hundred and six miles. I 
never experienced so much fatigue in my life as I did in marching 
over the plain. The first day officers and men were glad to halt 
in the evening, and every one of us came into camp with scorched 
faces and blistered feet. An old soldier gave me a pair of mocca- 
sins on the second day of our march, saying, "The Doctor will find 
these easier to walk in. I wore them over the same road we are 
going now in '56. The Doctor don't remember me. I served 
with the Doctor and was sick in the hospital when the Doctor first 
joined." I did not remember the man, but I did not tell him so. 
The moccasins were about four sizes too large for me, but they 


were comfortable, and the pain I felt by walking in my shoes 
quickly subsided. 

Our course lay about a mile from the north border of the Platte, 
an unnavigable, dirty, shallow, unreliable stream filled with quick 
sands, and about a mile in breadth. Not a tree, bush, not even a 
stick of wood was seen on the route — nothing but one broad, level 
expanse of green land, dotted with little patches of tall prarie 
grass. Occasionally we could see in the dim distance a long border 
of rising land in the form of hillocks, called in the country canons 
(canyons). Antelopes, rabbits, prarie dogs, white owls and rattle- 
snakes were before us every hour in the day, and birds were shot 
in such numbers that the men spoke of bacon in the harshest terms. 
Fine antelopes were killed, and quite a number of rabbits. Nearly 
all the men and nearly all the officers' servants carried shot guns. 
Those who were thus armed skirmished along the river side and 
in the marshes for birds. We all lived well, and the only grumbling 
I heard was against the bad, dirty water. We struck our tents 
every morning at three o'clock, marched very slow, and went into 
camp every afternoon at four o'clock. We marched seven days. 
The heat was intense and the sun broiling. . . . 

It always affords amusement on a long and protracted march, 
to hear the men joke with one another. I heard one fellow say: 
"If anybody had told me that there was such a flat country in the 
world, I would have told him he was a liar to his face!" Another 
said to the man who was in front of him and who was suffering 
from sore feet: "Jimmy, with the walk you've got, you look as tf 
you've been riding a rail all your life." To this the man retorted 
"Who wouldn't be a soldier and tramp the praries! Do you want 
to spend all your summers on Governor's Island?" Another said: 
"I like to see things level, but I'll be hanged if I want to see any 
more of it!" 

The railway is being laid very rapidly. Every few miles I saw 
gangs of men grading the road. It was a grateful sight to me, as I 
was resting in front of my tent one evening, to see an engine snort- 
ing along with empty truck cars, eastern bound. In twenty more 
days, you will be able to go to North Platte in five hours, and 
three days after that you can be in Chicago. The working parties 
on the road are protected by infantry soldiers. Every ten or 
fifteen miles you will come to what is called a "Ranche." This 
consists of a little house made of earth cut into slabs and plastered 
with mud. Buildings made in this manner are called "Adobeys." 
They are fire proof, snow-proof, and bullet-proof. A few men in 
an "Adobey" with good fire arms and plenty of ammunition can 
defy more than a hundred Indians. These ranches are kept by 
two or three rough-looking fellows who sell tobacco, whiskey and 
prarie hay to the drivers of the "Bull Teams," which are constantly 
passing over the road. All the merchandise that is sent to Denver 

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City from the East is hauled by great teams otoxen. When the 
wagons return to North Platte, you will find that they are all 
hitched together, making a single train, and as many as twenty 
yoke of oxen pulling it. 

We did not see any Indians on the march. They are all on the 
war path, and when they see or rather know that a large armed 
force is near them they keep out of sight. Several bands of the 
Cheyenne tribes cleared out all the ranches between twenty miles 
west of the Platte and Julesburg, killing men, women and children, 
pulling down their houses and driving off their horses and cattle. 
All the women from Julesburg have come into the fort for pro- 
tection. The stages were never known to be attacked before for 
twelve years. Every day the passengers have a skirmish with the 
Indians. The overland company now runs three stages at a time, 
and will do so until the government gives them an escort. 

Those beautiful descriptions of Indian character by Irving and 
Cooper are outrageous misrepresentations. Thoroughbred Indians 
cannot be tamed. In peace they are rough and brutal, selfish, 
showing no affection whatever for their families. In war, cruelty 
and torture are their chief study. In close quarter they fight like 
demons, and show no mercy. They never attack unless they are 
sure of coming off victorious. I am told that they are much like 
the Bedouin Arabs in their mode of fighting. They will ride up 
within arrow range of you; suddenly disappearing behind their 
horses, and under the necks of the animals, they rapidly discharge 
their arrows — then they are off and out of sight among the canons 
in a moment. 

Plan of Fort Sedgwick 

Don't suppose that Fort Sedgwick is erected in the style of the 
forts that guard our harbors in the East. It is situated on a plain, 
on the southern border of the South Platte, midway between 
Denver City and Fort Laramie, but further east than those places, 
and consists of'Adobeys" of two stories, and one story high 
around the parade ground. There is a parapet and a ditch, and 
at the head of the parade ground are built two double houses, 
intended for the officers of the post. The buildings of the fort, 
including the barracks, hospital, Quartermaster's shop, etc., cover 
the space of one-half square mile. All the buildings have windows 
provided with a barricade that can be put up at any time. This 
barricade is pierced with loop holes. Should the Indians attack 
in the night, which time they generally select, everybody about 
the fort is ready for them. The "Adobeys" are situated in such a 
way, that if one is attacked, the Indians involve themselves in a 
destructive cross-fire. 


Staging on the Plains 

To see the stages go by on the plains reminds me of my boy- 
hood, when I used to stand at the Pennsylvania Hotel ( Pottsville ) , 
looking at and admiring Weaver's stages, and wondering how it 
was possible that any man could drive four horses at a time. Hard 
by our camp is a ranche, where the stages change horses, and the 
passengers get their meals. At six o'clock in the morning, the 
stages, six and eight horse ones, come in from the east on a full 
gallop, and at four o'clock in the afternoon they come in from the 
west. There are generally nine inside and one or two outside 
passengers. The guard sits on top, with his legs dangling over 
the side of the stage. The driver is a stern looking man, with a 
tremendous moustache, with four Colt revolvers in his belt, 
and the most approved pattern of the "Henry" rifle between his 
knees. He has the air of a man who was born in danger, lived in 
danger, expects it, and is cooly determined to make the most of it. 
He is not of the class of the coachman described by English writers, 
as being a portly, red faced, blue-eyed jolly man, neatly dressed, 
and carrying in his buttonhole a rose, but is just as I have described 
him. He seldom has anything to say, but when he does speak, it 
is to the point, and nothing more. The man I have just described 
is known as "Terrible Jake." He enjoys this cognomen from the 
fact of having killed quite a number of Indians, and always being 
victorious in all his fights. My candle is burning low, and I must 
bid you good night. 

A report has just come in that 50 Cheyennes are attacking 
Julesburg. It is true, for we can hear their yelling. "To Horse!" 
is sounding in the cavalry barracks at the fort, and soon a company 
will be dashing down the road to the rescue. 

An Indian Raid on Julesburg 

June 10, 1867 

I have just got back from Julesburg. The Cheyennes came 
down on the place last night about seven o'clock, and were hand- 
somely repulsed. They killed two men, scalped them, and muti- 
lated their bodies in the most brutal manner. Several Indians 
were wounded, and only one was killed. I visited five men who 
were wounded by arrows. I never saw an arrow wound before, 
and regard them as worse than a bullet wound. One of the men 
killed was lying on the ground, pinned to the earth by an arrow 
through his neck. He must have been shot after he had been 
scalped. I thought that Mosby's guerrillas could not be excelled in 
brutality, but the Indians surpass them in every way. In the 
Valley a person had one chance in twenty for his life, but here 
there is no quarter. 


Civilization Arrives with the Railroad 

Fort Sedgwick, June 23, 1867 

The railway is now laid within a mile of this place, along the 
north border of the Platte. You can readily think how rejoiced 
we all were when we heard the shrill whistle of the engine, and 
saw in the dim distance its dark form come puffing toward us. 
Every cloud of its white smoke seemed to bring with it peace and 
civilization over the plains of the far West. Every ranch on the 
south side of the Platte has moved over to the rail- way side. Old 
Julesburg is no more, and a new Julesburg has been estabhshed. 
Colorado City is in embryo directly opposite us, and the inhabi- 
tants of North Platte are coming to be its first people. Should 
I be spared to be an aged man, and if in that distant time I should 
hear any young scion boast that he is a descendant of one of the 
first settlers of the great City of Colorado, I can tell him that I 
know all about his illustrious ancestors. 

Sedgwick is now the first stage station on the plains for travellers 
from the East. Nearly all the coaches, express wagons and horses, 
have been moved further west. . . . Sometime ago a family of the 
Sioux Indians came down near the Fort for protection. Their 
Chief is a petty one, named Red Bead, who has always been 
supposed to be on good terms with the whites. For this reason 
his tribe threatened his life, robbed him of his stock, and compelled 
him to leave their lodges. He has pitched his "teepees" or tents, 
three in number, close to the river side, about three-quarters of a 
mile from the fort. There he lives with his squaws, children, and 
his son-in-law. Strange to say, a mulatto marrieci one of his 
daughters. Jack is the mulatto's name. He has lived with Red 
Bead for the last twenty years. The teepees are constructed with 
hickory poles tied together at the top, and spread in such way as to 
form a cone. Over the poles are spread prepared buffalo skins, 
neatly sewed together, so as to form one piece, the edges of which 
are held in apposition at the front of the tent, by long wooden pins. 
The whole structure is fastened to the ground by stakes. During 
cold or wet weather you will see in the centre of the tent a small 
trench dug in the ground, containing fire, over which is placed two, 
three, or four pieces of stone, hewn in the shape of bars. At this 
rude grate a squaw may be seen sitting, cooking their meals on a 
large flat stone, or boiling dried buffalo meat. About the tent, 
pushed back from the heat of the fire, are strewn and carelessly 
heaped up, blankets, antelope skins, curiously painted buffalo 
robes, fire-wood, cooking utensils, and "buffalo-chips." You will 
also probably see lying on his blanket, a half-naked Indian, either 
smoking his pipe or pulling out the hairs on his face. Also two 
or three squaws, painting skins, making moccasins, or nursing 
their babies. Near the top of the tent are stretched from pole to 
pole long thin pieces of twisted hide, whereon are hung broad, 






Courtesy Edward O. Parry 
Indian Lodges at Henry's Fork, 1867. (Savage & Ottinger Photo) 

thin pieces of various kinds of meat, drying by the smoky heat of 
the fire. In the warm, pleasant days, the Indians he outside of 
their wigwams, doing their work and communicating with each 
other by sonorous grunts, pecuhar to their language. There is an 
implacable feud existing between the Sioux and Pawnees, and 
wherever they meet a deadly fight ensues, the latter invariably 
leaving the field the conquerors. The Pawnees are friendly, and 
have a large reservation land. There are two companies of them 
employed as scouts, and whenever they come over this side of the 
river, Red Bead and his family are invisible until they go away. 

"The Only Good Indian ..." 

The more I think of the Indian, the more I am inclined to dislike 
him. I have seen three different tribes; the Omahas, Pawnees, and 
Sioux. I know very little from personal observation of their cus- 
toms, but I can say their habits and mode of living are filthy in 
the extreme. Their sneaking, treacherous ways throw a feeling of 
dread over one, when he knows he is with them alone. An Indian 
does not knock before he enters a house. The first intimation 
you have of his presence (if he is friendly) is his dark immovable 
countenance looking through a window. If you sternly beckon 
him away, he goes; if you signify he may enter he does so. If you 
treat an Indian kindly he fancies you consider him your superior, 
and hold him in awe. With this notion he returns your kindness 
by taking your life, accompanied with any torture his mind may 
suggest. The Indian reasons thus: "We are a noble, stern, and 
stoical people, we are a race that is alone beloved by the Great 


Spirit. The pale face have no father but the De^il, and if he is not 
with them they cannot go on the war path." This is the sum and 
substance of what an agent of the Overland Express told me he 
heard interpreted at an Indian Council. The tribes of the plain 
must be given a tremendous thrashing such as General Harney 
gave them once, and forced into subjection. Unless this is done 
after their own brutal mode of fighting, they will be for many 
years as they are now, the terror of the plains. The Indians laugh 
and hoot at the infantry and boldly ride within reach of their 
(the infantry) muskets, then ducking under the bellies of their 
fleet ponies pat their breech clouts defiantly. They seem to exhibit 
more respect for the cavalry inasmuch as when they see mounted 
men they watch from the top of some canon and when the cavalry 
turns toward them, they disappear in a manner that is quite mar- 
velous. The grass is growing very fast and high on the praries. A 
person can lie fifteen yards from you and be out of sight. The 
Indians glory in this for it aids them in their attacks. You may 
wonder why the Indians never attempt to destroy the telegraph 
wires. They entertain a superstition that the Great Spirit walks 
upon the wire. 

Crossing the River Platte at Night 
' Camp Crow Creek, Dacotah T. 

July 6, 1867 

More than a week ago I wrote you a hurried letter stating that 
I was on the eve of marching with an expedition under Gen. 
Dodge. The commissioners having arrived at the present termina- 
tion of the railroad, opposite Sedgwick, sooner than they were 
expected, Lieutenant S . . . and I received an order to cross the 
Platte in the night, (Wednesday, June 26) instead of on the follow- 
ing morning, as our first order read. Picture to yourself a dark 
night, on a broad plain, and a broad turbulent river flowing in the 
center of the prarie, and by the river side a huge raft, laden with 
two horses, a wagon, and heaps of baggage. See through the 
darkness, naked men plunging and wading in the water, pulhng at 
ropes to keep the raft from going down the stream, while others, 
with poles, are pushing the raft across the river with all their 
might. All the help and force of our little party are put in play. 
Payche with her puppies in a box, not distinctly knowing where 
she is, yelps despair in piercing tones, and looks to me and John 
[the author's servant] with pointed ears, beseechingly for an 
explanation. . . . 

An hour has passed and we are only in the middle of the stream. 
S ... is hoarse and so am I, with bawling advice to the men, who 
are growing chilly and tired. Fortunately a sand bar arrests our 
progress and we all enjoy a brief rest. Whiskey is administered 


to the men, then we resume our voyage, and with a repetition of 
our difficulties, gain the opposite bank, two miles below where we 
intended to land. It was midnight when our tents were pitched 
and sentinels posted. Next morning we reported to Gen. Dodge. 
The train was formed, and with an escort from the 4th Infantry, 
and eighty Pawnee Indians, whose services in this country cannot 
be valued too highly, we took a northwesterly direction. Every 
man rode, either in wagons or on horseback. We marched rapidly. 
"Reveille" sounded at 2 A. M. and "unsaddle and go into camp" 
at 3 P. M. and sometimes at 1 1 A. M. Our course lay along the 
line of the railroad that is to be. Every ten miles we met grading 
parties, with their sentinels on the distant bluffs looking out for 
Indians, who frequently attack the graders. 

First View of the Rockies 

The land in Dacotah is like that in Colorado, and is blooming 
with fragrant and beautifully tinted flowers. Diminutive, purple 
morning glories, sweetly scented roses, yellow butter-cups, and 
crimson bell shaped flowers are blooming in luxurious profusion 
on the plains and among the canons. In the bottom lands where 
it is wet and thick with long broad blades of grass, lilies rear their 
delicate white heads and make the spots they grow on seem in the 
distance like pools and winding streams of milk. No plant is 
prettier than the cactus, which shoots forth its red and golden 
flowers in June and July. Leaving Pole Creek and striking an old 
Spanish trail that was found after some search, we crossed a long 

Courtesy Edward O. Parry 

Fording the River Platte at or near Fort Sedgwick, Colorado Territory, 
1867. (Savage & Ottinger Photo) 


range of bluffs, and theii- came to the plains again. On the way 
we saw but one ranche, quite a castle, built of huge logs, and 
having a strong stockade, ten feet high, pierced with loop holes. 
This ranche is at the foot of the Pine Tree Bluffs, the only wooded 
lands between Sedgwick and the .Rocky Mountains. Should you 
ever travel over land that has for miles and miles but one scene, 
that of vast green plains margined by gentle uprisings of ground, 
bearing nothing but grass and sprinkled with flowers, you will 
appreciate the great relief to the eye when you see a high range 
of hills, with their steep, rocky passes studded with trees and 

It was last Tueisday at an early hour in the morning, before the 
sun was up, that Gen. Dodge, a few gentlemen of the Commission, 
myself, and twenty Pawnees rode ahead of our train, and ascended 
a narrow winding path to the top of the pine tree cliffs, one hun- 
dred and forty feet above the level of the plain. As far as the 
eye could reach we saw before us toward the South a seemingly 
endless green sea, and to the north and east we witnessed the same 
scene. In the eastern sky there was a faint tinge of orange color 
that gradually became yellow, then radiant with the rich golden 
hues of the rising sun. As the landscape and the cloudless sky 
lightened, the grass around us, bathed by the moisture of the night, 
sparkled like a sea of crystals, and quivered in the breath of a 
gentle wind. 

I beheld with reverence and admiration the snow clad peaks of 
the Rocky Mountains, looking like towers of silver against the 
faint blue of the western sky. Long's Peak was the most prom- 
inent one in view. I saw through my glasses huge piles of craggy 
rocks patched with deep snow, and on the dark spots clusters of 
fir and pine trees. Descending the hill our party experienced 
quite a time in getting our horses along the narrow and almost 
precipitous gullies, but we joined our train safely, feeling well 
compensated by the glorious sight we had witnessed. 

On Wednesday after traveling thirty-five miles we met the 
pickets of Gen. Auger's command and shortly afterwards went into 
camp on the borders of Crow Creek. The place where we are 
now encamped has received the name of Cheyenne and will be 
the terminus of the Railroad this winter. 

I often think that with all the perils, hardships, and fatigue of a 
soldier's life, there is something fascinating in it after all. The 
martial music, the noise and bustle of coming into camp and going 
out, the anticipated evening halt, with its delightful rest; the pipe 
of tobacco as you lie in the warmth of the camp-fire digesting your 
hearty meal, smoking and either engaged with your own thoughts 
or listening to some legend that is always told among a party of 
officers. But this is the bright side of the picture and intended only 
for fair weather. The hot days and cold nights, the hardy life I 


lead, subsisting on the game found on the plains, has given me 
good health that I hope I can keep. 

Here on the rushing, clear waters of Crow Creek, flowing 
through a prairie adorned with beautiful flowers and rich, tall 
grass, with the towering heights of the Rocky Mountains and the 
long range of Black Hills before us in the west and north, our 
national anniversary was not forgotten. 

Fort Sanders, D. T., July 18, 1867 

About a week ago I left Crow Creek, D. T., and marched to 
LaPorte, a small village on the banks of the Cache le Poudre, and 
waited for the coming of one of the commissioners. Then we 
crossed the Black Hills, seeing elks, antelopes and mountain sheep, 
but no Indians. Leaving the bluffs that surround the plains near 
LaPorte, we marched through the passes of the hills. Such grand 
and picturesque scenery I never before beheld. From the top of 
one hill, we saw before us an immense valley, here and there dotted 
with conical hills covered with red sandstone rocks that were 
formed in such a way as to look like deserted and demolished 
cities, with their castles in ruins. Some of the defiles in the hills 
were so narrow that we had to ride by "twos." Solid masses of 
rocks, with their crevices covered with rich silver grey moss, 
towered up on one side of the defile, and on the other side deep 
valleys with leaping noisy streams. Our wagons with a guard 
had to be sent a round about way and one night we had to go 
into bivouac without them. 

We came to this flat and dusty place yesterday and leave at 
12 A. M. today to return to Crow Creek, then we start for Utah. 

High Living in the Great Outdoors 

Elk Mountain, D. T., August 1, 1867 

We left Fort Sanders last Monday accompanied by a company of 
the 36th Infantry. Our march for the past few days has been 
through a hilly country surrounded by high barren mountains 
whose gorges are filled with snow. We came into camp a few hours 
ago and have our tents pitched on the banks of one of those pictur- 
esque streams that are seen in the canyons and valleys of this vast 
wilderness. Near by such spots the stage stations are built, and 
the Indians have their villages. No band of rovers ever lived better 
than we do, and I doubt if any rich person in his town house or 
country retreat commands such luxuries as daily attend us. Our 
existence is a continual round of pleasure and comfort. Our 
occupation is to ride, hunt, fish, bathe, smoke our pipes, eat, and 
drink. Long before the sun comes up the thrilling notes of a bugle 


pierce the clear, sweet air of the morning and resound among the 
mountains. We enjoy our baths and dress on the soft greensward 
outside our tents. We breakfast not only on "bacon and hard 
tack," for these articles at present are in sad disrepute and hidden 
from sight in the bottom of the wagons. We have on the table 
broiled antelope or elk steaks, garnished with the kidneys or livers 
of those animals, nicely cooked potatoes and onions and the most 
delicious of fish — trout, trout as large as the largest you see at 
home in the spring time, good hot coffee, pure white sugar, hot 
cakes and golden syrup make up the meal. The "General" sounds, 
the tents are struck, the mules and horses are driven from herd, 
the teams harnessed to the wagons, the horses saddled, and to the 
martial air of jingling sabres, rattling carbines and cries of "for- 
ward," we are on the march again, facing our seemingly endless 
journey westward, our way lighted by the soft yellow beams of the 
rising sun. 

I believe that you have always had a refined taste for food. 
Every time I partake of a sage hen I think of you and mother and 
sincerely wish that both of you could taste that fowl. The bird is 
almost as large as a domestic goose. Its flesh is white, tender, and 
deliciously flavored with sage. It lives on sage brush, a pigmy 
tree scarcely two feet in height, having small dentated leaves of a 
pea green color, and faint rusty colored buds. Its odor is that of a 
garden sage, but much stronger. This fowl, roasted or boiled, is a 
dish that would be relished and appreciated by an epicure. Since 
I have left Crow Creek, I have feasted on the meat of elk, antelope, 
black-tailed deer, rabbit, grouse, pheasant, sage hen and trout. 
Delmonico of New York, and the Parker House of Boston, may 
out-do us in plate and ornaments of the table, but we can excel 
in the richness and variety of food. 

We occasionally see hostile bands of Indians, but they are only 
visible for a moment, and decline exchanging shots with us. A few 
evenings before I left Cheyenne, one of the Pawnee companies had 
had a fight with a party of Arapahoes, and succeeded in taking 
eight scalps. I witnessed their scalp dance. A strange and fright- 
ful ceremony to one who never saw such a scene. It is the custom 
among the Indians, when they have been on the war path and 
returned to their villages with the scalps of their enemies, to 
celebrate the events of their prowess by a scalp dance. A large 
fire is kindled on the ground and the warriors form a circle about 
it. In the centre the squaws stand, holding tomahawks and 
knives, and singing. The men forming the circle keep moving 
around and also singing and beating time with their hands and feet. 
Those who have taken the scalps, having prepared them by stretch- 
ing them on little hoops of willow or cotton wood, and tying them 
to the tops of long thin poles, hold and swing them aloft as they 
move around. In the case I speak of the smallest Indians took 
the part of squaws, and appeared in the ring attired in a single red 


blanket, which was simply tied to their waists, and imitated as 
well as they could the actions and voices of women. Their song, 
which was one continued half howl, half shriek, and a low monot- 
onous bellow, was an impromptu telling of the incidents of their 
fight. Some sang in broken English "bad old Arapahoe, ou, ou, 
ou," "good Pawnee," "O gala-like Sioux, ou, ou, ou." The night 
was far advanced before this savage jubilee was finished. The 
novelty of the scene had a fascination for me that I could not 
shake off, when I wished to leave the spot. 

I hope this letter will reach you. The mails are very irregular. 
I will give this to the first party 1 meet going East, for we are off 
the stage road. . . . 

Search for Water in the Bad Lands 

Near Church Buttes, Utah August 14, 1867 

We have a delightful spot of ground tonight for a camp in a 
grove of Cottonwood trees, and enjoy the repose we need so much. 
We are now on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains, which 
we have been crossing since yesterday a week ago. We left the 
stage road and commenced the ascent sixty miles south of South 
Pass, and went into a hot, barren country known as the Bad Lands. 

For four days we marched over a great waste of mountainous 
land covered with sand, vast patches of alkali, (I think nitrate of 
potash) looking like finely powdered salt, and parched sage brush. 
The only water we found was collected in shallow, sulphurous, 
stagnant pools among the rocks and narrow marshy places. On 
the third day the small quantity of water we carried with us was 
gone. I cannot describe the exquisite suffering we endured from 
the heat, thirst, and the laborious marching we experienced on the 
8th and 9th inst. We toiled up one mountain only to cross the 
top of another, and another. The line of the railroad was of little 
consideration then. We were all looking earnestly for what we 
could not find — water, water — no matter how hot; water of any 
kind to moisten our parched throats and lips. Our eyes were sore 
with straining at the men who had been sent miles away on the 
flanks of the train in search of some spring or creek. The streams 
that were flowing a year or two before were dry, and their graveled 
beds lay before us like so many crooked and shallow graves of 
deceased rivers. 

The guides wondered and appeared confounded, and were 
cursed by the men for their ignorance. The only motion in the 
air was the quivering heat. The sky was cloudless and the sun 
was scorching. The clear atmosphere made the distant cavalry- 
men on the huge hills look like colossal figures. When they 
discovered water they were to signal us by waving their bare 
sabres over their heads. Their burnished arms flashed the re- 


flections of the sun's rays on our straining eyes, but no bared 
steel waved in the bright light of the day: No water. How we 
panted as we watched for a drawn sabre! The evening came, and 
with it the tired and disconsolate flankers, but no water. The 
train halted, and men and animals dozed. A kind, gentle wind 
that had gathered a refreshing coolness from some distant snow- 
covered peak, floated over us as night came on, and that was all 
we had to comfort us. I fancied as I watched the gold and crimson 
light in the sky fade away on the vast brown barren steeps above 
and below me, that all the mountains in the universe were come 
together to stare and mock at us for trying to associate with them. 

An hour past midnight we were on our way again. We had 
marched twenty-five miles and had thirty or more to go before we 
could reach the stage road at Bitter Creek, the only known stream 
about us. We toiled on experiencing a repetition of the heat and 
thirst of yesterday. A stray antelope ambling across the desert, 
probably on the same errand we had in view, that of searching for 
water, was killed at daylight, and I begged its blood for my dog 
"Payche" and puppy "Sionac," who were almost mad with thirst. 
Poor, dear Payche, her trials and sufferings did not last long. She 
would not ride but traveled by my side in the shade of my horse 
until late in the afternoon, when she tried to get under one of the 
wagons. In doing so she tottered under a heavy wheel which 
passed over her body. I had her in my arms in a moment, but she 
was dying, and soon lay dead before me. . . . John and I were 
not the only persons who felt the loss. Payche had gained quite a 
reputation in catching squirrels and finding for the men where the 
sage hens were hidden. All the officers and men Uked her. 

At every mess in the command she was always welcome. At 
every difficult stream crossing some soldier was ready and wilUng 
to lift her to his saddle; when she placed her paws on his stirrup, 
a way she had of asking for protection and safe conduct in time 
of danger. 

Before the next night came upon us, we reached an alkali lake 
and although the water was not palatable we enjoyed it. The day 
after we crossed the summit of the mountains and marched to 
Green River, which we crossed last Monday. 

Church Buttes is the name given to three high piles of peculiarly 
formed rocks, formed of sand and broken pieces of sand stone. 
The changes of weather have washed the sand away in many 
places, leaving the red stone in the shape of high thin poles that 
seem as if they would tumble down at the least breath of wind. . . . 
I can see them at a distance standing in the middle of a vast stony 

In a few days we will be at Fort Bridger, where General Dodge 
intends to stay until his train can repair the damages done to it 
in crossing the mountains. 


Farewell to the Union Pacific 

Fort D. A. Russel, Oct. 7th, 1867 

I arrived here this morning with B Company, 2d U. S. Cavalry, 
after a long, tedious, windy, dusty, cold, perilous journey from Salt 
Lake City. Gen. Dodge and his party left us at North Platte 
crossing, and have gone back to the States. It is very cold and 
windy here. The Fort is three miles from the town of Cheyenne 
which is building up rapidly. When I left here last July all the 
land was bare, and the only habitations were tents. Cheyenne has 
now a population of fifteen hundred, two papers, stores, ware- 
houses, hotels, restaurants, gambling halls, etc., etc. Three months 
ago it was nothing but bare prarie land. I have to wait here for 

October 20, 1867 

I have just received an order directing me to go to Fort Fetter- 
man, D. T., one hundred and sixty miles from here, situated on 
LaPrebe Creek^ seventy-five miles northwest of Fort Laramie. 
The train I go with is waiting and I will soon be in the saddle again 
traveling on a cold and perilous journey. The escort consists of 
recruits en route for Fort C. F. Smith. The command at Fort 
Fetterman consists of six companies of the 4th Infantry, two of the 
2d Cavalry, and two of the 18th Infantry. Gen. Wassells, Lieut. 
Col. of the 18th Infantry, will command the post. It is not on 
any road, and in wintertime difficult of access. The only commun- 
ication it has with the outer world is through carriers that are 
courageous enough to travel between it and Fort Laramie. 

The impression here is that the commissioners will not succeed 
in making peace with the Indians, or that the savages will not keep 
peaceable. Therefore, we all anticipate a lively campaign next 

Epilogue '~ 

Dr. Parry's low opinion of Indian character underwent revision 
upwards in September, 1868. He was present at a meeting be- 
tween Wash-i-kee (Washakie), Chief of the Shoshonee (Shoshone) 
tribe, and the U. S. Army authorities in what is now Wyoming. 
Afterwards he wrote: 

"Brigadier General Auger, escorted by Troop F of the 2nd 
U. S. Cavalry, was sent out to Fort Bridger to hold a council with 
the Shoshonee Tribe. Wash-i-kee's speech about the faithless 
conduct of the whites was worthy of any great orator!" 

In Omaha and later in Salt Lake City, Dr. Parry acquired photo- 
graphs to illustrate his western letters. Among several pictures of 
Indians is one of the great Wash-a-kee. There is also a group 

hS Was-sc-Xf». 




Courtesy Edward O. Parry 

The caption written on the back of the picture of Chief Washakie by 
Dr. Parry reads: Wash-i-kee — Chief of the Shoshonees. Brig. General 
Auger escorted by F Troop 2d U S Cavly was sent out to Fort Bridger, 
Utah Ter to hold a council with Wash-i-kee tribe. I was present at the 
Council and Wash-i-kee's speech on the faithless conduct of the Whites was 
worthy of any great Orator. Sept 1868. (Savage & Ottinger Photo.) 


picture, taken in Salt Lake City, of the Union Pacific Railway 

Dr. Parry carefully preserved his papers dealing with this 
period. He seems to have wanted to speak to posterity. Perhaps 
he wished to testify again to the quality of the America of his 
youth: To its grandeur, its promise, its sense of destiny. 

Sarly Mist cry of the Zele phone 
in Wyoming 

John E. Gnam 

The first experimental use of telephones in Wyoming and the 
Mountain States area occurred on February 24, 1878, less than 
two years after the telephone was invented by Alexander Graham 
Bell on March 7, 1876. 

C. F. Annett, then telegraph operator on the Union Pacific 
Railroad at Cheyenne, received through Omaha a pair of tele- 
phones. These telephones had been sent west by Theodore N. 
Vail, then general manager of the American Bell Company at 
Boston, for the purpose of stimulating interest. 

Mr. Annett connected these to the telegraph wires at Cheyenne 
and Laramie and on February 24th conversations were held be- 
tween the late Senator F. E. Warren, E. A. Slack, editor of the 
Cheyenne Daily Sun, and Bill Nye, editor of the Laramie Boom- 
erang and other prominent Laramie people. This was the first 
long distance conversation in the mountain states area. 

Annett established Wyoming's first telephone exchange in Chey- 
enne on March 22, 1881. He was the first manager of the Chey- 
enne exchange and was chiefly responsible for the organization 
of the Wyoming Telephone and Telegraph Company in that same 

Regular toll service was made possible in 1881 to Laramie over 
the Lodge Pole Creek, Cheyenne Pass, Telephone Canyon route, 
a distance of 48 miles. 

In 1880 the first inter-state long distance conversation in the 
mountain states area was held between Ogden, Utah, and Evan- 
ston, Wyoming. Thus Wyoming had the distinction of having 
completed the first long distance call in the mountain states area 
and the first inter-state long distance call in the area. 

In the spring of 1883, Mr. Annett, then manager of the Wyo- 
ming Telephone and Telegraph Company and also local manager 
of the Cheyenne telephone exchange, awarded a contract for the 
building of a telephone line to the ranch of the Swan Land and 
Cattle Company at Chugwater, a distance of 50 miles. The con- 
tract was awarded to a local contractor. 

Shortly after the line was completed and tested, the contractor 
collected for the work. It was not long before a case of trouble 
developed. Then, when Mr. Annett and his helper rode the line 


to clear the trouble they discovered that they had been outsmarted 
and instead of erecting poles and building a telephone line as we 
think of such today, a barbed wire fence had been used for the 
line the greater portion of the way. 

So far as is known that was the first demonstration and test of 
the use of iron barbed wire for telephone purposes and was the 
beginning of such a practice throughout the early-day west. 

The line gave satisfaction and pointed the way for much of 
Wyoming's very early telephone development. Needless to say, 
however, that in modern telephone service this type of construc- 
tion would be far from satisfactory. 

In the latter part of 1883 the properties of the Wyoming Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company, Salt Lake City Telephone Com- 
pany, Idaho, Utah, and Montana Telephone companies were con- 
solidated to form the Rocky Mountain Bell Telephone Company. 

In September 1899, the Cheyenne-Denver long distance line 
was completed and in 1900 a line was completed between Chey- 
enne and Salt Lake City, connecting Denver with Salt Lake City 
via Cheyenne. 

During 1900, exchanges were opened in Rock Springs in June; 
Evanston in August; Rawlins in October; and Saratoga in No- 

The toll line between Ogden and Evanston was extended east 
as far as Encampment, 686 miles, and the exchanges thereon were 
Evanston, Rock Springs, Rawlins and Saratoga. Shortly after- 
ward, the line was extended to Cheyenne, which completed the 
conversation thoroughfare from Salt Lake City to Denver. 

Kemmerer and Encampment were added in 1901. Toll line 
extensions were completed during the year between Evanston and 
Kemmerer; Rawlins to Encampment; Baggs to Dixon; and Chey- 
enne to Douglas. 

During 1902 exchanges were opened at Douglas, Casper, Lan- 
der, Shoshoni and Afton while toll lines were extended from 
Wheatland northwest through Douglas, Casper, and Shoshoni to 

Exchanges were established at Basin, Cody, Meeteetse, Ther- 
mopolis and Wheatland in 1903 and the toll line was extended 
north and west from Shoshoni to Meeteetse. 

The exchange at Basin was purchased from an independent 
company, known as the Moffett Company, with headquarters at 
Billings, Montana. An employee at Casper was transferred to 
Basin as manager. In order to reach Basin, the new manager had 
to go from Casper to Crawford, Nebraska, thence to Edgemont, 
South Dakota, Sheridan, Wyoming, Toluca, Montana, and Gar- 
land, Wyoming, by train and from Garland to Basin by state 
coach. He traveled about 600 miles and passed through parts of 
three states to reach a point 200 miles distant and located in the 
same state. 


Exchanges in Buffalo and Sheridan were' opened in 1904. 
These exchanges were connected with Billings, Montana, and had 
no direct connection with other Wyoming plants. Later a toll line 
from Buffalo to Ten Sleep connected with the line out of Cheyenne 
at Worland. 

There was no development in Wyoming in 1905. 

In February, 1906, new No. 8 and No. 9 switchboards were 
ordered for Cheyenne, Laramie, Rawlins and Sheridan. 

Twenty-four years after the formation of the Rocky Mountain 
Bell Company an editorial appeared in the August 27, 1907, issue 
of the Cheyenne Leader summarizing the advancement of the 
telephone in Wyoming. According to the article, "the telephone 
system reaches every county of the state except two. From Chey- 
enne homes you can now talk to nearly every corner of the 

"No spot in Wyoming is as far as 100 miles from a Rocky 
Mountain Bell telephone. In only two counties can a person get 
more than 50 miles from a Bell telephone and these are only in the 
counties of the state not penetrated by the Bell lines. Twenty 
exchanges and almost 2,000 miles of pole lines cover the greater 
part of the state and allow people of Wyoming to reach thousands 
of persons and all the more important towns in Idaho, Utah, 
Montana, Colorado and New Mexico as well as in Wyoming itself. 
The company's real estate investments in Wyoming are heavy. It 
has extended its facilities as rapidly as its resources allowed and 
expects to continue its work of aiding in the development of the 
state. It has gone where no other public enterprise has dared to 
venture and has looked for its reward in the future greatness of 
Wyoming. It has taken all the hazards of the true pioneer." 

No exchanges were added during 1907, 1908, 1909, and 1910. 

In March, 1911 the Plains Hotel was opened at Cheyenne by 
Harry Hynds and Captain V. K. Hart. This building had been 
wired for telephones during construction, probably the first in the 

In June, 1911 the Midwest Oil Company contracted for a pipe 
line from Casper to Salt Creek (now Midwest). The oil company 
proposed building a telephone line from Casper to Salt Creek, 
connecting with the Casper exchange. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors on July 20, 1911, The 
Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph Company offered to 
buy all of the properties, real or personal, rights of way, and 
franchises of the Rocky Mountain Bell Telephone Company. 

This offer was accepted by the Board of Directors, who called a 
meeting of stockholders on August 17, 1911, and at this meeting 
ratified the sale of the properties of the company. 

Worland was the next exchange to be established in Wyoming; 
this occured in March, 1913 with 111 stations. 

In August, 1913, the company acquired the properties of the 


Kemmerer-Big Piney Telephone Company at public sale for 
$18,071.21. There were exchanges at Big Piney, Elkhorn, Kem- 
merer, Pinedale and South Pass — 91 stations were taken over. 

In November, 1913, the plant of the Southern Wyoming Tele- 
phone Company was bought for $3,160. The property consisted 
of a toll line from Laramie to Medicine Bow, with a small amount 
of exchange plant in Laramie. There were seven toll stations. 

The exchange at Big Piney was sold to the Big Piney Telephone 
Company for $149 in January 1914. There were eight subscribers 
and seven service stations. 

In January, 1915, the exchange at Pinedale, with 42 stations, 
was sold to William Floyd Parrish for $3,000. 

In July, 1917, the exchange at Elkhorn was discontinued and an 
exchange at Garland was built by the Company. 

The property of the Riverton Telephone Company, with an 
exchange of 256 company stations and 27 service stations, was 
purchased in April, 1918, for $30,297. 

By Joint Resolution of Congress and Proclamation of the Presi- 
dent, the Postmaster General assumed supervision, possession, 
control and operation of the property of the Mountain States 
Telephone and Telegraph Company as of August 1, 1918. 

In October, 1918, the Company purchased the exchange at 
Pinedale from the Pinedale Telephone Company for $2,198. 
There were 46 company and 32 service stations. This exchange 
had been sold to William Parrish in January, 1915, payment there- 
for being his note. The exchange was reacquired, and the pur- 
chase price represents the unpaid portion of that note with 
accrued interest. 

An exchange was built by the Company at Rock River in 1919 
and opened with 33 company and 2 service stations. 

At midnight on July 31, 1919, all of the telephones and tele- 
phone systems, lines and properties, were returned by the Gov- 
ernment to their respective owners. 

During the period of Federal control, there had been no pur- 
chases of operating telephone properties. With the return to 
private ownership, the policy of consolidating the territory was 

In August, 1919, the properties of the Lusk-Manville Telephone 
Company were purchased for $45,477. The exchanges were Lusk 
with 215 company and 152 service stations and Manville with 66 
company and 22 service stations. 

The exchange at Pinedale, with 38 company and 31 service 
stations was leased to W. F. Parrish in January, 1920. 

In November, 1921, the properties of the Northern Wyoming 
Telephone Company were purchased for $74,622. There were 
exchanges at Gillette, Moorcroft, Newcastle, Osage and Upton 
with a total of 419 company stations and 265 service stations. 

On December 17, 1921, the exchange at Laramie was cut over 


to "machine switching" operation, the first test of this form of 
service in the Mountain States territory. 

In September, the Deaver exchange with five company stations 
was discontinued, subscribers to be connected with Cowley. 

State accounting for Wyoming was installed in December 1922, 
with state headquarters at Cheyenne. 

In May, 1923, the Company purchased the properties of the 
Peoples Telephone Company for $7,500. There were 108 com- 
pany stations and 38 service stations located at the exchanges of 
Pine Bluffs and Albin. 

In July, 1923, the Company purchased the property of the Salt 
Creek Telephone Company for $8,000. The property consisted 
of the exchange at Salt Creek, Wyoming, with 60 company and 8 1 
service stations. The name of the exchange was changed from 
Salt Creek to Midwest on January 1, 1924. 

A decision was handed down on October 18, 1923, by the 
Public Utilities Commission of Wyoming on the application of 
the Company for increased rates at Casper, the new rates to be 
effective November 1, 1923. 

The American Telephone and Telegraph Company awarded 
Theodore N. Vail gold medals and cash awards of $500 each, to 
Harold C. Daggett, Combinationman, Cheyenne, and Earl J. 
Taylor, Section Patrolman, Cheyenne for heroic action in restoring 
telephone service on the trans-continental lines in November 1922. 
These awards were in addition to the bronze medals by the Moun- 
tain States Company. 

Vail bronze medals were awarded in March 1924, by the Com- 
pany to James Dougherty, Lineman, Casper and Olin Mahnken, 
Linemen, Casper, with citations for meritorious acts performed in 

In November. 1924, the exchange at South Pass, with six com- 
pany and two service stations, was sold to William F. Parrish for 

Bronze medals, with citations, were awarded for meritorious 
action during 1924 to WiUiam B. Carey, Section Patrolman, Rock 
Springs; Paul E. Loshbrough, Wire Chief, Rock Springs; W. A. 
Stems, Foreman, Cheyenne; and Don C. Austin, Lineman, Chey- 

The Public Service Commission of Wyoming granted a rate 
increase at Rock Springs in February 1926, increasing contract 
values about $5,700 per year. Rates were also increased in Ther- 
mopolis on June 1, Shoshoni and Gillette on August 1, and Kem- 
merer on September 1 . 

In August, 1926, the exchange at Osage with eleven company 
and four service stations, was discontinued, subscribers to be 
served by Newcastle central office. 

Effective August 1, 1927, service was initiated in Yellowstone 
National Park. Telephones were installed at various stations, 


giving complete coverage of the Park and furnishing the first 
connection with the outside world. 

Rate increases were authorized at Sheridan, January 1; Green 
River, April 1 ; Cody, June 1 ; Greybull, September 1 ; and Buffalo, 
October 1, 1927. 

Effective April 30, 1928, the exchange at Garland was discon- 
tinued, the majority of the subscribers to be served by the Project 
Mutual Telephone Company, connected with Cody. The re- 
mainder of the subscribers were to be served as toll stations out 
of Bridger, Montana. 

Rate increases during the year were effective at Encampment, 
Pine Bluffs and Saratoga, February 1 ; Douglas, March 1 ; Worland, 
April 1; and Lander, September 1, 1928. 

As of January 1, 1930, the properties of the Wyoming Tele- 
phone Company were purchased for $26,000. The exchanges 
involved were Glenrock with 157 company stations and Glendo 
with 21 company and 10 service stations. 

The exchange at Salt Creek, with 12 stations, was discontinued 
on March 29, 1930, subscribers to be served on a rural basis out 
of Midwest. 

During August, 1931, a toll line from Dubois, Idaho, to Moran, 
brought the famous Jackson Hole Country into the telephone net- 
work of the world. Connection was made with the Jackson Valley 
Telephone Company, a locally owned concern, which was pur- 
chased by Mountain States a few months later. 

Cheyenne was converted from manual to dial on August 29, 
1931. There were 4,796 company and 457 service stations in 
operation at the time of the cutover. 

All handset charges in Wyoming were eliminated in February, 

No attempt has been made to record all the changes from 
magneto to common battery and from common battery to dial 
during this period. 

Another first for the State of Wyoming, telephone wise, was that 
Theodore N. Vail, the first general manager of the Bell Telephone 
System, started his meteoric career as night telegraph operator at 
Pine Bluffs, Wyoming, in April of 1868. 

Mr. Vail worked on the farm with his father and brothers for a 
while but decided he wanted to be a schoolteacher. He soon tired 
of teaching and applied for a job as telegraph operator on the 
Union Pacific Railroad and was immediately assigned to the job 
as night operator at Pine Bluffs, Wyoming. He became dissatisfied 
with this job and applied for an appointment to the railway mail 
service. He rose rapidly from mail clerk in 1868 to the top of 
the railway mail service in less than eight years, a goal reached 
at the youthful age of 3 1 . 

Two years later, on May 22, 1878, Vail became general man- 
ager of the Bell Telephone Company. In the summer of 1887 


Vail realized, because of failing health, that the strain was too 
heavy and that he must relinquish part of the load, and so on Sep- 
tember 19, 1887, he resigned his position as president of the 
American Telephone and Telegraph Company. 

Mr. Vail traveled in Europe and South America from 1890 to 
1907. In May 1907 Vail was elected president of the American 
Telephone and Telegraph Company again. He retired in 1919 
to become chairman of the board and died April 16, 1920, at 
the age of 75. 

Zke Meek Keel Wagon J^uming 


J. W. Vaughn and L. C. Bishop 

After the defeat of General Custer at the Little Big Horn on 
June 25, 1876, the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians were free to 
continue their depredations on the white settlements. During the 
summer small bands of them, well armed with .45-70 Springfield 
Carbines taken from the dead troopers, ranged far and wide along 
the frontier. Numerous raids were made on isolated ranches along 
the North Platte River, and many settlers were killed and herds 
of horses stolen. Travellers and freight outfits were in constant 
fear of the marauders. This is the story of an attack by a band 
of these Indians upon a wagon train on the old Emigrant Road, 
10 miles west of the present site of Glendo, Wyoming. 

Fort Laramie and Fort Fetterman were the two army posts in 
this area which protected the emigrants and settlers; but as they 
were not on a railroad, supplies had to be laboriously freighted in 
from Cheyenne by large covered wagons hauled by many yoke of 
oxen. A. H. Reel of Cheyenne, popularly called "Heck," was a 
widely known freighter and cattleman who operated one of these 
freight outfits under contract with the Army. He had been a 
member of the Territorial Assembly in 1875 and in later years was 
to become a State Senator and Mayor of Cheyenne. The head- 
quarters for his supply train was at Camp Carlin, located two 
miles northwest of Cheyenne beside Crow Creek. This was the 
supply depot for the Army posts and consisted of warehouses, 
blacksmith shops, wheelright shops, carpenter shops, saddle and 
harness shops, wagon sheds, stables, corrals, and bunk houses. 
As a result of his long experience in the freighting business, Heck 
Reel had organized his freight wagons into units of three wagons 
each, drawn by 12 to 14 yoke of oxen. The front wagon carried 
upwards of 15,000 pounds of freight, the second one carried 9,000 
pounds, and the rear one cooking utensils, tents and food for the 
trip. The tongues of the second and third wagons were cut off 
short and chained to the axle of the wagon in front. 

The Wagon Boss in charge of the train was George Throstle, 
who had been in Reel's employ for nine years. He was about 35 
years old, faithful, industrious and temperate. He had many 
friends and was brave almost to rashness. Sylvester "Ves" Sher- 
man, the second boss, had been working for Heck Reel for several 
years. He was described as a "fine Western character, a good 
shot, and he usually had his firearms where they could be reached 


in a second." Sherman, in his later years, ranched on Rawhide 
Creek, where he died in 1925. His account to J. C. Shaw of Orin 
Junction, Wyoming, is the main source of information concerning 
this incident. 

In 1876 Fort Fetterman was the springboard for expeditions 
under General Crook against the Sioux. During the summer the 
Army was sending supplies to the Fort destined for the use of 
Crook's army, then encamped on Little Goose Creek in northern 
Wyoming. In July Heck Reel was one of the freighters with a 
contract to haul flour, bacon and other supplies to the Fort. The 
wagons were overhauled and given a coat of bright red paint. 
Reel then commenced to load up with Government freight and to 
hire men for the expedition. Since good bull-whackers were hard 
to find, a few Mexicans and "long-haired Missourians" were in- 
cluded in the crew of sixteen. Mr. Reel told Throstle to furnish 
every man with a good .45 sixshooter and a .44 Winchester. Most 
of the guns furnished were the new 1873 Model .44 Winchesters, 
although there were a few .50 Spencers. The guns were to be 
carried in the jocky box on the front end of a wagon. As there 
were plenty of Indian signs along the North Platte, the men were 
to keep on the lookout for Indians and at all times to be careful. 

While only three units of three wagons each are specifically 
mentioned in the accounts, it is probable that there were more 
wagons in the train because of the large crew of 16 men. The 
front units were loaded with flour, groceries, whiskey, and dry- 
goods, while the rear unit carried 10,000 pounds of bacon packed 
in the first two wagons, and forty barrels of beer in the last one. 

One morning in the latter part of July, the caravan broke camp 
and travelled the old road from Cheyenne to the Black Hills. 
One mile from camp they passed Fort D. A. Russell, and then 
headed northward across the treeless hills. Several days later they 
came to the ranch of Portugee Phillips on the Chugwater and, 
after following down that stream, reached Bordeaux, a ranch 
operated by John Hunton, 66 miles north of Cheyenne. Mr. Hun- 
ton had served all through the Civil War in the Confederate Army. 
He had been a Colonel in the Virginia Cavalry and was wounded 
at Gettysburg. After the war he headed west and acquired the 
ranch from James Bordeaux, who had operated a trading post 

The road divided at Bordeaux, one branch continuing northeast 
27 miles to Fort Laramie, while the other swung to the northwest, 
forming the "cutoff" to Fort Fetterman. Taking the latter route, 
the supply train arrived at Cottonwood Creek a short distance 
west of the present crossing of Highway 87. Just north of the 
Creek they struck the south branch of the Emigrant Road (Mor- 
man Branch) coming in from the east. Instead of following this 



_ MAP — 
3 HOV^ / NG LoCATfON OF- 0L/f?NJN(5 

— or — 

main travelled road towards the northwest, the supply train con- 
tinued northward along a cutoff running west of Highway 87 for 
four miles and then angled northeast parallel to the present site 
of the highway for four miles. Turning to the right, the caravan 
soon struck the North Branch of the main Emigrant Road near 
Bull's Bend, a favorite camping place within a bend of the North 
Platte. The route which Throstle followed was known as the 
"Bull's Bend-Cottonwood Road." While it has not been explored, 
it is plotted on the U. S. Geological Survey Contour maps of the 
area. It is easy to see from the maps why Throstle took this 
cutoff. The road followed a valley where there were no steep 
grades and but few ravines to cross. It also led to Bull's Bend, 
where there was plenty of water to refresh the men and stock. 
The wagon train probably camped here on the night of July 30th. 
The next evening they made camp on Elkhorn Creek, which was 
one of the best camping places along the Emigrant Road, having 
plenty of wood, water and grass. 


Early the next morning, Tuesday, August I'st, the men started 
the strenuous task of getting the wagons up the long hard hill 
north of Elkhorn Creek. Throstle and Sherman stayed behind to 
superintendent the ascent of each heavily laden wagon. It was 
probable that they had to unchain the trail wagons and drag each 
one up separately. Finally all were up on the divide, but soon 
came to the valley of Coffee Creek. Here was another long hard 
hill, and by the time all the wagons had gotten up on the divide 
it was late in the afternoon. The course was now northwestward 
along the divide with the creeks they had just crossed on their left 
and some draws on their right and ahead. Towards the southwest 
the wooded slopes of Laramie Peak loomed up against the sky. 

Throstle and Sherman rode on 300 yards ahead of the lead 
team, resuming their usual position in advance so that they could 
look over the road. Sherman was on the right side and a little in 
the lead. The experienced men were driving the lead teams, while 
one of the Mexicans was driving the unit next to the rear. A 
"long-haired Missourian" was driving the rear team. Bullwhack- 
ers walked alongside of the ox teams and tried to make up for lost 
time by lashing the plodding animals with their stinging bullwhips. 
It was still 10 miles to where they would camp for the night on 
La Bonte Creek. The day was hot and dry, and the long lines 
of oxen churned up huge clouds of dust along the trail. 

It was now about four o'clock. As Throstle and Sherman 
approached a little ridge running southward across the trail in 
front of them, about 30 Indians jumped out of a deep draw north 
of the road and started shooting. Firing past Sherman, three 
bullets struck Throstle, who threw up both hands and exclaimed, 
"Oh, My God," and fell dead from his horse. One bullet struck 
the fork of Sherman's saddle. The Indians yelled and made a 
dash to cut Sherman off from the wagon train. It was a close race 
as the Indians, whipping, shooting and yelling, caused both horses 
to circle towards the south instead of running straight. Sherman 
had no time to shoot during this wild rush, as he used both feet 
and hands to whip with. As he got closer to the wagon train, the 
Indians pulled away but kept up a constant fire at the men running 
up and down the teams. Irish Pete was shot through the leg, and 
yelled out as loud as he could, "Corral the wagons, Ves, or they 
will kill every one of us." Sherman then called to the lead man to 
corral; and since all the good men were driving the lead teams and 
knew what to do, the wagons were corralled in a short time just 
south of the road. During this time the men were shooting at the 
Indians with six shooters as they rode closer. 

The Mexican driving the next to the last unit deserted his post 
at the first of the fighting and crawled in among the drygoods in 
one of the lead wagons. The Missourian in the rear, seeing that 
there was no chance to get his team in, left it and came on up to 



Heck Reel 

Wyoming Pioneer, Freighter, Rancher, 

Legislator and Early Mayor of 


George Throstle 
Wagon Master who was killed 
in the attack 
Courtesy Mrs. Art Gobble. 

the Mexican's wagon and whacked it on in. It looked for a while 
as if the Indians would get him, but he shot with one hand and 
whacked the bulls with the other. 

When Sherman called for the rifles, there was only one man who 
knew where they were, and he jumped on a wagon and began to 
throw out flour. The guns had five thousand pounds of flour on 
top of them. The sacks of flour were used to build breastworks, 
behind which the men took position with their rifles. The Indians, 
from the gullies and ravines just below the edge of the divide 
about two hundred yards south of the wagons, opened up a brisk 
fire. Believing that the freighters had nothing but pistols, some 
of the Indians rode up close to the wagons yelling the most hideous 
yells any one had ever heard. While running by at full speed on 
their war horses, they fired from under the horses' necks while 
keeping themselves concealed by lying down on the horses' sides. 
The Indians were armed with .45-70 Springfield Carbines and 
.50-70 Springfields and had plenty of ammunition. While they 
did not kill any more of the men, they did lots of damage to the 
work cattle and the few saddle horses in the train. After the 
freighters got in a few good rounds with their rifles, the Indians fell 
back and waited for night to come. 


The Mexican had a little dog that he seemed to k»ve very much, but 
the dog was gun shy and would run out of camp at the sight of a 
gun, and as we lay looking through our port holes, Irish Pete and I 
side by side, we saw something crawling toward us. Irish Pete 
whispered, "It is an Indian, we will both shoot, but let me shoot first 
as I feel sure I can hit him." We both fired and a dog howled out, 
and a shrill voice cried, "You killed my dog, you killed my dog!" 

The men held their positions in the corral the rest of the day. 
As night came on, the Indians went to the rear wagon which had 
been left about 300 yards to the east, and threw off the beer and 
rolled it down the long hill toward the creek. They set fire to 
the 10,000 pounds of bacon, and the blaze seemed to reach two 
hundred feet high. The men could see well enough to have picked 
up a pin in the corral. They knew that if the Indians could see the 
situation they were in, they would charge the wagons after dark. 
They felt sure their scalps were gone. However, the -Indians 
seemed to be afraid and did not even fire into the camp. 

The next morning the oxen were unyoked and driven back to 
the creek for water, while some of the men surveyed the damage 
from the attack. Wagon Boss Throstle had been killed, Irish Pete 
had been shot in the leg, and Sherman was injured by the shot 
which had struck the fork of his saddle. Ten oxen and four horses 
had been killed. The rear unit of three wagons had been destroyed 
by the fire. The wheel oxen of the rear unit had been burned to 
death, while the next team had pulled the front wheels off from 
the wagon in its Wind panic to escape the fire. Five teams were 
found quietly grazing around still hitched together. 

When the train resumed its journey about eleven o'clock in the 
morning, Throstle was found lying where he had fallen. The 
Indians had stripped and scalped him and cut his heart out. He 
was laid on a tarpaulin on top of some groceries in the lead wagon. 

When we went on up the road we met two cowpunchers, and after 
talking to them a minute we asked if they had seen any Indians. 
They laughed and said no that they did not believe there were any 
in the country. They said that they had been on LaPrele Creek for 
two years and had not as much as seen a moccasin track. I told 
them that we had had a fight with them the day before. They 
laughed again and said show them the signs. I handed one of them 
my bridle reins, and stepped up on the brake and pulled the tarp 
back and let them see Throstle's body. They turned my horse loose, 
and turned and rode for Ft. Fetterman, and the last we saw of them 
they were riding like jockeys on the last quarter in a mile race. 

Early that morning a hay train left Fort Fetterman under George 
Powell, the hay contractor for the Post, travelling eastward on the 
Fort Laramie Road. The hay train learned of the tragedy some 
time during the day, probably after meeting the two cowpunchers 
on the trail. Powell and Groves started back to Fort Fetterman to 
alarm the garrison of the hostile Indians and arrived there about 
9:30 P. M. John Hunton, who was at the Fort, sent a telegram 
that night to Mr. Reel in Cheyenne informing him of the attack. 


Mr. Reel telegraphed instructions to have the body sent to Medi- 
cine Bow, where he would meet it with a coffin and bring it to 
Cheyenne for burial. These instructions were not followed, as 
Throstle was buried in the Post Cemetery at Fort Fetterman shortly 
after his body arrived there. 

Hunton noted in his Diary that "Indians stole 48 horses on 
Horseshoe and Cottonwood. Hot and dry." Meanwhile Heck 
Reel's wagon train camped on La Bonte Creek that night. 

Early on Thursday, August 3rd, George Powell set out with a 
party of men to get Throstle's body and bring in the wounded. 
After they had left. Corporal Ward came into Fort Fetterman with 
two men and reported that he had come up with the ox train which 
had been attacked while carrying supplies to the Fort. Ward had 
been sent out several days previously with a party as escort to 
Captain Hanton, who was bound for Fort Laramie. Ward's party 
had been relieved at Twin Springs. On its way back to Fetterman, 
on the east side of Horseshoe Creek, Ward and Privates Mulcey of 
Company I and Williams of Company C went hunting mounted 
on their horses, while Privates Duncan and Troper of Companies 
I and C of the 4th Infantry continued on towards the Fort in the 
ambulance. Upon returning from the hunt Ward could not find 
any trace of the ambulance and the men, and started on towards 
Fort Fetterman. He overtook the ox train which had been 
attacked, but passed it and came on to the Fort. As the men in 
the ambulance had not arrived there, they were believed to have 
been killed by Indians, and Ward was promptly thrown into the 
guard-house for leaving his men. 

About noon Powell and his party returned to the Post with 
Throstle's body and with Irish Pete. Throstle's body was buried 
later in the day without ceremony. Powell then disbanded his hay 
party because of fear of Indian attacks. In the afternoon Sergeant 
Webber and 4 men were sent out to find the ambulance and the 
missing men. Later in the day the men and ambulance all re- 
turned safely to the Post apparently without meeting Sergeant 
Webber's party. That evening, because Indians were reported in 
the vicinity of Fort Fetterman, extra pickets were put out and all 
attached men and citizen employees were armed. 

On Friday, August 4th, Sergeant Webber and his party returned 
to the Post but were sent back again to escort the supply train 
which was still on the road to the Fort. On the afternoon of 
Saturday, August 5th, the supply train finally arrived escorted by 
Sergeant Webber and his men. 

It had taken the supply train two and a half days to go from 
La Bonte Creek to Fort Fetterman, a distance of 24 miles. It is 
difficult to understand why such slow progress was made when 
everyone must have been anxious to get to the Fort where he would 
be safe from Indian attacks. Ten oxen and four horses had been 
killed, but there were three fewer wagons to pull. The oxen which 


had pulled the front wheels off the rear wagon were badly burned, 
and it is probable that some of the stock had been crippled by the 
gunfire. One thing is certain: all were glad to reach the safety 
of the Fort after their harrowing experience. 

Back on the trail remained the metal parts and the charred rem- 
nants of the burnt wagons. Animal bones and other debris lay 
scattered for about a half mile along the trail. As it was a main 
travelled road, supply trains, emigrants' wagons and soldiers 
carried off souvenirs and everything which was useful. Soon there 
was nothing to indicate where the incident had occurred, and in 
later years the exact spot had been forgotten. The bone fragments 
and pieces of barrel hoops remaining above ground were not 
accepted as conclusive evidence of the location. Until recently 
there were three different sites variously believed by many to be 
where the wagons were burned. At the first of these, where the 
barrel hoops were found, Bob Peterson placed a marker inscribed 
"Oregon Trail. Barrel Hoop Site." Ves Sherman had told Mr. 
Ed Foy, the owner of the land, that this was where the action had 
occurred. The second site was a mile to the west at a point 
where the old telegraph line came up from the southeast and 
joined the Fort Laramie-Fort Fetterman Road. The survey notes 
of the General Land Office show that the remains of the A. H. 
Reel train were located 8.50 chains north of the southwest corner 
of Section 34, Township 30 North, range 70 west, as surveyed 
by Jack Cole. Within a few hundred feet of this location a sheep 
herder found a burnt wagon wheel, and Fred Dilts, the owner of 
the land, found a burnt wagon hub. L. C. Bishop found near 
here a few 8 D cut nails and a staple to hold a bow on a wagon 
box. Bows were semi-circular pieces of thin oak wood bent so 
as to support the canvas covering the wagons. This site was 
considered authentic by some because it checked with the old 
road and telegraph line as shown by the Land Office plats and 
field notes. A marker was placed here showing that this was the 
site of the wagon burning. The third site was on top of the steep 
hill north of Elkhorn Creek, but we found nothing here. 

In order to pinpoint the exact location of the burnt wagons and 
of the attack, a party which included the writers, made a thorough 
check of all three areas with a metal detector in 1957. We went 
over the Government Survey site first and found nothing but one 
8 D cut nail. It was obvious that nothing had occurred here. 
We concluded that the oxen which had pulled the front wheels 
off the rear wagon had dragged them to this vicinity probably 
with a fragment of the wagon bed, and that the Government 
Surveyor, seeing these, assumed that the wagons had been burned 

At the barrel hoop site we found many pieces of barrel hoops 
on the surface and some from two to five inches below the surface. 
Within a hundred feet south and east of the marker, on lower 


ground, we located three .50-70 Springfield center fire inside 
primed empty cartridge cases of the type commonly used by the 
Indians at the time. These may have been cartridges fired at the 
animals or at the Missourian as he whacked the Mexican's bulls 
to the corral. Nothing else was found within a hundred feet of 
the marker. We concluded that this was the spot where the 40 
barrels of beer had been pushed out of the rear trail wagon. 
While many had been rolled down the hill, some had apparently 
been opened here. One wonders if the failure of the Indians to 
continue their attack that night and the next day could be attributed 
to their fondness for the contents of the barrels. 

Working northwestward we found 15 pieces of barrel hoop in 
and along the old trail beneath the surface, while some were still 
on top of the ground. When 50 yards west of the marker we 
started to find metal wagon parts. At 110 yards we located a 
band from a wagon hub 11 V^ inches in diameter and 1% inches 
wide and Va. inch thick, just south of the old trail. Within 30 feet 
of this band to the northwest we found 7 pieces of oak wood. 
All were probably burned, but two still had charcoal on the ends 
and one had red paint on the down side. Other wagon parts we 
found beneath the surface were 5 miscellaneous pieces of iron; 
1 piece of a strip from the top of a wagon box 8 inches long; 
1 brace iron from the outside of a wagon box 10 inches long with 
2Va inch rivets through the flat part and a % inch nut on the 
round end; 1 - 20 D cut nail; 1 - 10 D cut nail; 1 flattened iron 
band 2^4 inches wide and 6 inches long as flattened with 
2-14 inch holes. The latter may have been used around a splice 
of a broken coupling pole or wagon tongue. We also dug up 
1 iron staple from the side of a wagon box for holding a bow, 
and 1 circular metal disc about the size of a dollar and in the 
shape of the back of a watch case. All of these items were 
found scattered along the trail for 70 yards, commencing 50 yards 
west of the barrel hoop marker. This is where the three wagons 
were actually burned, although it is possible that they were fired 
near the barrel hoop marker. The Indians undoubtedly got the 
beer out before firing the wagons. As the three wagons were not 
70 yards long, the frantic oxen must have plunged forward, when 
the blaze started in an attempt to escape the fire, carrying the 
wagons to the 1 1 yard mark where the front wheels came loose 
and the hub band fell off. The oxen probably continued forward 
with the front wheels to the Government Survey site, leaving the 
burning wagons. We found no empty cartridge cases near this 
place, but we did find many old bone fragments scattered along 
the trail, mostly on the south side. 

From here we explored the vicinity of the trail westward for 300 
yards (410 yards northwest of the marker) without finding any- 
thing except animal bones. At this point and just south of the 
trail we found a wagon hub band 8Vi inches in diameter, 4 inches 


wide and Va inch thick with a notch for lynch pin. About 40 
feet northwest of this hub band iron we found a lynch pin 2^2 
inches long by 1 inch wide and Vk inch thick with a 14 inch hole 
near the small end. In the north track of the trail opposite this 
hub band we found a loaded .50 caliber Spencer cartridge and 
within 25 feet southeast of the hub band we found 2 .44-40 
center fire empty shells which had been fired in a 1873 Model 
Winchester rifle. A short distance off we dug up a .50 caliber 
empty Spencer cartridge case. Within an area of about 60 feet 
we found 1 - % inch nut; 1 bow staple; 1-4 inch strip off the 
top of a wagon box; 1 piece of Vs iron plate 4 by 5 inches; 1 piece 
of V^ inch thick iron with % inch hole and 15/16 inch nut. The 
evidence showed that this was the place where the wagons were 
corralled and where the attack was made. 

As the freighters had fired their pistols in the early part of the 
fight, we were surprised that we did not find any empty pistol 
cartridges. This could be explained by the fact that the firing 
was from the wagons and the empty cartridges ejected in the 
wagons. If the shells were outside primed, the men might have 
saved them for reloading. 

We found no evidence of burning here except for the presence 
of the wagon parts which were buried about 4 inches deep below 
the surface, indicating that they had been here as long as the 
empty .44-40 Winchester cartridges. All the accounts state that 
it was the three wagons forming the rear unit which were burned; 
none say that the corralled wagons were burned. But if no wagons 
burned here, how can the presence of the wagon parts be ex- 
plained? It is improbable that these could have been shot off or 
otherwise dislodged from the corralled wagons by the attacking 
Indians. After the oxen had torn the two front wheels from the 
wagon, they continued their stampede along the trail to the corral 
site where the hub band and other parts came off. Perhaps a 
freighter tried to stop them and they swerved, so that the careening 
wheels were upset or sideswiped the corral wagons, causing the 
parts to fall off. The wheel oxen which were burned to death, 
and the next pair which were burned must have done a lot of 
rearing and plunging in their frantic attempts to escape the flames. 
Their mad dash probably continued until they reached the Govern- 
ment Survey site three fourths of a mile further on. 

About 200 yards south of the corral site were found 2 - .45-70 
Springfield Model 1873 inside primed empty cartridge cases of 
the type used by the Army at the time. 100 yards to the west 
of these we dug up two more of them. All four were just 
over the crest of the hill or divide from where the wagons were 
corraled and are probably from the carbines of the Indians. A 
short distance west of the shells we found a pile of rocks which 
had been there many years. It was of a type similar to those 
built by Indians in marking the location of incidents which were 


important to them. After every battle, it was their custom to 
return to the scene and mark by such monuments the spots where 
some white man or Indian had been killed, or where some par- 
ticularly impressive feat of bravery had been performed. These 
are found on nearly all Indian battlefields. This one could mark 
in a general way the place of the battle, or it might indicate the 
spot where a brave had been killed. 

After exploring this area thoroughly and finding nothing more 
than old animal bones, we continued westward along the trail for 
200 yards where on the south side were two broken horseshoes. 
From this point, on the northwest crest of a hill, we continued 
westward to a big draw about another 200 yards and found 
nothing. This is where a little ridge runs southward across the 
road and was probably where the Indians fired on Throstle and 
Sherman on the hill crest 200 yards towards the east where we 
found the horseshoes. 

We made no attempt to explore the area by an -exhaustive 
foot-by-foot search with the metal detector, believing that the 
material already found was sufficient for the purpose of locating 
the sites. The relics enumerated have been donated to the Pioneer 
Museum in Douglas, Wyoming, and are on display there. Most 
of the animal bones and all surface barrel hoops were left where 
they were found. The wagon parts have been identified by L. C. 
Bishop, Albert Sims, and Russell Thorp, who grew up near Fort 
Fetterman and Cheyenne, and are familiar with all aspects of the 
early day freighting operations. It is suggested that the barrel 
hoop marker be maintained where it is and that the marker at the 
Governbent Survey site be altered so as to show only the place 
where the old telegraph hne reached the road. We hope that an 
appropriate marker will be placed at the 110 yard site to indicate 
the exact location where the wagons burned, and another in the 
center of the corral site where the attack was made. The valiant 
stand made by this gallant little band of freighters on the old Emi- 
grant Road should be commemorated in our Western Tradition. 


1. Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 5, Nos. 2 & 3, p. 71. 

2. Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 3, No. 3, p. 177. 

3. Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 25. 

4. Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 28, No. 1, p. 54. 

5. Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage Routes, by Agnes Wright Spring, Ar- 
thur H. Clark Company, Glendale 4, California. 1949. 

6. Cheyenne Daily Leader, August 3, 1876. 

7. John Hiinton Diary, August 2nd, 3rd, 1876 (Courtesy of L. G. 

8. Richer Interviews, Tablet 16, Narrative of American Horse. 

9. Rocky Mountain News, August 3, 1876. 

10. U. S. Geological Survey Maps. 

11. War Department Journal of Fort Fetterman, August 3rd, 4th, and 5th, 

12. Wyoming State Tribune, June 6, 1939. 

Zke J^eginmng of a Qreat Emblem ' 

George N. Ostrom 

At the Sheridan, Wyoming, Rodeo in 1913 in Sheridan, the 
Indians were assembling their horses on the race track for the 
one-half mile horse race. One of the horses was a tall rangy sorrel 
mare of good breeding and very high strung, and one could teU 
she had a colt left in the corrals which were across the track. 
After many tries the horses were finally off in a whirl of dust and 
as the horses approached the far side of the track a young colt 
leaped the fence and joined the tall sorrel mare which was his 
mother, and the race continued with the horses neck to neck to 
the finish line. The sorrel mare was to run another race later so 
the colt had to be roped and put back in the corral and the Indian 
boys proceeded to try and rope it, but the colt had other ideas and 
would have no part of the roping. It pulled hard against the rope 
when they finally got the rope around its neck and it made a leap 
in the air and came down hard on the ground. I did not Mke the 
treatment the colt was getting so I offered the Indian boys a ten 
dollar bill for it which they accepted and with a little help and a 
few words I got the colt in a trailer and to a stable which I had 
some distance from the race track. I later broke him to lead 
and took him out to my homestead pasture to grow up. I named 
him Red Wing because of the red sorrel, and he had two white 
stockings and a white face with the silver mane and tail. 

I was a member of the National Guard at Sheridan and we 
were called out to serve in the Mexican Border trouble and after 
two years I returned home and found that the colt had grown to 
be a beautiful horse. After spending time with him I broke him 
to ride. In a short time World War One was declared and I was 
to report again in Sheridan with the National Guard. I rode Red 
Wing into Sheridan intending to send the horse back to my home- 
stead with a friend, but that was where life changed for both of us. 
I was young, the horse was young, and we were full of different 
kinds of fun; sometimes the fun got the better of us. We were 
loading a troop train at the depot, some of the cars were to be used 

* Author's Note: In this article I do not intend to discredit or dis- 
criminate against any party or acts of any party regarding the bucking 
broncho on the Wyoming license plate. I take full credit for the creation 
and origination and the first use of a bucking broncho to identify the State 
of Wyoming. 


for baggage and I was put in charge of the baggage cars. That 
was when the idea came to me to load the horse in the baggage 
car and take him along. I decided to go about it in the right way 
and contacted the remount officer and have him buy the horse for 
the Army, but when he inspected him he said the horse was too 
young for Army use but by doing some tooth pulling he could get 
him by. I did not like this idea so I decided to build a makeshift 
stall in the baggage car and sneak Red Wing in, which I did. 

We were stationed at Cheyenne, Wyoming, and I put Red Wing 
in the remount stable with the rest of the army horses. He was 
not too well broken so every chance I got I rode him, but I was 
always worried that some outside officer would order the horse out. 
Red Wing established his own right to stay because of his good 
looks and every time the regiment would have a dress parade the 
majors would pick the mounts at the stables and Red Wing so 
outclassed the other army nags that he was chosen to be used. 
I made an agreement with the officers that if I could keep my horse 
within the army regulations they could use him anytime for the 

I recall the first dress parade that Red Wing was in. In camp 
we had two pet bears and during the heat of the day they would 
stay submerged in a small lake beside the camp and as the day 
cooled off they would come waddling up to the kitchen for a 
hand out. On this day about the time of day the bears were com- 
ing to the kitchen the regiment was all lined up to the last breath 
of attention on the parade ground, which was directly in the path 
of the bears from the lake to the kitchen. Directly in front of the 
third battalion was the Major on Red Wing out to report his 
battalion all accounted for by a stiff salute when the two bears 
passed in front of Red Wing. At this point Red Wing left for the 
stables leaving the Major hovering in mid-air with the salute. 

After a short time in Cheyenne, Wyoming, we were sent to 
North Carolina to be equipped and ready for overseas duty. By 
this time we had quite a number of remount horses to be shipped 
by stock cars and again I began to worry how I was going to get 
Red Wing to North Carolina. When it was time to entrain I found 
I was to be in charge of a few baggage cars and about three cars for 
the horses. I do not know who was responsible for this arrange- 
ment, but of course in loading the horses I included Red Wing. 
We were to have several stops in route to feed but when we came 
to the stops there was never any feed. The horses became very 
hungry and began to chew the boards on the sides of the cars, and 
when we reached Irwin, Tennessee, which was to be a feed stop, 
there again we found no feed. At this point we knew the horses 
must be fed, so with the aid of some railroad ties we made an 
unloading shute and platform. We unloaded the horses and took 
them outside of town to pasture. We kept back some horses for 
herd horses and I kept Red Wing for a herd horse and rode him. 


Unloading the horses was not authorized by the Army but al- 
though it threw us off schedule we stayed until the horses were fed 
and rested. In turn for the hospitality of the people of Irwin we 
staged a real western rodeo for them and Red Wing was one of 
the work stock. When we arrived at Charlotte, North Carolina, 
the horses were ordered moved to Newport News, Virginia, to 
be shipped overseas. The men were sent to New York to be sent 
overseas from there. With the horses and the men parting till we 
arrived overseas I again began to worry how Red Wing would get 
on ship. The personnel of the transport was to be taken from our 
regiment and a Captain Colwell was chosen. He was very fond 
of Red Wing and promised to do anything he could to see that Red 
Wing would go along with the rest of the remounts overseas. When 
the horses left North Carolina by train it was the last time I was 
to see Red Wing for a long time. 

When I arrived overseas I was stationed at Bordeaux, France, 
and I learned that Red Wing was at Tours, France. Our regiment 
had been spht with two battalions being made combat troops and 
motorized. That meant that our remount horses would not be in 
my regiment and I was again concerned about Red Wing. I had 
a very good friend. Major H. E. Lonabaugh from Sheridan, who 
went with the noncombatant battalion. He was to be stationed 
near where Red Wing was quartered and he promised to look after 
Red Wing till the war was over. He, too, was very fond of Red 
Wing having ridden him many times. 

At the close of the war I went to Tours to see Red Wing. I 
found him in a French School of Equitation and had a good job. 
He was receiving the best of care and my ambition was to bring 
him home with me. After the necessary arrangements were made 
I found it would cost me fifteen hundred dollars to bring him to 
the United States. I could not afford to do this so I sold him to 
the French school, and as far as I know he finished out his life 
there. I was always glad the regiment split and he never had to 
go to the front lines. 

Now let me connect the Bucking Broncho emblem of the 148 
Field Artillery of which our outfit from Sheridan became a part. 
I have mentioned we were a split regiment and assigned to a corps, 
therefore we rather lost, or did not rate, the emblem of any divi- 
sion. Combat units seldom were identified by their numbers but 
had an emblem like the rainbow or red arrow and so forth. So 
while on the Chateau-Thierry defensive the command issued an 
order for suggested designs competive to the regiment. The best 
designs were to be judged by the command and the one they picked 
was to be used as the emblem that would identify the 148 Field 

I decided to enter the contest and one quiet day I went back to 
where we had our noncombat equipment stored along with paint 
and other things. When I arrived there some of the boys were 



Courtesy George N. Ostrom 
A G.P.F. 155 mm French rifle showing the Bucking Broncho emblem. 
All of the 66th Brigade equipment carried the design and was known as 
the "Bucking Broncho Brigade from Wyoming." 

painting some equipment and I borrowed a brush and paint. Our 
band instruments were also stored there and I found a drum and 
painted a picture of Red Wing bucking. While I was doing this 
I had laid down my brush on the drum rim for a minute and a 
shell exploded close by and bounced the brush around several times 
on the drum head. I remarked to the boys that now these brush 
marks on the drum head were wound stripes for Red Wing. When 
I finished the picture on the drum head I took it to the Com- 
mander's tent and when he saw the bucking broncho design he 
said that was it. The contest was closed and that the design made 
our outfit known as the bucking broncho regiment from Wyoming. 
We had all our equipment, our road signs and helmets with the 
bucking broncho painted on them. When we got to Germany the 
Germans even made jewelry with the bucking broncho on it. 

When we returned to the United States we were mustered out 
of service at Cheyenne, Wyoming, and being a National Guard 
unit originally each company went to their home town. Some of 
our outfit was from Lander and they of course had their equipment 
displaying the bucking broncho, even to lapel buttons with the 
design on them. 

In 1935 a Lander man. Dr. Lester C. Hunt, became Secretary 
of State, and one of his first actions while in office was to put 
the bucking broncho on the Wyoming automobile license plate, 
and he had the copyright in his name. 


This action stirred up a controversy and the Boys throughout the 
State who had served in the war under this emblem or design at 
once flooded me with letters and conversation protesting against 
Mr. Hunt's action in copyrighting the broncho. 

When Dr. Hunt ran for Governor the second term in 1946 I 
had been encouraged by so many people who knew the history of 
the broncho that I appealed to him to give the copyright to the 
State of Wyoming. Others had also put pressure on him to turn 
the copyright over to the State, and he finally did so. Now the 
counterpart of Red Wing is merrily bucking down the road on 
the Wyoming license plate, and the copyright to it belongs to the 
people of the State.* 

When the 148 Field Artillery was leaving Germany all of our 
equipment was to stay there, even the drum with the original buck- 
ing broncho picture which I had drawn for the regiment contest 
and a Mr. Chuck Lewis, 1st Sgt. of F. Battery, cut the head out 
of the drum with the remark that he was going to take that home 
with him and he did just that. A few years ago Mr. Lewis was 
killed in a gun battle with a desperate gunman in Powell, Wyo- 
ming^ I understand his widow still lives in Powell and she might 
still have this drum head in her possession. 

Without any doubt the idea of the bucking broncho emblem was 
started by the service men of Wyoming during World War One 
and regardless who put it on the license plate that was an im- 
portant and wonderful act and should have its merits and I believe 
it has. This great emblem is unusual and has a great history 
behind it. When one sees it in competition with the usual emblems 
of other states, one feels himself and the great state of Wyoming 
very outstanding, of which he has every right. 

* Editor's Note: The bucking broncho designed by Mr. Ostrom and 
that used on the Wyoming license are not the same although they are 
similar. The license plate broncho was designed by Allen True. See 
"Wyoming's Insignia — The Bucking Horse" by Jean C. Gaddy, Annals of 
Wyoming, Vol. 26 No. 2, July 1954, pp. 129-136. 

1. Killed by Earl Durand in March, 1939. 

Quo Vadis in Wyoming, 
March, J 876 


Edmund A. Bojarski 

Henry Sienkiewicz, the world famous author of Quo Vadis? 
and Nobel Prize winning Polish novelist crossed the United States 
late in the winter of 1876 and recorded his astute journalistic 
impressions of the places visited in a series of Letters From A 
Journey To America. These impressions have never been pub- 
lished in English translation despite the considerable historical 
interest they contain for students of Americana. The paragraphs 
which follow are a translation of Sienkiewicz's impressions of the 
state of Wyoming during his first transcontinental journey. 

". . . . That evening! we arrived in Pine Bluffs on the border 
of Nebraska and Wyoming. The character of the scenery changed 
completely, passing from flat to mountainous. The train continued 
to travel on a plain, but on either side we could see mountains 
with their tops covered with snow or cliffs often piled into ex- 
tremely fantastic forms reminiscent of the ruined castles along the 
Rhine. The area is wild and gloomy, and from the cars we could 
again see antelope and prairie dog towns. We were approaching 
Cheyenne, a station in Wyoming, but before reaching it we rode 
through the first snowshed, which was more than a mile long. 
These snowsheds are extremely long galleries covered by a roof 
to protect the railroad tracks from snowdrifts. I had heard so 
many tales and so much wonder about them that I admit complete 
disappointment. It is true that these galleries are very long, but 
also that they are nailed together of planks and beams in the 
crudest manner. The beams are held together by nails — in the 
roof a multitude of holes — in a word, the whole thing was built 
the way we used to build houses a few decades ago. Although 
construction of this type can be completely adequate, in no case 
does it warrant being regarded as the eighth wonder of the world. 

Having ridden out of the snowshed, we had before us a mag- 
nificent scene. To the right of the train the Black Hills to which 
so many people travelled through Omaha and Sious City could be 
seen as clearly as on the palm of your hand. This is a separate 

1. March 11th, 1876. 


group, like our Tatras, standing apart from the other chains on a 
plain. Against the backdrop of the leaden sky and the scenery 
dusted with snow, these mountains did, indeed, appear as black 
as night and somehow mysterious, grim and foreboding. Only 
their highest peaks were covered with snow, and besides that, their 
black color has not even a trace of the bluish tinge which other 
mountains have. At the moment, they are witnesses to the horrible 
drama being enacted between the redskins and the whites.^ 

Finally we arrived in Cheyenne. The entire population of the 
station was excited and restless. Tumbling over each other, they 
told us that a battle had taken place between the miners and the 
Sioux the day before and that the miners had suffered defeat. 
They had lost eight dead and over a dozen wounded, and besides 
that, all the horses, oxen and food supplies. It is probable that 
before new supplies are delivered via Omaha and Sioux City, 
hunger and misery will reign among them because supplies cannot 
come through Cheyenne even though it is closest to the Black 
Hills. The road between is inaccessible. 

The train stopped in Cheyenne for a quarter of an hour. I lis- 
tened to the accounts of the battle for a few minutes and then 
admired the huge gray grizzly bear which, having caused a dis- 
turbance too near the station, had been killed, or rather shot by 
every available rifle, by the inhabitants. This monster, which had 
a head measuring more than a foot across, was so large that when 
he was stood up on his hind paws, people of average height only 
came up to his shoulders. In general, there are supposed to [be] 
great numbers of them in the vicinity of Cheyenne. 

Cheyenne lies directly within the Rocky Mountain system. It is 
6,041 feet, or almost as much as our Lomnica, above sea level. 
Further on beyond the station the snowsheds go on almost without 
interruption and the snowdrifts everywhere are tremendous. The 
little stops. Hazard, Otto, Granite Canon and Buford lie at ever 
higher elevations, and at last we reached the Sherman station, the 
highest elevation on the whole line, which lies 9,000 feet above 
sea level. 

There is nothing sadder than the view of this station. On a 
small bare plain stands a house with its roof thickly covered with 
snowdrifts. The air is thin and so piercing that despite our furs 
we shivered with the cold. Snow falls almost continuously here 
and the gale howls and twists clouds of snowflakes. In some 
places naked black cliffs off which the wind blows the drifts today 

2. At the moment in which I write this (the latter half of July) war 
already rages in earnest in the Black Hills area, and not between the miners 
and the Indians either, but between the government of the United States 
and the latter. According to the latest dispatches, the forces under the 
command of General Custer suffered a costly defeat. 


and will blow them back tomorrow jut out suddenly. I do not 
understand how people can live and reside permanently in these 
places where the lungs are actually deprived of breath, one's ears 
ring, and blood appears on the lips of weaker persons. 

On the 1 1 th of March we began our descent, but even on this 
side the decline in elevation is not extremely noticeable because 
we are always at least a few thousand feet above sea level. We 
are already at the borders of Wyoming. 

During the afternoon of that same day we reached the Green 
River, which originates in the mountains not far from here. The 
country is rocky everywhere and the cliffs assume such fantastic 
shapes that this is almost the most interesting part of the trip. 
Some are like obelisks, others like pyramids, and there again 
stands a castle you would swear had been erected by human hands 
because it lacks neither towers, shooting turrets, nor even a circular 
wall. But there is another change: as far as the eye can see the 
cliffs are getting lower and creating walls as long, straight and 
regular as if built with a plumbline and compass. . . ." 

Mcmoriamfrom One Old Soldier 
to Motker 

Minnie Presgrove 

Mist clouded the eyes of the tired but jubilant party on August 
21, 1927 as they placed a copper box beneath a cairn of stones 
on the very summit of Fremont Peak. 

A mission was accomplished. One grand old soldier's promise, 
made to a Civil War buddy, had been kept. Perseverance on the 
part of Captain Herman G. Nickerson had overcome obstacles 
that had sprung up for 15 long years. And now, the victory was 
theirs. "Cap" Nickerson had conquered the peak, in honor of 
his old friend General John C. Fremont. 

Cap Nickerson, a territorial legislator, didn't make the ascent 
himself, but he was there in spirit. His indomitable courage 
urged on others who actually retraced Fremon't ascent to the 
summit of Fremont Peak. 

Nickerson prepared the box to hold the mementos, consisting 
of two photostatic copies of letters written by Fremont. One 
letter described his trip when he climbed Fremont Peak in 1842. 
The other letter expressed the wish that Nickerson retrace Fre- 
mont's trip. In the box he also placed a register for all who 
climbed the peak to sign. Nickerson chose copper, a metal that 
can withstand the assaults of time and weather. Copper, a metal 
befitting Fremont with whom he had served in the Civil War. 

Bad luck delayed Nickerson. The first trip was planned for 
the summer of 1912 but he was injured in a car accident. The trip 
was then postponed for 13 years with Nickerson becoming more 
determined than ever that the next summer he would surely make 
the trip. 

When he was 84 years old, he was forced to give up personally 
attempting to scale the peak. He asked Joe Felter of Pinedale to 
fulfill the mission. Bad luck dogged Felter, too. Nickerson sent 
the box containing the records from Lander to Felter in Pinedale. 

Felter was accompanied by Fred Snyder, also of Pinedale. The 
two men walked from the head of Fremont Lake. Their journey 
took them up the rough canyon of Fremont Creek. Felter and 
Snyder gained altitude steadily. Rocks rolled beneath their feet. 
They wondered about the descent. They didn't want to tumble 
to the bottom after the climb. They took time to place stones in 
piles to make their descent easier. 


When Felter was 500 feet from the summit, the wind changed. 
They saw clouds gathering. Both men knew that a storm was 
approaching. Felter led the way, urging his companion to hurry. 
The wind blew fiercely. Then, the storm engulfed them. Snow 
pelted them from all sides. They could not see. Felter could not 
go on. It was too cold to wait for the storm to abate. 

The men's shoulders slumped. With faltering difficult steps 
they made their way back to the "saddle" at the foot of the steep 
climb to the summit. Here Felter and Snyder built a cairn of 
stones in which they placed the box. 

Again Cap Nickerson seemed to have met with defeat. But 
again, he started plans afresh. This time he enlisted the aid of 
members of his family to form a party to place the box where he 
desired it placed — on the summit and no place else. 

Two more years passed and then in August, the party set out. 
In the party were four members of Nickerson's family, his son, 
O. K. Nickerson; a daughter, Mrs. Fred Stratton; a grand-daughter, 
Alta May Carson and a son-in-law, John Maclean. Joe Felter 
accompanied them to show them where he'd left the box two years 
previously. E. E. McKee, a forest ranger from Pinedale who had 
chmbed the peak in 1917, was engaged as a guide. 

Camp was made at Surveyor Park the first night, which was 
Friday night. The party had travelled to Surveyor Park in a 
truck. Horses were rented here to ride to Island Lake where 
they camped the next night. 

Early Sunday morning the start was made from Island Lake 
camp. The party started out on horseback but the horses were 
left about a mile out of camp when it became a matter of losing 
time hunting out a course over which horses could go. They had 
about two and one-half miles of walking over rocks and snowbanks 
along the edge of a valley containing a string of small lakes, on a 
gradually increasing up-grade before they reached the saddle where 
Felter had placed the box two years before. 

The magnificent view that they would get from the summit of 
the peak obscured all thoughts of fatigue as they chmbed Fremont 
Peak, 13,730 feet above sea level, third highest in Wyoming. All 
the members of the group, on clear days, had seen Fremont Peak 
from Highway 187 between Pinedale and Eden. They had been 
profoundly stirred by the magnificent panorama of the Wind 
River Mountains that loom to the eastward. Fremont did not 
know that the mountain he saw so vividly to the northward was 
the highest peak in Wyoming, now called Mount Gannett. When 
Fremont turned a little and looked far to the northwest, he saw 
the majestic Tetons, and the second highest mountain in Wyoming, 
the Grand Teton. 

Rumbhngs of thunder and the movement of clouds over the 
peaks to the west announced an approaching storm as they neared 
the saddle. Felter led the way to the cairn where they found the 


copper box. Snow had already begun to fall- lightly. All in the 
party examined the contents of the box, signed the register, secured 
the lid and struggled on. 

The wind seemed angry at anyone who dared to climb the peak. 
Fiercer and fiercer it blew. Snow enveloped them like a demented 
cloud that was determined to block their way. They went on. 
Breathlessly, step by step they worked their way up the steep climb. 
McKee led the way. Felter carried the box. All thoughts of 
seeing the view from the summit were blotted from their minds. 
To reach the summit at all seemed an impossibility. On they 
struggled. Finally, they were there. Determination won out. The 
peak was conquered at last. 

McKee, with fresh energy, hastened to find the tin can that had 
been left on the summit by Charles Stroud in 1915. This can 
contained some records about Stroud's ascent to the peak. McKee 
had placed some records in the same can in 1917. They put these 
records in the copper box, also. 

The group had reached the summit but their work was not over. 
In the treacherous wind and driving snow, they gathered stones to 
build a cairn to protect the box. The mission was at last ful- 
filled. Exultation showed in the faces and actions of every mem- 
ber of the party. Could even Fremont's trip equal theirs? 

Cap Nickerson, just two months before his death, after 1 5 years 
of delay and disappointment had realized a life-long ambition: 
to erect a monument to General Fremont for whom, at Cap 
Nickerson's suggestion, Fremont County was named. 

The original of the following letter from Fremont to Nickerson 
is in the holdings of the State Archives and Historical Department, 
H. C. Nickerson Collection. 

New Brighton Staten Island N. Y. 22d March 1884 

Hon H. G. Nickerson, 

South Pass City, Fremont County, Wyoming Terr y : 

My dear Sir, 

I have to thank you for your letter of the 8 th in which you 
inform me that the legislature of Wyoming had given my name 
to the new County which embraces the Wind River chain of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

In making sure to yourself my thanks for your active part in 
having this honor conferred upon me and my companions I would 
have been glad at the same time to make my acknowledgements 
to the Legislature for the unexpected pleasure they have given me 
in attaching my name to the beautiful region which was the object 


and termination of a journey full of interest and excitement and 
which has remained always pleasantly fresh in my memory. 

Coming as it does after many years, their recognition of the work 
of that day, with the approval which I may be permitted to assume 
that the recognition impUes, is very gratifying to me. Perhaps, 
as occasion may serve, and by way of completing this friendly 
service in my behalf, you wlil kindly thank the members of the 
legislature for me. 

Meantime I trust that I shall continue in the enjoyment of your 
own friendship and assuring you that I fully reciprocate it I am 

Yours truly, 
J. C. Fremont 

Zhe Mole-m-tke- Wall 


Thelma Gatchell Condit 


Arapahoe Brown 

Andrew (Arapahoe) Brown, while a dangerous man and not by 
any stretch of the imagination, an exemplary character, was not 
an ordinary outlaw. He used sense with his killings — to him it was 
not only logical but justifiable to remove, in-so-far as he was able, 
whatever got in his way; and this he did himself. He had no 
"partners-in-crime" until the very last; and when he did, it was his 
complete undoing. 

Perhaps Brown's aggressive attitude toward life was partly due 
to his physical bigness, for he was powerfully built, a regular giant 
of a man, tall, big-framed, raw-boned, straight-backed, square- 
faced, long-armed and big-handed. He was quite an imposing 
figure, to say the least. He had the habit, when he spoke, of 
looking straight at a person out of dark brown eyes. There was 
no cruelty in his eyes — they were not the hard, bold, sunfacy type 
that show evil underneath. Brown's eyes were deep-set under 
prominent brows and a broad forehead; intelhgent, "wide-awake- 
looking" eyes, the unblinking kind that served to accentuate the 
over-all forcefulness of the man. His hugeness, coupled with the 
unwavering intensity of his gaze immediately convinced a person 
that Brown was not a man to be lightly reckoned with. Everything 
about him showed strength and deep-rooted determination, and 
you felt mightily disinclined to interfere with him in any way. You 
just automatically stepped aside and let him pass. The thumb of 
his left hand was missing (rumor said it had been chewed off by 
an adversary in a fight up in the timber — when neither had a gun) . 
However, its absence was in no way a disfigurement — rather it 
seemed to enhance the commanding physical strength of the man. 

Andrew Brown appeared out of nowhere in the wolf-trapping 
days and was seen frequently in the Hole-in-the-Wall country. He 
was known as Arapahoe Brown, having acquired the name through 
his association with the Arapahoe Indians. Some folks say he 
was raised by them because his parents had been killed by Indians 
on their way west from Tennessee; others say his living with the 
Arapahoes wasn't entirely involuntary — that he took up with them 
by choice. At any rate, one idea is as good as another, because 
no one knew anything for sure about his past, and, for that matter, 

Courtesy Thelma G. Condit 
Andrew "Arapahoe" Brown 


knew nothing about his present comings and goings either. Like 
an Indian he'd appear out of nowhere and sit down by a fellow's 
campfire warming himself and the next moment he was gone. In 
those days he was very dark, and very tanned and smooth-shaven. 
He wore his hair long like an Indian and was dressed in buckskin 
garb and moccasins. He often visited the Barnums. Old Tom 
said, "Arapahoe never said much, but was always pleasant and 
friendly. He had a nice voice, spoke soft and low — never acted 
out-of-the-way. We'd never hear him come or go. Sometimes 
he'd set up and eat, but most generally he'd just set behind the 
stove and warm up — squattin' on the floor like an Indain — rubbin' 
his big hands over his knees, and up and down his long legs," 

Sometimes Arapahoe was seen with Wild Cat Sam and Shorty 
Wheelwright, but mostly he trapped alone. He and Shorty would 
make an odd-looking pair, riding along loaded down with traps; 
a short-legged, wiry-little fellow on a big "rangy" horse, and the 
big, long-legged fellow on a small, spotted Indian pony, his big 
moccasined feet practically dragging on the ground. 

Arapahoe had a big staghound, brown-brindled and wire-haired 
that could kill a gray wolf single-handed. He also had a "bawling" 
hound — a black and tan Missouri coon-hound. This animal was 
so fast he could get clear out of sight when hot on the trail of a 
wolf or coyote. Arapahoe wasn't satisfied until he got himself a 
horse that could keep up with this "bawhn' " hound. He liked his 
horses and dogs and took mighty good care of them. 

Wild Cat Sam had a bitch setter dog. (See picture) She had 
a litter of pups out of Arapahoe's staghound and these pups were 
the fastest rabbit-chasing dogs you ever saw. A jack rabbit didn't 
have a chance in the world out on the flats. Old Sam would say, 
"We got 'vittals' for supper — roasted jack rabbit's mighty fine 
eatin' to my way of thinkin'." Sam had to admit that Arapahoe's 
bawlin' hound was a pretty fair dog, but not like one a friend of 
his had down in Missouri. "All that fella had to do was show that 
hound a piece of wood, and by gum, here he'd come with a dad- 
blamed" coon that'd fit right over that board. All he had to do 
was skin it out and stretch it to dry. One day his ole woman got 
careless-like and left the ironin' board settin' outdoors and blamed 
if that old hound wasn't so all-fired crazy to hunt coons that he 
high-tailed it out to find a coon to fit that there ironin'-board. 
Did he find one? Hell, no, he didn't, but he might — he ain't 
back yet." 

But Arapahoe wasn't content to be just a wolfer and wanderer. 
While strictly an outdoorsman and all, he had an ambitious side to 
him that struggled for fulfillment — ^he hankered to make money 
and be something in his own right. This fact, too, was undoubt- 
edly another factor nurturing his inborn aggressiveness. Maybe 
personal frustrations nagged at him inwardly causing him to act 
the bully. Or maybe he was just an idealogical person who needed 


no grounds or ideas to justify his acts (the worst type of criminal). 
At any rate there was nothing about him that suggested in any 
way that he either desired or sought the approval of his fellowmen. 
He was sufficient unto himself. Like the average wolfer he wasn't 
content to live freely, independently and unrestrained — he wanted 
all that, and more. Maybe his education or something in his past 
goaded him on — anyway, later on an entirely different side of his 
dual personality is revealed in his association with the Huson 
family on Crazy Woman. 

Edward W. Huson was born in Boston where he had been 
educated to be a doctor; but like so many others he wanted to go 
West. So in the late '70's he went to Wisconsin where he found 
himself a good wife. Next he went to Council Bluffs, Iowa, where 
he started practicing medicine. Here unfortunately he contracted 
typhoid fever and became violently ill. After a long, seemingly 
endless period of convalescence he decided to get farther west into 
a high, dry climate. So in 1881 the family arrived in Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, with wagons and teams carrying their few worldly pos- 
sessions. It was here the Husons met John R. Smith, who was 
already firmly established at Trabing, Wyoming, notwithstanding 
the fact that the Indians weren't exactly peacefully inclined toward 
the few white settlers. 

In 1882 the Husons came on north and took up land on Crazy 
Woman right below present day "Tipperary" (where they stayed 
until 1889). It was here they became acquainted with Arapahoe 
Brown. They grew to be fast friends — Arapahoe Brown proved 
indeed "A friend in need" as they built a homestead cabin and set 
up residence in this wild, unpopulated area. Dr. Huson and 
Arapahoe hunted buffalo and other wild game. It was then that 
the doctor learned the ways of the great western outdoors and 
gradually and completely regained his good health. Arapahoe and 
the doctor spent evening after evening in stimulating, social con- 
versation, discussing events of the times, philosophy, poetry, books, 
etc. It was very evident that Andrew Brown was a well-educated 
man. He had by now grown a mustache and a small "goatee". 

The Shoshoni and Arapahoe Indians used to camp on Crazy 
Woman below the Huson homestead, 1,000 at a time, to cut up 
and dry their Buffalo meat and make the ever-needed pemmican. 
This would have been indeed frightening had not Arapahoe Brown 
been there, for as Dr. Huson said, "He was quite an Indian fellow 
— could get anything out of a bunch of Indians." He used to 
spend quite a bit of his time with the Indians when they were 
buffalo hunting. 

But Rap, in spite of all this apparent sociality, was still myster- 
ious and abrupt about his comings and goings. After days of 
enjoyable hunting and visiting he'd suddenly be gone, to appear 
weeks later just before the evening meal. Perhaps he'd come in 
all covered with snow, and, unfastening his heavy buffalo-hide 


coat remark, "Well, Doc, I think we're going to have a chinook 
tomorrow". And they did. , 

It was while Arapahoe was doing a lot of visiting at the Huson's, 
and soon after a Deadwood Stage robbery, that one dark night two 
strangers knocked at the door and asked if the doctor would set a 
man's leg. They were tired-looking and heavily armed. Both 
were red-eyed and dust-covered to the point where it was hard to 
tell much what their faces were like normally. They were tall, 
well-built fellows drooping with fatique. One said, "Doc, this 
man's needin' a doctor mighty bad. We're figgerin' on bringin' 
him in". Dr. Huson didn't see how he could rightly refuse such a 
request (or was it an order?) and while looking them over it 
flashed through his mind that it was very odd indeed that they had 
called him "Doc". How had they known anything about him? 
How did they know he lived there? How had they found him? 
At the same moment he had a queer prickly feeling up and down 
his spine sensing that it would be unwise to refuse the request 
had he had such a notion. 

He told them to bring the man in and go stable their horses and 
have a bite to eat, said he could put them up for the night. The 
fellow was in a bad way for sure, plumb used-up and suffering 
plenty, said his "horse had stumbled and fell on his leg." After 
the doctor and his wife finished working with him, they looked 
around but no one was there — the other two strangers had va- 
moosed. Thinking maybe they'd bedded down in the barn, the 
doctor investigated, but the only thing he found was a big long- 
legged brown horse tied to the manger, tiredly eating oats. It was 
plain to be seen that "he'd done some hard-going", for he was 
sweat-caked and muddy. To one side lay "The swellest silver- 
mounted saddle and bridle a fella'd ever care to see". "Odd, now 
wasn't it, if them fella's was in such a hurry to leave, why had they 
taken time to unsaddle that horse and give him some oats? How'd 
they know where them oats was, now you come to think about it?" 

For a week or more the cowboy took a "heap of watching" — he 
was a sick man. He stayed there for over a month, "him and his 
horse," but the Husons enjoyed the stranger's stay. As Harry 
Huson, then a boy, said, "He was the finest lookin' man I ever 
saw — the pleasantest fella you could ever talk to — smart, too, and 
well-raised and educated. He was a good-hearted devil — had a 
smile a foot long. He was a southerner, and very dark complected, 
musta been six feet tall and musta weighed 170 pounds. He was 
sure nice to us kids. We'd break our necks waitin' on him. We'd 
do anything, just so he'd smile and tell us things in that fascinatin' 
southern drawl." 

One day when he got so he could hobble around fairly well, the 
cowboy said, "Have the boys get my horse in the corral with the 
bunch. I aim to be leavin' in the morning." 


So the following morning, sure enough, he saddled up and lead- 
ing his horse back to the house, said, "Doc, how much do I owe 
you? For the extra-special favors for me and my horse?" 

"Well, you cowboys have a pretty hard hfe, have to work hard 
for your money — guess $25 '11 do the job; although, rightly, boy, 
I didn't figure on chargin' you a red cent. We've all enjoyed hav- 
ing you here, even if we do have a tough time wondering where 
the next grub'll come from. Tain't none of our business and ain't 
idle curiousity, just friendly interest, and if you're not sayin' won't 
matter. But now that you're leavin', do you mind tellin' us what 
outfit you work for generally? Hope it ain't too far away, so 
we'll be seein' you again soon." 

The stranger didn't answer for a moment or two — just stuck his 
hand in his pocket and pulled out a big roll of money and handed 
the doctor several hundred dollar bills. Then leading his horse, 
he limped over and sat down on an empty nail keg nearby and 
slowly and very painstakingly rolled a cigarette. After carefully 
scrutinizing the finished job he lit a match and, looking up with 
that engaging smile of his, said, "Come on over here, you boys, 
and set down. I want to tell you somethin'. I want you to always 
remember it. I'll tell you who I am — I'm Bob Dalton — just a 
plumb no-good train robber and outlaw, and I've been doin' this 
fer quite a spell; but mind now, I ain't advisin' you to do it. Get 
what you get honest. Do you hear? Honest, get it honest. 
Somethin' pretty bad happened to me awhile back, and for the life 
of me I can't seem to get it out of my head. All the time I been a 
layin' here healin', it keeps poppin' up and troublin' me. My 
mother was on a stage I held up — she was comin' out here to find 
me, her son, 'cause she couldn't stand me never writin' and her 
never hearin' or knowin' where I was. So after the holdup I rode 
into Cheyenne and hunted her up. Hadn't seen her for ten years. 
She had no way a knowin' I was one of them that took her money 
and scared her till she was fit to be tied. She was terrible upset. 
Tried to get me to come home and get away from all this wicked 
country. I gave her money and sent her back home promisin' I'd 
come soon; I leave her think I was doin' good and earnin' money — 
I mean earnin' honest money. Boys, I lied to her and ain't atall 
proud that I had to tell them lies. Boys, don't ever do nothin' 
that'll keep you from lookin your ma in the eyes and knowin' 
you've rightly earned that proud way she has a lookin' at you. 
It ain't good for a fellow to have to lie to his own ma." And 
stomping his cigarette out with a boot heel he mounted and rode 
off at a gallop, waving goodby, as he disappeared over the hill. 
And the Husons never saw him again. Unconsciously the thought 
comes to our minds — did Arapahoe Brown have anything to do 
with this episode? It is known that he had "doings" with the 
James Brothers — why not, maybe, with the Dalton Brothers, too? 


It's an intriguing thought. How much went oft in the Hole-in-the- 
Wall that will forever remain a part of its weird obscurity! 

Along with everything else, Arapahoe did considerable prospect- 
ing for gold. By now, he had himself a dugout up on Rock Creek, 
which served as a headquarters of sorts. Here he had quite a 
bunch of horses. He liked this Rock Creek-French Creek country, 
and spent much of his time there, in between prospecting trips into 
the Big Horns. By now it was very obvious that Brown was going 
to get himself a hunk of land. He was on friendly terms with a 
Mowry family who had located on French Creek. Mowry himself 
seemed a rather indolent sort, preferring to go hunting and pros- 
pecting rather than attend to the improvement of his land. He 
left all the hard work on their small ranch to his wife. It is said 
she dug the first irrigation ditch on Rock Creek. That ditch today 
is still called the Mowry Ditch. 

One day Arapahoe and Mowry took off on a hunting trip. 
Mowry was never seen again. Some say he lies buried beneath a 
man made pile of rocks on a nearby hill; others say Brown dis- 
posed of him high on the Big Horns. Be that as it may, it is known 
that Brown moved in with Mrs. Mowry without the benefit of 
clergy. (In those days they sometimes overlooked little formal- 
itites like getting married. After a year or two he apparently tired 
of this arrangement, so removed Mrs. Mowry. He staked her to a 
light wagon and a fine matched, roan team and sufficient money 
to get her back home to Indiana. Not too long after her reluctant 
departure Mr. Brown drove up to the homestead shack with the 
wagon and roan team. What had happened to Mrs. Mowry and 
her son? Who knows. One old-timer said he knew a fellow who 
happened by the Mowry cabin one time when no one was there. 
He got off his horse and sort of looked around; he wasn't snooping 
or anything like that, you understand. He was just resting up a 
bit and a funny thing happened, a right upsetting thing — his dog 
got to sniffing around one end of the cabin and finally began 
digging at a great rate. Next thing the man knew his darned dog 
was chewing on a kid's skull. He became so frightened he put 
the bone back under the house, filled up the hole and withdrew 
from the vicinity immediately. He never mentioned this incident 
until long after Brown's death. Whether his imagination got out 
of hand or not is not known. All that is known is that no one 
ever laid eyes on Mrs. Mowry and her son again. 

Rap now began to visualize himself as dictator over the Rock 
Creek area. One time an old cowhand by the name of J. W. 
Mooney, working for a big outfit south of Buffalo, was stacking 
hay on Lower Rock Creek, where choice bluestem grass grew 
abundantly on the rich bottomland draws along the creek. It was 
open country, nobody owned the land; whoever felt most ambitious 
at the right time used the grass for hay and hauled it in for saddle- 
horse and milkcow feed. Just as J. Will was finishing the stacking 


Arapahoe rode up, as usual on a horse that seemed much too 
sHght to bear his weight, and said that that hay and grass was his. 
"This land's mine and what's on it is mine." J. Will got his rifle 
and climbed onto the stack, at first thinking he'd battle the bully. 
Arapahoe said with that soft voice of his, "I'll give you just five 
minutes to get off that stack and get out of here." After looking 
into Brown's unblinking, intense-gazing eyes, J. Will slowly 
climbed down off the stack, got his team in gear and left the 
premises. Those eyes made him feel that a stack of wild hay and 
the work of stacking it was hardly worth the price of his life; for 
Arapahoe's boast was, "I'll fight any man, fists or guns". Like 
everybody else, J. Will, who was in no sense of the word a coward, 
figured that Brown was a man it didn't pay to argue with. It was 
just common sense to get out of his way and that as quickly as 
reasonably possible under the circumstances. 

Then along comes this story that gives yet another side of Mr. 
Brown. An eighteen year old girl had arrived on the scene to visit 
her married sister who lived in Johnson County. She was a gay, 
young thing, pretty, vivacious and a talented pianist. She was 
immediately vitally in love with this western way of life. She 
thought it great fun to try to drive a team and ride a horse. 
Arapahoe became quite interested in the girl and used to spend 
many evenings with the family, listening to her piano playing which 
seemed to appeal to him especially. He became the most thought- 
ful of neighbors. Just to mention "we have no potatoes" sent him 
hurrying home to bring them over a sack. One day the girl 
expressed a desire for a saddle horse of her very own, one she 
could safely ride; for then, it seemed, a horse was considered broke 
if he was ridden once across the corral. She was afraid of her 
brother-in-law's horses and hated to admit it. So the next morning 
here came Arapahoe leading a beautiful horse, a deep shiny 
brown horse with a white star in his forehead. It was for her, he 
said, and one she could safely ride. "Would she like to take a 
little ride and try him out?" She said she would, so he "eared" 
the horse down while she got on and they rode off down the valley 
as nicely as you please, in spite of the girl's fear that this horse 
might not be safe either. But as time passed, she became thrilled 
with his easy gait and lively beauty. She lost her fear and began 
to thoroughly enjoy herself and the lovely day and the "just being 
outdoors". She even felt slightly intrigued having this big man 
riding by her side, so immense and yet so kind and gentle and 
considerate (she thought). 

They rode down a pretty little lane where the yellow chaparral- 
berry bushes grew. They got off and Arapahoe picked some of 
the bitter little berries for her to taste. They sat in the shade and 
talked of many things. After awhile he took a sack from the back 
of his saddle and carefully laid out on the grass little tin cans of 


food. These he opened and gave her a small penknife with which 
to eat the food right from the cans. He said gently, "See how long 
you can keep this knife, my dear. I've had it for 26 years, and 
take pleasure in giving it to you at this moment." (So she kept 
the small knife and has it to this day, cherished all these years as 
a part of a most unusual experience in her young girlhood). 

On the way home the beautiful brown horse ran away with her, 
suddenly and with no real reason; not maliciously, but gaily, as 
if he could no longer resist the temptation of fast going. She was 
not afraid really. She said, "I felt like I was in a rocking chair 
sailing through the air, so easy and methodical were his move- 
ments, but the swiftness was a little frightening, for I did not know 
how to really ride". Mr. Brown was all apologies for the horse 
having run away; he was very, very sorry. When they arrived 
home that afternoon, he picketed the horse to a long rope and 
taught her how to go up the rope hand-over-hand, slowly, each 
day and offer the horse sugarlumps. That way he would come to 
know her, he said, and would truly be her very own horse. But 
try as she would, she could never tame the. big brown animal. 
Nor could anyone else do it, for that matter; he'd thrown sky-high 
every cowboy who got on his back. She said she began to think 
Mr. Brown had cast some sort of spell over the animal the day she 
rode him and that he didn't dare to buck her off. He had cast 
some slight spell over her, too, for in spite of herself she was quite 
impressed with his courtly manners, poetic speech, and flattering 

Soon Brown called again. He had a camping trip in mind and 
said if her sister would act as chaperone and get a group of young 
folks of her choosing together, he'd take them all to the mountains 
and he'd be so happy to furnish everything they'd need, tents, 
horses, food and all. He said he had a special camping site on 
Powder River on top of the Big Horns above Barnum and Mayo- 
worth which would be a rare treat for them all. For some un- 
known reason, perhaps the good Lord was looking down, the 
camping trip failed to materialize. 

Several weeks later the girl received the following letter with the 
envelope postmarked Mayoworth, Wyoming, written in truly beau- 
tiful handwriting and stating clearly, as you shall see, his disap- 
pointment that the plans for the camping trip had fizzled out. 

High in the Mountains 
July 14th, 1899 
Dear Friend, 

While you did not answer me in the affirmative when I asked you 
in reference to the anticipated and partly arranged trip to the moun- 
tains I am prompted to write you in reference thereto. If you will 
be so kind as to drop me a line at Mayoworth — I shall return home 
via Mayoworth and will probably remain there for several days. 


Where I write this is high on the mountains — ^just beside a big 
snowdrift and the mosquitoes! 

Oh! thou cussed Httle fellow 

Blood-sucking beast of prey 

With your fawning wings of music 

Stop! I'll take your life away. 

The snow is in abundance, clinging to 

the crest of every peak. 
Proud soars the fearless eagle around 

the frozen crest. 
Low mid the blooming daisies, the turtle 

dove builds her nest. 

I have met an old acquaintance and friend — will camp with him 
tonight. He, too, is prospecting for gold and silver. I probably will 
lend a feeble hand for a short time. 

It is a beautiful time now for one to visit the mountains. 

There are flowers round about me 

As I sit beneath the hme 

Sweet lovely things are 

Breathing the breath of olden time. 

They look so kindly upward 

I greet them as my friends 

And my mind to each small blossom 

Such holy beauty lends. 

That — as if to living creatures 

Wherever my glance may fall 

On the bluebells or the daisies 

I say, "God bless you all." 

I have arranged to take a short trip to the "Springs". Shall prob- 
ably go down day after tomorrow. There are a great many people 
going to the Springs^ now, some for pleasure, some for health, some 
to scatter round their wealth. 

I have built a great many castles in the air about our anticipated 
trip and this is the finest locality for building castles you ever saw. 

In the regions of cloud 

Where the whirlwinds arise 

My Castle of Fancy was built 
• The turrets reflect the blue of 

the skies 

The windows with sunbeams were gilt. 

The rainbow sometimes in its 
beautiful state 

Enamels the mansions around. 

My vision of fancy that the clouds 
can create 

Supplies me with plenty of ground. 

I have canyons and gorges and pine- 
tree groves. 

I have all that enchantment has told. 

Sweet shady walks for the Gods and 
their loves, 

Mountains of silver and gold. 

1. Probably means Thermopolis. 


But the storm that I felt not, has arisen 
And called, while wrapt in slumber I lay. 
And when I looked out in the morning 
Behold! my castle was carried away. 
It passed over canyons, over gorges 

and groves, 
The world — it was all in my view. 
I thought of my friends, of their fates 

and their loves 
And, full often of you, my dear. 

Excuse this hasty botch. 

Yours in kindness and friendship, 
Andrew Brown. 

Soon afterwards the girl was sent unwillingly back east to her 
home. Thus ended what might have been a serious romance, or 
is it more to the point to say that a possible tragedy was thus 

As Arapahoe's herd of horses grew and the land became more 
settled in the Rock Creek area, he enlarged his holdings and took 
up a homestead on lower Powder River, about 12 miles this side of 
Arvada, Wyoming, where there were few people and lots of room. 
He now built himself a substantial cabin and had quite a comfort- 
able place. 

He also began living with a Mrs. Sonny (pronounced Son-ni), 
"Old Lady Sonny" she was called. She lived in the northwest end 
of Buffalo in a house located on site where Emil Hecht now lives. 
Her husband had been a teamster for Fort McKinney while it was 
in operation, and what became of him after that, nobody knows. 
Brown apparently paid her bills, although there was no marriage 
ceremony. Maybe he just wanted a place to stay when in town 
and have someone to make his shirts — he took a 19-inch neck size 
which was hard to find "store-made". Old Lady Sonny made his 
shirts. She was a heavy set, elderly looking, rather slovenly appear- 
ing person, but she had a pleasant, friendly way about her. She 
loved the children of the neighborhood and always had stick 
candy, cookies or doughnuts for them when they happened by, 
which was often. 

As he grew older Rap (as he was now called) grew bald on top. 
He'd let his beard grow, too, until it was most luxuriant. It was 
really a thing of beauty (if one was an admirer of beards.) 

Rap still moved around a lot — he'd be on French Creek, then 
Powder River, then Buffalo and probably lots of other places no 
one knew about. Glimpses into his personality are shown by 
incidents related by various old-timers who knew him by sight. 

One said, "When I was just a kid. Old Rap stopped at our 
ranch for a meal one day. He was the biggest man I ever saw — 
he looked simply tremendous to me. Gosh! but he was a whopper! 
With that big old bald head and great big hands. It was fly time 
and the flies kept lightin' on Rap's bald spot and crawlin' around. 

Courtesy Thelnia G. Condit 
Zindel Saloon. Zindle is standing at the end of bar with hat on. Red 
Angus, bartender, stands behind the bar. (Early 1900's) 

Courtesy Thelma G. Condit 
View of Zindel Saloon, one of the most famous saloons in Wyoming 
in the early days. (Early 1890's) 


He'd haul off and whop himself on the head, a blow hard enough 
to kill a mule, try in' to kill them flies. When he got ready to 
leave before gettin' on his horse he tucked his long beard (it came 
below his waist) into his vest — he always wore a vest. I remember 
he went over Basin way a lot, used to take the trail through Clear 
Creek Pass (that's all caved in now). He'd ride it in a day, too. 
The only food he took along them times was a pocket full of 
peppermint stick candy. What was he doing in the Basin? Gosh! 
I don't know. Nobody knew nothin' for sure about Rap except 
he was a surly old devil and everybody was half-scared of him." 

Another time Rap stopped at a homestead shack where the 
woman of the house had just given birth to her first son. He laid 
the wee babe along his forearm and held him quite awhile looking 
intently at the little red-faced squirming thing, then said, "This 
is the smallest baby I ever saw. I wonder if he'll be worth his 

Another old-timer said, "Old Arapahoe Brown sure had a 
reputation. I remember when I was just a small boy my father 
and I went past Rap's place. We was goin' for a load of apples. 
We stopped at Rap's for dinner. I was scared plumb silly. I 
figured he'd shoot you on sight. Old Nigger Steve was cookin' 
for Rap. He was terrible lookin' to me, too, cause I'd never seen 
a nigger before. They both was nice and friendly, but I was too 
scared to eat. Nigger Steve had made a nice pie and coaxed me 
to eat a piece but I wouldn't take a bit. I figgered he was sure 
tryin' to poison me. I knew we was never goin' to get out of 
there alive." 

Rap was always getting arrested. He was suspected of being a 
horse thief among other things, but he was hard to pin down, 
mainly because when the Sheriff came to serve the papers on him 
he'd not only tear up the warrant but proceed to beat up the 

When Newt Lane was sheriff he was continually having trouble 
with Rap. Newt was a "little bit of a sawed-off fellow" with a 
crippled hip, which caused him to limp badly. He was just an 
old "stove-up" cowboy who owned a little cow ranch on the north 
side of Rock Creek. Once when he was attempting to arrest 
Brown, Rap yelled at him, "I'll tell you when I want to be arrested" 
and he slapped Newt on the side of the head. Newt hit the ground 
with blood spurting out of his nose. Being a tough little guy he 
promptly got up, wiped his bleeding nose and took Rap to the 
courthouse where Rap tore up the warrant and walked out. And 
that was the end of that. 

When Red Angus was tending bar in the Zindel saloon. Rap 
came in one day and apparently became quarrelsome over drinks 
or something. Anyway, Angus refused to cooperate in the matter, 
so Rap just pulled out a little old .32 pistol and shot Red through 
the side of the throat. After a lot of coughing and spitting and 


bending and twisting, Angus spit out the bullet. (It was a sharp 
little bullet and had not exploded in the gun-chamber.) Holding 
the thing in his hand he faced Brown across the bar and said, 
"That was a very ungentlemanly act, a very ungentlemanly act, 
Mr. Brown". 

When anyone sued Rap, he immediately, upon being informed 
of the fact, found and beat up the man bringing suit and then rode 
into Buffalo and whaled his lawyer, too. 

This story is told about a certain lawyer who was representing 
one of his clients who was bringing suit against Brown. He was a 
frail, rather nervous little man. A friend of his walked into his 
office one afternoon and saw a wicked looking gun laying on the 
lawyer's desk pointing straight at the door. He jokingly asked 
the reason for the display of firearms and the lawyer replied, 
"My God! man, I aim to use that gun on Arapahoe Brown the 
minute he sticks his head in that door. I'm taking no chances, 
I tell you. I'll kill him, I'm telling you, I'll kill him outright and 

But Rap didn't show up that day at all. Next morning when 
the lawyer's wife opened the front door there was a long cylindrical 
object leaning against the side of the house. When she started out 
to pick it up her husband yelled, "Woman, don't touch that thing — 
it's a bomb Arapahoe Browns put there to blow us to eternity." 
He had the object removed to the outskirts of town where it was 
cautiously unwrapped. It was only a rug his wife had ordered 
from Metcalf s store. 

After the Johnson County Invasion, a couple of fellows, Eric 
Bunton and Halabaugh (don't know his first name) drifted into 
the Hole-in-the-Wall. Eric was just a skinny, tow-headed kid 
about 17 or 18 years old, innocent enough looking so no one 
would ever suspect that he was one of the worst, most hardened 
young criminals ever to hit these parts. 

Halabaugh was about six feet tall, slim and slightly grey at the 
temples, although not thought to be really very old. He herded 
horses for Harmon Fraker. George Fraker said, "Halabaugh had 
a lot of crooked ideas, although he was a nice enough fellow to 
meet and know, just an average cowpuncher, nothin' extra as a 

Halabaugh and the kid pulled off a lot of shady deals. They'd 
run sheep, and cattle too, from the big outfits on top of the Big 
Horns, down canyons, and pick brands off the wool and rebrand 
steers to sell on the side. 

Then, next thing, they were working for Arapahoe Brown in a 
big horse stealing deal. Old Rap would take a chance on anything 
if he figured he could make some money, but this partnership bus- 
iness proved to be his "Waterloo". All the time Bunton and 
Halabaugh were sUpping little bunches of Rap's horses away from 
the rest and selling them over in South Dakota. The three men 


were back and forth from Powder River to French Creek and no 
one thought too much about what was going on. But horse 
stealing was getting pretty tame for restless men and bank robbing 
was about passe, so the two outsiders persuaded Rap to go into a 
counterfeiting racket with them. He was in for anything profit- 
able, so they began laying the groundwork for the proposed setup 
down at the Powder River place, since it was isolated and most 
suited for the project. 

The two fellows dug a tunnel from the cabin to a good sized 
cave in a bank about 100 yards from the buildings. Also they 
made a cellar under the house which connected with the tunnel, 
thus making an underground passage from the cabin to the cave. 
Also they made several other "dugout cabins" of varying sizes in 
several places round about. Eric and Halabaugh did the manual 
labor and Rap was to supply the necessary machinery (whatever 
it took). 

After all the digging was done, Rap still hadn't fulfilled his part 
of the deal. Weeks passed by and still no "printing machine". 
Maybe he "smelled a rat" and was stalling a bit to sort of think 
it over some more. 

Finally his partners, like all petty criminals, got impatient with 
this prolonged stalling around and gave Rap a deadline of just 
two weeks to get the stuff there. They were also become some- 
what mistrustful — suppose Old Rap was planning to doublecross 
them? He knew enough about them to send them both "over the 
road" for keeps. If the truth were known, they were secretly 
afraid of the man. They felt that here was a fellow who was just 
a little too much for them to handle. They just couldn't quite 
figure him out. 

So, conforming perfectly with the type of lawless thinking char- 
acteristic of such renegades, they decided the best thing to be 
done under the circumstances was to get rid of Rap, for good. 
After all, he did own some good land and had a sizable bunch of 
horses which they could easily appropriate. Maybe they'd get 
the land, too, if they worked it smart. 

They planned it all very carefully and foolproof, they thought. 
For days they grubbed sagebrush and started little fires here and 
there so the air round about would have the "sagebrush burning" 
smell. Then they stacked some of it close to the big woodpile 
not far from the cabin. They also replenished the woodpile 
itself with everything in the way of wood and brush they could 
lay their hands on. 

A day or two afterwards Rap showed up about suppertime, 
presumably in a right jovial mood. They got supper ready and 
Rap ate heartily, too heartily it seemed to his companions, who had 
little appetite. He appeared to purposely prolong the meal. 
When the dishes were done Rap got out a Montgomery Ward 
catalog and sat down at the table and began thumbing through 


the pages. The three talked of everything except the thing that 
was uppermost in their minds. Bunton seemed restless; he kept 
going to the open doorway, leaning against one side and putting 
one foot up on the other side. Finally Halabaugh went over to 
the bunk along the side of the wall, pulled off his boots and 
stretched out flat on his back with his arms folded under his head. 
Old Rap was still sitting at the table picking his teeth and thumbing 
through the catalog. Finally Bunton rolling a cigarette and look- 
ing outside, said, "Guess I'll see what them horses 'er doing. 
Seems like that one you rode in ain't happy about somethin'. 
Reckon anything's botherin' around." 

"No, there ain't nothin' around", said Halabaugh, "or them 
dogs would be notifyin' us." Rap said nothing at all, just went on 
looking at the catalog. 

Suddenly a rifle shot rang out, and shattered window glass fell 
in pieces on the floor. Old Rap grabbed his chest mumbling, 
unbelievingly, "My God, boys, I'm shot". He tried to get up and 
get his gun which stood by the door, but couldn't make it — just 
fell full length face down on the floor and bled to death. Bunton 
had fixed him, for good. 

Next the criminals tied his feet together with a rope and dragged 
him to the door where they wrapped the other end of the rope 
to the saddlehorn and "snaked" him over to the woodpile. Before 
placing him on top, they maliciously beat out his brains with a 
grubbing hoe. This last, probably, in wrathful hate, because he 
had forced them to get rid of him. Stubborn, shrewd old fool, 
he should have cooperated and they wouldn't have had to do this. 

They covered his body with wood and sagebrush and started a 
rip-roaring fire, which they kept going for days. They replenished 
it as needed with anything handy that was burnable and "smelly". 

In a day or two Halabaugh rode into Buffalo and bought a 
window glass and considerable rifle ammunition. When he re- 
turned they worked franticly fixing everything up on the Powder 
River place to make it look normal and as if nothing out-of-the- 
way had happened. They rounded up his horses, ready to take 
off for South Dakota. They also went to the French Creek place 
and appropriated whatever they desired of Rap's personal pos- 
sessions. They told anyone who happened to inquire about Rap 
that he'd gone over Basin way for a week or so, and no suspicions 
whatever were raised. 

But as time went on and neither Rap nor his partners showed 
up, Kennedy, the sheriff, thought maybe he'd ride out to French 
Creek and sort of check up. Finding nothing there showing signs 
of recent occupation, he decided to go to Powder River and have 
a look around. He took a couple of fellows with him just for 
company. This place, too, showed nothing out-of-the-way. It 
didn't look like anybody'd been around much lately, though, which 
was rather queer. They were about to ride off when one man 


decided to see why there was such a big pile of ashes in that one 
particular place. It looked rather odd. Upon closer scrutiny they 
could plainly see the outline of a man's body. There was a row 
of buttons in the ashes and the distinct imprint of a long body. 
Poking around with a stick they found a human jawbone with the 
teeth still in it and several other human bones. Grabbing a tarp 
off the bunk in the cabin, they quickly gathered up the buttons 
and bones and hastened to Buffalo to report their gruesome find. 

Old Rap's bones caused a lot of excitement in town. J. A. 
Jones was undertaker at the time. (These events took place in 
1901.) Flatrock Jones he was called, because he was tight 
with his money. He was a short, rather heavy-set man with 
a big mustache. He ran a saloon (its location where Seney's 
Drug store now is), not a fancy saloon like Zindel's up the 
street; just a common, run-of-the-mill place where the drunkest 
drunks held sway. Flatrock had his "funeral parlor" in the 
rear of the saloon. This served more than one purpose, for 
whenever a man got too inebriated, all Flatrock had to do was 
lead him into the back room and leave him a minute or two. 
Upon finding himself surrounded with coffins, and once in awhile 
one with a corpse in it, he immediately remembered he had rushing 
business to be attended to elsewhere, anywhere in fact, but here, 
and he usually departed "dead sober", too. This was an ideal 
setup for Jones for he could handle his two businesses himself 
this way. He had sort of a grudge against his predecessor in the 
undertaking business anyway, for when he'd bought it he was 
made to clearly understand it was a thriving thing. Flatrock, 
himself, felt like the price was much too high. However, he was 
assured that there were three men about to die and he'd more 
than double his money right away. "These fellows were good, 
payin' customers, one a man could depend on to pay right up." 
But just as Jones had suspected all along, he had been swindled, 
against his better judgment, too, for one man got well, the second 
went to Sheridan to die and the third just up and left the country. 

Flatrock had Rap's bones lying in state in the funeral parlor 
back of the saloon. Everybody for miles around had to come in 
to look at them. Flatrock had a really thriving saloon business, 
for nearly every man had to fortify himself with a little snort in 
order to sort of calm himself down and talk about this murder 
sensibly. It was kind of a spooky subject, the more one thought 
about it. 

One old-timer told me, "In those days, by gum, a kid just 
didn't get in a saloon, but Old Flatrock let me and some other 
boys in to see Rap's bones. Had 'em in a baby casket. We was 
plumb flabbergasted to think them bones was all that was left of 
big old Rap Brown. I'll never forget the coffins stacked on the 
sides of that room. Didn't take us kids long to see what we wanted 
to see." 


In a month or so Halabaugh came back to the French Creek 
place. He had a beard now and either thought he wouldn't be 
recognized or that he had committed "the perfect crime." One 
day he walked into the Zindel saloon and wanted to sell the bar- 
tender a watch, or at least put it up for some whiskey. While 
the bartender was examining the watch preparatory to making up 
his mind, a fellow standing at the end of the bar, presumably 
scanning through the weekly newspaper, happened to get a good 
look at the watch. He knew at once it belonged to Arapahoe 
Brown, a fine gold watch with A. B. engraved in large letters on 
the side. He also recognized the man as Halabaugh. Very non- 
chalantly he laid down the newspaper and sauntered out, sheriff- 

Both outlaws were later apprehended on the French Creek place 
and put in jail, and both eventually confessed. The trial was a 
lengthy one and popular opinion ran high. A lot of folks felt 
sorry for the kid, Eric, being so young and guileless-looking. 
They just knew he'd been led astray by Halabaugh (who actually 
wasn't as old as he looked). A Dr. Allen, a dentist in Billings, 
identified the teeth in the jawbone as Andrew Brown's after careful 
comparison with his office records. Both murderers were sen- 
tenced to a stretch in the pen, but they were soon pardoned upon 
promise of leaving the state. 

Eric's mother came to Buffalo and tried hard to get her son out 
of the mess he was in. She wept and pleaded (and she was a 
pretty, dainty, little blue-eyed woman) but neither her tears nor 
her imploratory outbursts softened the hearts of the court officials. 
The judge said bluntly, "Madam, when a jury finds a man guilty, 
I let it alone." One of the lawyers said later, "They should have 
turned those fellows loose and given them a silver medal a piece 
for killing that old devil." Another lawyer said that "Halabaugh 
seemed like a saint compared to that kid, who sat through the 
whole trial mighty cool and cold-blooded. The only thing that 
kept them both from hanging was the fact that the man they'd 
killed needed kilhng. For if ever there was a cold-blooded 
murder, this was it." 

There is a saying that people have a way of forgiving a man 
when he's dead, but this didn't hold true in the case of Andrew 
Brown. "He'd led a violent life and died a violent death" and by 
a peculiar twist of fate had, in the minds of most people, made 
just retribution for his evilness. Powerful though he was, he had 
not been able to foresee the handwriting on the wall nor anticipate 
this date with destiny. 

"The storm that Jie felt not, had truly 
arisen and carried his castle away." 

Ore00n Zrall Zrek J^o. Seven 

Seventh Trek across Wyoming Directed by 

Compiled by 
Maurine Carley, Trek Historian 

July 4, 5 and 6, 1956 
Caravan: 40 participants 14 cars 


W. R. Bradley of Highway Patrol Captain 

Frank Murphy... Wagon Boss 

Jules Farlow Assistant Wagon Boss 

Francis Tanner Assistant Wagon Boss 

Lyle Hildebrand Chief Guide 

Joe Bagley Assistant Guide 

Julius Luoma... Assistant Guide 

Maurine Carley.... _ Historian 

Pierre (Pete) LaBonte, Jr .Photographer 

John B. Franks, U. S. Geological Survey. __. Topographer 

Paul H. Scherbel Assistant Topographer 

Mrs. L. C. Bishop.... Chaplain 

Elizabeth Hildebrand Chief Cooks 

Helen Tanner 

Wednesday — July 4 

Joe Bagley - Guide 

The party gathered on the evening of July 3 at South Pass City 
where it enjoyed the hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Woodring. The 
next morning hot coffee was served at 6:30 on the hotel porch 
for the early risers. After a substantial breakfast the party left 
for Pacific Springs on the seventh Oregon Trail Trek across 

NOTE: Numbers preceding "M" equal approximate miles from 
the east boundary of Wyoming. 
8:15 A.M. Assembled al Pacific Springs. 313 M. 

Prayer by Mrs. L. C. Bishop 

"Dear Lord- 
As we gather at this historical spot on this historic day, we are 

Ore GO J^ T^AiL 

TT^J-A- A/o. 7 

,^ "T^E/K A/o. 7 

/■*HncfiO€i/ /f^/^frntfr/on on fhii sketch 

Soi/f-A ^ss' //bj7ei^ Lak« ^a^on /^ood 
/^a/m Sy /T/V L anefer- /8S 7 -Sd. 
Sca/e: /"m/2J/ni 



reminded of the moral and physical courage of our early pioneers. 
We are grateful to them for the part they took in opening up the 
travelways to the new frontiers. Knowing, as we do, of their 
strength and fortitude in privation and danger, it should inspire us 
all to rededicate ourselves to the preservation of our heritage, so 
that each one of us will, in thought and deed, uphold the wonder- 
ful way of life those pioneers sacrificed in ways to preserve. 

Dear Lord, we thank Thee for the many blessings of this land 
and may we, as Thy children, prove true to Thy teachings. Amen" 

Joseph L. Bagley related the following short account of Pacific 

"Pacific Springs was known by the early emigrants as Bog 
Creek. About 1840 it received the name of Pacific Springs and 
the stream became known as Pacific Creek. It was a very famous 
camping place of the emigrants for it furnished excellent water 
and grass. 

"About 1861 a Pony Express Station was established, which 
later became a stage station. With the settlement of South Pass 
it was a stage station between the railroad and South Pass. 

"The buildings now located here are on the Old Emigrant Road 
and were built by Halter and Flick. A store and saloon were 
also built here about 1880 and used by them until 1925." 

As the old trail was fenced here we could not enter it until we 
came to Pacific Creek. 315.8 M. When we crossed the highway 
at 320 M. we found a marker inscribed - THE OREGON TRAIL 

8 :45 A.M. Stopped at the new Parting of the Ways Monument. 
Mr. Bishop explained that the monument should be about nine 
miles farther west. Eight old diaries were checked for this infor- 
mation. The old road that branches to the left here was really 
an old stage road from South Pass City to the railroad. 

At this point Mr. Jules Farlow told about the blizzard of 1S83 
in this part of the country. This was taken from a story of pio- 
neers caught in the storm between South Pass, Big Sandy and 
Green River as recorded by Peter Sherlock. 

"On January 31, 1883, a young stage driver from Texas by the 
name of George Ryder left South Pass City with two passengers — 
Maggie Sherlock and W. J. Stewart for Pacific Springs Stage Sta- 
tion twelve miles away. Snow was falling and the wind was strong 
but Stewart staked the road so they arrived safely at the station. 

"In spite of serious protests the horses were changed and Ryder 
and Miss Sherlock continued on toward Dry Sandy Stage Station 
eleven miles farther, although it was almost dark. After traveling 
several miles, apparently in a circle, the team played out and 



Courtesy Pierre La Bonte, Jr. 

At Pacific Springs July 4, 1956, starting Trek # 7. 

Standing left to right: Henry Jorzick, Albert Sims, R. A. Eklund, J. B. 
Franks, Jr., Mrs. L. C. Bishop, Mrs. Bruce McKinstry, Mrs. W. R. Bradley, 
Mrs. J. B. Franks, Bruce McKinstry, Mrs. Razzari, Ann Russell, Mrs. 
George Christopulos, Georg Christopulos, L. O. Wack, L. C. Bishop. Sec- 
ond row, left to right: J. B. Franks, Maurine Carley, Joe Bagley, Col. 
W. R. Bradley, Elizabeth Hildebrand, Frank Murphy, Lyle Hildebrand. 
Third row: Elaine Christopulos, Louis Christopulos, Geneva Hildebrand, 
Adrianne Christopulos, Ann Hildebrand, Freddie Hildebrand. 

Stopped in a draw. Ryder and Maggie mounted the horses but 
soon reahzed they would become hopelessly lost so returned to 
the sled where Maggie remained. 

"The next day Ryder again set out in an heroic attempt to find 
help as they were both badly frozen. He reached Dry Sandy 
Station and told the stock-tender, John Thorn, where to find 
Maggie. Mr. Thorn soon brought her to his home where Mrs. 
Thorn cared for her. On his way from Green River to Fort 
Washakie Reverend Roberts stopped over and also helped care for 
both Maggie and Ryder, but Mr. Ryder died three days later. 

"On January 30th another stage left Big Sandy about dark for 
South Pass with a man named Scott as driver and Wm. V. Clark, 
a Lander rancher, as passenger. They were lost all night but 
arrived next day at Pacific Springs about noon. Superintendent 
Stewart insisted on going on to South Pass with them as he had 
staked the road the day before. The team struggled against the 
blizzard for eight miles to Fish Creek which was about four, miles 


from South Pass but finally refused to face the storm. Night came 
on and the inky darkness added to the horror of the situation. 

"They unharnessed the horses and turned them loose, deciding 
to go back with the wind to Pacific Springs. For a time two men 
remained at a stake while the other went ahead to the next stake, 
but they soon gave that up and decided each man for himself. 
Stewart was left behind because of his heavy buffalo overcoat. 
None of the three reached Pacific Springs. 

"On February 2, after the storm was over, Joe Johnson, stock- 
tender at Pacific Springs, started out on foot for South Pass. On 
the divide between Pacific Springs and Sweetwater, he found the 
frozen body of driver Scott. Loyal Manning, also employed at 
the Station walked out, saw tracks in the snow so followed them 
to the bottom of a gulch where he found Stewart almost in an 
unconscious condition buried in the snow. Manning revived him 
and was able to get him to Pacific Springs. His feet and hands 
were badly frozen. 

"Mr. Clark perished about a mile from where they left the team. 
His body was found several weeks later when the snow melted. 

"On February 1 1 James Smith, Maggie Sherlock's stepfather, 
brought her to South Pass where she died February 21st. Mr. 
Stewart lost both hands, portions of both feet, his nose and both 

"Another stage left Big Sandy for Green River on January 31st 
with Al Dougherty as driver. Hopelessly lost, he unhitched the 
horses and spent the entire night driving them around a bunch of 
brush to keep ahve. When light came he realized that he must 
find help soon if he wanted to live, so clumsily tying the traces 
to a heavy belt he was wearing he let the horses practically drag 
him as he fell and struggled thru the snow, back to Big Sandy 

"Mr. Dougherty had one foot amputated above the ankle and 
the other at the instep. He also lost portions of fingers on both 
hands. He hved many years in the Lander Valley where he was 
known as Peg Dougherty. 

"Old timers claim the blizzard of 1883 was the worst they ever 
had. Three men and one woman froze to death and two men 
were crippled for life. 

The stage road in those days followed the Oregon Trail for some 

9 :00 A.M. Departed 320 M. 

9:10 A.M. Stopped at 323 M. to point out hill and table for- 
mation on the left as sketched in^the Bruff Diary of 1849. 

9:45 A.M. Arrived 330 M. at the correct Parting of the Ways. 
In the early days the emigrants decided which trail they would 
take from this point. A tall stick was braced by a pile of rocks 


at the fork of the road. Each passing company left messages and 
words of advice fastened on the stick. The right road led to Fort 
Hall and the left one to Fort Bridger. 

Joseph Bagley explained the Sublette Cut-off. 

"The trails forked at this point, five and one half miles west of 
Dry Sandy. This trail to the right was established by Caleb 
Greenwood in 1844 when he guided the Stevens-Townsend-Mur- 
phy party to California by way of Fort Hall. It was also called 
the Sublette Cut-Off by some emigrants. 

There are several trails that were used, but this trail to the 
right was the main one. It crossed the Little Sandy three miles 
west of this point and then followed west across Big Sandy. The 
Sublette Trail was about eight miles north and crossed the Green 
River near the mouth of Labarge Creek. It was a pack trail only 
and not used by the emigrants with any success as it crossed over 
the mountains north of the Oregon Trail route." 

In 1920 Mr. Bagley traveled the old Mormon road with his 
father who had told him of the different trails. His father crossed 
with the Mormons in 1848 and again with Ezra Meeker in 1914 
when the first Oregon Trail markers were placed by that gen- 

Mr. Bishop and Mr. McKinstry placed a rock twelve by four- 
teen inches at the Parting of the Ways. It was marked 

Fort Bridger 


Sublette Cut-off 

They then piled rocks around the stone. 

10:15 A.M. Departed left on the Mormon Trail. 
10:50 A.M. Arrived at Little Sandy Creek 334 M. 

Mr. Bishop read excerpts from several diaries which told about 
the Little and Big Sandy Crossings. These had been collected by 
Mr. W. W. Morrison. 

From the Joel Palmer Diary — 1845 

"July 20. This day we traveled about 13 miles to Big Sandy. 
The road was over a level sandy plain covered with wild sage. At 
Little Sandy the road forks, one taking to the right and striking 
Big Sandy in six miles, and thence 40 miles to Green River, 
striking the latter some thirty or forty miles above the lower ford, 
and thence to Big Bear River striking it about fifteen miles below 
the old road. 

By taking the trail two and a half days travel may be saved, but 


in the 40 miles between Big Sandy and Green River there is no 
water, and but httle grass. The left hand trail, which we took 
twelve miles from Little Sandy strikes the Big Sandy, follows down 
it and strikes the Green River above the mouth of Big Sandy." 

From History of Utah — Whitney — 1847 

"In the forenoon of June 28th, the Pioneers arrived at a point 
where the Oregon and California roads diverged. Taking the 
latter, or left hand route, they crossed the Little Sandy, and that 
evening met Col. James Bridger, of Bridger's Fort, accompanied 
by two of his men. They were on their way to Fort Laramie." 

From Geiger and Bryarly Diary — 1849 

"Sat. June 20. We nooned 3 hours on Little Sandy and rolled 
on 6 miles to Big Sandy. Five miles before you come to Little 
Sandy there is a road which takes off to the left, which is the 
Mormon road striking the old trail some distance down. At the 
Little Sandy the old trail takes off, but few have traveled it this 
spring, those going the old trail taking the upper road. Nearly 
all the emigrants, however, have gone Sublette's cut-off which 
commences at the Little Sandy." 

From the Sieber Diary — 1851 

"The scarcity of wood, grass and water, and more particularly 
the abundance of alkali, induced us to leave and drive during part 
of the night in order to reach Little Sandy which we came to in 
seven and three quarter miles after we passed the junction of the 
California and Oregon roads. It was 1 1 PM when we got to the 
Little Sandy, having traveled in all, since morning 30 miles." 

From John Tucker Scott Diary — 1852 

"July 7. The distance traveled today is twenty-two miles, and 
the course of the day's journey is southwest. Near the crossing 
of the Little Sandy the road forks. The right fork which is Sub- 
lettes cut off bears westward to Big Sandy eight miles. Thence on 
to Green River thirty five miles where the road again forks, one 
of the latter forks going westward to Ham's Fork of Black Creek 
of Green River, thence to Smith's Fork to Fort Bridger." 

From Emily McMillen Diary — 1852 

"Aug. 2. Mon. Today we left the Springs for a long pull of 
twenty-four miles to Little Sandy Creek. 

"Crossed Dry Creek, but it contained no good water, and we 
made the whole distance without any. 

"Soon after we started we met a pack train from California on 
their way home. Came about noon to the forks of the old Oregon 


and Salt Lake road. Took the road to Salt Lake with the intention 
of going by Kinney's cut-off to avoid desert. 

"Reached Little Sandy a little before sunset. Found plenty of 
good water, though somewhat muddy, like the Platte, but no grass 
for the cattle, it having all been eaten off. We let our cattle feed 
as well as they could till dark, and then tied them up to keep them 
from wandering off for feed. Hardest time yet." 

From Henry Allen Diary^l853 

"July 3. We start on after breakfast. Pass Sublette's cut off 
and continue on the Oregon and California Road, Cross Little 
Sandy and continue on to Big Sandy and Encamp on it's banks." 
(Measurements in the Allen's Guide book, 1859 shows the forks 
of the Salt Lake and Sublette's cut off roads to be 8 miles east 
of the Little Sandy. ) 

From the Vilina Williams Diary — 1853 

"July 19. Traveled 20 miles over a good road and encamped 
on Little Sandy where we enjoyed a good nights rest. Those sick 
a few days ago are well but still there is some sickness in camp 
though not of a serious character. Nights are cool and days are 
quite warm. 

"Left camp and drove five miles and encamped on Big Sandy 
where we shall remain until tomorrow, having before us a dry 
trail of 40 miles which must be made during the evening and 
morning. We passed the balance of the day in camp. Some are 
washing, some trading, and still a portion hunting. I find men 
in these mountains that have been here 25 years. A Mr. Kincaid 
is now in camp trading with our men, he having some 200 head 
of cattle which we need in some measure. This gentleman re- 
moved to these mountains from Boone County, Missouri in 1824. 
He is quite an old man, yet is very active, although he has been 
injured and is lame." 

11:30 A.M. Left Little Sandy 334 M. and drove to Farson 
where all cars were filled with gas anticipating the long trip on the 
trail across the desert. 

12:10 Noon. Stopped for lunch at the Sublette Cut-off Marker 
on the highway about nine miles northwest of Farson. Haystack 
Butte was visible to the right. Three distinct trails passed the 
Butte but converged near the monument and became one road. 

Mr. Bruce McKinstry read from his grandfather's diary about 
this part of the country. 

"My grandfather, Byron N. McKinstry, was a New Englander 
who moved to Northern Illinois in 1848, where he taught school 
and farmed. Finding the opportunities not up to his expectations, 
he decided in the fall of 1849 to try his luck in the gold fields the 


following season. With three men from neighboring farms he pur- 
chased a wagon and three yoke of oxen and what he termed a 
'tolerable California outfit'. His young wife returned to her family 
in New England. Byron and his three companions left McHenry 
County, Illinois for California on Mar. 18, 1850. 

"When they reached the edge of settlement in south central 
Iowa and bought the last cattle fodder they knew to be obtainable, 
they deemed it necessary to wait two weeks on the bank of the 
Des Moines river for the grass to grow sufficient to sustain their 

"On arriving at Council Bluffs they joined the Upper Mississippi 
Ox Team Company of 32 wagons which had an elaborate organi- 
zation and rigid rules of conduct. But it was unwieldy and soon 
began falling apart. At Fort Laramie most of the company crossed 
to the south bank route but a few including Byron took the untried 
North Bank route and helped open it to future traffic. By the 
time they reached the point where we are now stopped, Byron's 
group consisted of only four wagons. 

"Byron's diary records that his party crossed South Pass on 
July 9, 1850. Of Pacific Springs he said, 'It is a large quagmire. 
The sod can be shaken for two rods around and sinks when you 
step on it shoe-top deep in the water. It is a noble spring of the 
best of water. There are other springs nearby, but not so large. 
We camped at the Pacific Spring Crossing, IV^ miles beyond.' 

"On July 10 he recorded: "We came in 9 miles to Dry Sandy, 
only a little water in holes — that, not fit to drink. No wood or 
grass. Junction of the Salt Lake & Fort Hall Roads, 6 miles. We 
took the latter, Sublette's Cutoff. Little Sandy 8 miles and camped 
— all sand and sage, the dust sufficient to smother one. I drove 
part of the day. I am sick but keep about and mean to so long 
as I can walk. We found no grass but were told that there was 
some six miles up the stream near a certain round mound that was 
pointed out to us. It being my turn I went with Clark, Smelser 
and Townsend to find the grass. We found the mound and went 
beyond it two miles, but could find no grass. Plenty of dry ravines 
and the heavy growth of sage made it hard traveling in the dark. 

'I at length persuaded Clark to return, but we could not now 
find the cattle. The others had returned to camp. I thought that 
I could go no farther, and I laid down in the sage. But Clark 
would not wait, so I staggered on, being sick and faint. I had 
eaten nothing all day. I had a pain in my insides, and nearly dead 
with thirst. I gave out again and laid down. We had been 
travelling by a star, we now saw a camp fire two miles nearer than 
our camp. I now laid down. I could walk no further. Clark 
went on. After lying about an hour and hearing the wolves howl 
all around me I staggered on to camp and got in about 3 A.M. 
Made 23 miles.' 

"The following day Byron described in further detail his night 


out among the wolves on Little Sandy. 'I had a time of it last 
night. I was more faint than sick and I came to some wagons 
two miles before I got to our camp. They had a fire that I had 
seen for miles back or I should have laid out, for as soon as Clark 
left me I could not keep my course by the stars. Here I found a 
man and woman standing guard by the fire. I begged a biscuit 
of them which strengthened me or I am not sure that I could have 
gotten in. When I laid down in the sage I dare not go to sleep 
on account of the wolves. It seemed as if there were fifty all 
around me. I was unarmed and did not know but they might 
make a supper of me. At any rate they discoursed most hideous 
music. Though to tell the truth I felt so bad when I first laid 
down that I cared but little whether I ever got up or not, and when 
I attempted to walk I staggered like a drunken man over the sage 
and frequently fell my length over some obstruction. I must have 
walked 8 miles out and 8 miles back. I was right glad when I 
found our tent. Water froze last night. I did not go for the 
cattle today. They brought them in and drove to Big Sandy, 
4 rods wide, 2 feet deep, six miles, then drove our cattle 6 miles 
upstream for grass and found a little bunch grass on the hills. 
Our cattle have traveled 18 miles, we have advanced six. The 
whole country sand, gravel, and sage. I am quite lame today, 
but feeling better.' " 

1:30 P.M. Left 345M. After a half mile on the pavement 
we turned west on a dim trail which soon joined another branch 
from the south. In the old days this stretch across the desert was 
one of the toughest sections along the trail. Nothing grew except 
greasewood and there was no water or grass for forty-three miles. 
Byron McKinstry wrote that most wagon trains started the trip in 
the evening, making it in twenty-six hours with two, two-hour, dry, 
rest stops. An unmarked grave to our right testified that all could 
not "take it." 

The dust was terrific, and the level part of the country was 
deceiving as many spots were quagmires which could not be 
crossed. Ravines and valleys made it necessary for the emigrants 
to rough-lock their wagon wheels in order to make a safe trip 
down the steep sides. Our caravan made wide detours to avoid 
these hazardous hills. Buckhorn Canyon was especially steep. 
As we rode along the brow of the hill we could see four distinct 
old trails slanting almost perpendicularly down into the valley on 
the opposite side. Our descent was almost as breath taking. 

The beautiful Salt Creek Range, crested with snow restored 
our confidence each time we successfully gained a hill-top. That 
same sight must have frightened the pioneers of long ago. 

4.10 P.M. Arrived at about 395 M. on a bluff overlooking 
the Green River opposite Names Hill. Mr. Bagley pointed out 
two very steep trails down the bluff. Here mules had to sit on 
their haunches and men strained .muscles to lower their belongings 


to the river valley. We could easily imagine wagons on their sides 
with household goods scattered about as the women and children 
stumbled and scurried down to the river. 

Mr. Joseph Bagley read condensed excerpts from the Bruff 
Diary, 1849, about a trip over this part of the trail. 

"Aug. 2 10 a.m. At a meeting about Sublette's, or rather 
Greenwood's, Cut-Off, the company resolved on taking the 'Cut- 

"Aug. 3 Beautiful morning frost — 36°. 6 a.m.water'd at 
crossg of the Pacific Branch"- Road pretty level and sandy,- some 
low places,deep sand. Clay bluff on right - at about 300 yds 
A.& opp.gravel bluff, where I obtained felspar fragments in cubical 
form - A little beyond, semicircular hollow - head of a ravine,200 
yds.from road,on left, pass'd 4 dry sandy ravines, and came to a 
spring or well,dug down square,2' to surface,!' water,3 ft.sqr on 
right of the road,within 10 paces of it - good cool water,having a 
floating sediment,giving it color and appearance of crm: tartar 
solution: the tartar in suspension by stirrg up. Pearl-cold mica- 
cious clay. At lOVi a.m. we-made 12 ms & n oon'd on road: 
dusty and hot.- Another dusty drive.- road otherwise good.Babbitt, 
U.S. Mail express,with a wagon & 2 boys from Salt L.He was bear- 
ing the Mormon petition for a Constitution, to seat of Gov't to 
form a State Gov't by name of State of "Desertia".- Show'd me the 

Arrived at Forks of road,left hand going down to Ft. Bridger 
and the right to "Sublette's Cut-Off". At the forks, a small stick, 
with board and notices, stating what companies had pass'd,on 
either route,dates,&c. A notice requested travellers to pile stones 
up against stick to support it. Saw, about V4 m. below, ahead on 
left edge of road,4 large buffaloes grazing: several horsemen start- 
ed in pursuit ,& when 1 of them had approached almost within 
gunshot, they raised their heads,looked a few seconds at the man , 
wheeled,and scampered off to the N.E. over the hills: After a 
short pursuit the chase was given up. Col. Brophy's train & a party 
of 2 wagons,-ox teams,all held a meeting at the forks,to decide 
which route to take.- My train came along the Cut Off road,fol- 
low'd by Brophy's,while the 2 ox wagons pursued the lower route - 
bidding us adieu. Maj. Horn gave me a full account of Babbitt, 
the Mail Agent- formerly of Ioway,a great politician, and Mormon 
Attorney or advocate 

"Weather fine,road good,dust bad. Supped with Horn & wife 
on hot rolls, baked prairie hen,and sweetened coffee,besides stewed 
dried peaches. 

"Snow-cap'd Bear River Mts. in view all day. Except the buf- 
falo mention'd, no game. Several dead oxen in the meadow around 
our camp.- Difficult to find a camp-ground destitute of them. 


Sunset clear,74° - Made 21 1/2 m. to "Little Sandy", a beautiful 
mountain stream,brackish,but cool'd by the snows from the moun- 

"It seems to be a system for all return persons,on route, not to 
tell true stories - they are however, mostly Mormons. Babbitt 
show'd me 2 finger rings of California gold,made at Salt Lake of 
the pure metal - said the Mormons had a bbl. of gold dust, as the 
church tithe from Mormon diggings.- that it (gold) existed in the 
Bear Mts. - and that Capt. Bridger & sons had a fine store,filled 
with Indian goods,& ponies,horses,&c.and whiskey at $1 a pint, 
for sale - one of the boys with B. had been to California, and con- 
firmed all statements about the gold. Pass'd the graves of "Robert 
Gilmore & wife", (in one grave). Died of cholera,July 18,1849. 

"46 dead oxen pass'd to-day. 

"Aug. 4th Clear,calm,Temp.46° 6 a.m. moved across 'L. 
Sandy' till we came to where the road forks to right - seeking 
grove of timber,about a mile ahead:- kept the left-hand road fol- 
lowing it S.S.W. 6Vi miles to "Big Sandy", which we reach'd and 
cross'd at 9^2 a.m. This stream is much like the former,except 
being broader in places,& having wider bottoms, bounded by cliffs, 
above road,and long low banks of sand - grass in bottom grazed 
off. The mules taken down 1 m. to graze. Found here a Company 
of 6 ox wagons,camp'd. Wind-river Chain of Mts trending off N.W. 
by W. with their dark lofty & snow-patched fronts - of nearest 
end, and the northern ones fading in the blue distance. 4 dead 
oxen - plentiful as usual. 

"The "Wolverine Rangers" had been camp'd on opposite side, 
just above road, in bottom:- had broken up a wagon,leaving sides 
and other fragments for the benefit of our cooks besides sevl 100 
wgt of fat bacon & lots of lead, iron,&c - cast iron stove, beans &c 

"4 p.m. Strong wind - 84° Moved on for the long drive, 
variously estimated, from 35 to 55 miles, without water,& in but 
one spot a little grass. Travel'd over a sandy dusty road - first part 
level - latter rolling and perfectly arid - white clay,scattering dark 
dusty sage, and hosts of dead oxen. Ox train coming along. Irk- 
some drive to all,more particularly to teamsters - Our faces per- 
fectly cover'd with dust,of an ashy hue,eyes appearing as small 
dark hollow space. Animals much fatigued by deep sand and dust, 
in many places to wade through. 

"Aug. 5th - After bivouaking in the dust, with a hasty bite of 
anything,- some too fatigued to take that,the men were soon sound 
asleep. Some under, others in wagons,and these around rolled in 
blankets, robes and dust. Mules sent under guard to the N. some 
distance for a slight graze - 2 hours of this dusty repose - truly 
"dust to dust" - I roused camp & call'd in mules and hitch'd up - 
& about 4 a.m. moved on again over thirsty and dusty route. Road 
generally trended W.S.W. sometimes S.W." 

"9a.m. Halted at the foot of a very steep hill,which the wagons 


had to descend very slowly — with the utmost caution — mules sat 
down on their haunches - Sand and shingle stones - sort of slate - 
Great neglect of Guide, for a good and easy road descended into 
hollow, about 300 yds. to right of the steep hill. This valley has 
no outlet - a mere deep dell, apparent from road. Sage and 
greasewood. Reached river.late in the afternoon: some could 
hardly proceed. 

"Arriving on bank of 'Green River' we found ourselves perched 
upon a very small top of one of a range of very high sandstone 
hills. These hills were truncated cones principally, and worn in 
singular hollows,leaving the sand stone projecting in rude strata 
& lumps. From the elevated pinnacle, where the lead wagon stood, 
I look'd down stream V2 m. off, like a curv'd silver thread - patches 
of willows,&c. To look and see the wagons descending, was 
appalling - the wheel mules sitting on haunches, with heads up & 
fore feet projected straight to the front & close together, to resist 
the pressure behind. Men guiding & holding on head & double 
lock'd - but the road sides were knee deep with impallable powder 
& loose stones,clay,& fragments of slate - so that all pass'd down 
in safety. Wheels, axels,beds &c. of wagons lay on sides. Road 
well beaten. We now followed valley down,in S.S.W. course - 
generally, for 5 or 6 miles over deep dust - & irregular small hills, 
& turn'd down W. to the river, drove in on its pebbly bottom, hub 
deep - in places, down some 100 yds. to a gravel island, across 
that, about V4 mile & camp - 43 miles,instead of 35 only, and not 
55 of the Mormons. No doubt a horrible road throughout in wet 
weather,such steep hills as a former one and the last, then imprac- 
ticable for wagons,almost - I sent the mules 1 m. below to graze, 
better grass there. Animals fagged out . Cassins wagon 10 miles 
in rear. At night sent 3 men back with water for men and team." 

Mr. Lyle Hildebrand read a paper on the Green River fords 
and ferry sites prepared by Mr. Paul Henderson. 

"We now stand on the crest of the hill at the western edge of 
the strip of country that was traversed by the Sublette or Green- 
wood Road. Having reached this place the early fur traders and 
the covered wagon pioneers were confronted with the task of 
descending from this elevation to the river where they would try 
to cross either by fording, rafting or ferrying. 

"There were numerous places up and down the river where 
they crossed. All these crossings were discovered and first used 
by the mountain men; later the wagon trains followed in their 

"Beginning in the vicinity of Big Piney we find an important 
crossing first used by the fur trappers and traders in going to and 
coming from the rendezvous grounds near present day Daniel, 
Wyoming. ^ Later this same crossing was used on the route of the 


Lander Trail which was laid out for covered wagon travel in 1858. 

"Coming farther down the river we arrive at an old crossing 
almost directly west of us. It was used by the trappers as early as 
1826; it also was used by Caleb Greenwood when he piloted the 
first wagons to California in 1844. 

"To reach this ford we would have to proceed directly westward 
and descend a very steep hill. About a mile south of this crossing 
is another which had to be reached by a series of very steep 
descents following more or less the arroyo on the left. The river 
was crossed near the mouth of the arroyo. Ferries were operated 
at various times during the highwater season. 

"Much of the travel on the Sublette Road went on down this 
arroyo but instead of crossing the river at the mouth of the arroyo 
the wagon trains continued down along the left bank about two 
miles and crossed over just above the island near Mr. Luoma's 
ranch. An Oregon Trail monument on the right bank of the river 
marks this important crossing. Numerous ferries operated here 
over a period of time. This crossing is usually referred to as the 
Names Hill Crossing. 

"Approximately four (4) miles below this last mentioned cross- 
ing was another near the mouth of Muddy Creek. Ferries were 
also operated here. It was an important location and today is 
known as the Anderson Ranch Crossing. The last three crossings 
mentioned were in early years called the Upper, Middle and Lower 
Ferries or Fords. 

"From the Anderson Ranch Crossing a trail continued down the 
river about three miles to the old Mormon Ferry which was 
established by the Latter Day Saints in the very early 1850's. A 
dependable ferry service was carried on here and was available 
when the river was too high to ford. It must have been a paying 
enterprise as a great many writers of early diaries complained of 
the high toll. 

"The last four crossings mentioned were used by the travelers 
who came to Green River via the Sublette Road and who wished 
to continue westward via the several trails that converged at Rocky 
Gap on Willow Creek. The true Sublette Road went up Fontenelle 
Creek but the branches up the divides of Muddy and Fontenelle 
Creeks were described in some of the diaries as being the Sublette 

"Now let us drop down the river some 12 miles from the Mor- 
mon Ferry. Here we find the Case Ferry on the county line 
between Lincoln and Sweetwater Counties. This ferry was used 
by a large number of travelers who followed down the Big Sandy 
on the old Fort Bridger Road. They came northwesterly up the 
Green for about 18 miles, crossed it at the Case Ferry then took 
a westward course along Slate Creek to arrive eventually at Rocky 
Gap and the combined Sublette Road. 

"Near the mouth of Big Sandy are found the sites of several 



fords and ferries. These were used by the people going to Oregon, 
Cahfornia and the Salt Lake Valley via Fort Bridger. 

"Last of all we have a well known crossing in the vicinity of 
the present town of Green River. It was used by the stage and 
freight outfits on the road between Bryan on the Union Pacific 
and South Pass City. 

"Each of these river crossings has a long and colorful history 
too lengthy to be narrated at this time. From records in my posses- 
sion a sizable volume might be written of the history of the Green 
River fords and ferry sites." 

Since the bluffs were too steep and badly washed for cars, we 
turned north on a dirt road. After forty miles we crossed a 
bridge and drove back down a modern highway on the other side 
of the Green. Some stopped at Big Piney while the rest proceeded 
to Names Hill. 

5:45 P.M. Stopped at the Julius Luoma ranch 397 M. opposite 
the bluff on which we had stood two hours before. Mr. Luoma 
kindly permitted us to camp in his meadow, which had been a 
favorite camp ground for emigrants long ago. We corralled our 
cars as the pioneers had circled their wagons and soon a campfire 
was crackling in the center. The Luomas and other neighboring 
ranchers came to join us for supper and the 4th of July fireworks. 
Tired from a strenuous day over tough roads, we turned in early, 
fearing nothing except mosquitoes. 

Courtesy Pierre La Bonte, Jr. 
Camp on Green River opposite Names Hill on the Julius Luoma Ranch, 


Thursday — July 5 

Julius Luoma - Guide 

Caravan: 30 participants 10 cars 

8:15 A.M. After finishing a substantial breakfast around the 
camp fire, we packed up and walked a quarter of a mile to Names 
Hill where Mr. Bishop blocked off "OREGON TRAIL TREK 
NO 7, JULY 4 - 56" above the old names carved long ago. The 
members of the party took turns with the hammer and chisel 
cutting the inscription marked by Mr. Bishop. Some of the 
oldest names noted on the cliff were JIM BRIDGER - 1884, 
J.J. SHAY - 1825 and TWIG - 1832. 

Mrs. Bishop read a paper on Names Hill written by Mrs. Hazel 

"When the dynamic urge for western colonization swept the 
United States and finally pushed the frontiers of the land to Pacific 
shores, hundreds of thousands of eager men and women awaited 
that hour. 

"It is always a source of wonderment to contemplate the magni- 
tude of the western migration, and it can scarcely be appreciated. 
It was a great American army marching forward, each in his own 
way, all eager for the victory. Many of the travelers sank beneath 
their load of hardships and were buried where they fell, but the 
ranks were filled again and they marched on. 

"In the thirty States then forming the Union, none was left 
untouched. Historian Bancroft made this ambitious statement: 
'The number of homes broken by death of just the Argonauts 
alone to be but little less than that inflicted by the Civil War 
some ten years later.' 

"John S. Hittell, a forty-niner, declared before the Society of 
Pioneers in California that 'none of the battles of the Civil War 
broke so many heartstrings and caused such wide-spread pain as 
did the California Gold migration of 1849.' 

"To the Trail, then, we look for an expression from those 
people. In the hearts of mankind there is a love to have one's 
name remembered, perpetuated, and as the caravans pressed for- 
ward along the way, that desire was in a measure satisfied by 
inscribing their names on suitable places. In Wonderful Wyoming, 
three main "Inscription Areas" set themselves apart across the 
State. Register Cliff, a day's journey by ox-teams from Old Fort 
Laramie, was one. Independence Rock, that magnificent pile of 
granite, had inscribed upon its surface thousands of names and 
dates. It could be a favored spot for the Genealogist. Today we 
stand at Names Hill, another record in the western wilderness, 

"Through a diligent and thorough research, I have been able to 
find but one paragraph on Names Hill. The following quotation 
is from Wyoming Writers Program, page 371: "Names Hill, 


where one of the many branches of the Trail begins a climb over 
broken chffs. Emigrants paused to carve their names in soft 
limestone. The earliest dated inscription is 1822. One of the 
most legible is James Bridger — 1844. The initials J.B. are 
carved in several neighboring chffs." 

"Names Hill enjoys two distinctions. This is the only one of the 
three places that bears the inscription of the famous mountaineer, 
Jim Bridger, and 1822 is, to my knowledge, the earliest date an 
inscription was made on either of the three places." 

9:10 A.M. Mr. Luoma led the caravan three miles south on 
the highway then turned abruptly northwest, crossing several 
irrigation ditches. We found an old trail and traveled north on it 
to the top of a hog back, where Mr. Luoma pointed out the site 
of a couple of ferries. Names Hill, and, across the river, another 
hill which also has names carved on it. We could see the old 
trail crawling up the draw but it was too rough so we back-tracked 
down another draw which was bad enough. At the bottom we 
read several names, among them were "E.Baldy - 1852" and 
"Burns from Ohio - July 15, 1852" carved on the rocks. 

As we traveled along Fontenelle Creek we could see the old 
Sublette trail going over a hill to the southwest. A little farther 
south we came to the Slate Creek Trail which we followed west- 
ward until we came to the site of Emigrant Springs down in a 

The springs are no longer visible as a dam has been built and 
the sluggish water has backed up over it. Under the overhanging 
cliffs nearby, many names had been carved but were mostly 
obliterated by wind and weather. "C.F.White" had been done 
with black wagon paint. "C.W.Thomas - June 1889" was the 
best preserved, but most of the names carved before 1860 have 
practically disappeared. 

We climbed back to the top of a hill for a quick, dry lunch and 
were soon on our way. In order to have thirty-five miles the men 
shoveled out each car as it crossed a gulch at the foot of the hill. 
The ascent up the next hill was so steep that we had to let the cars 
cool when we reached the top. Then down again we went on a 
long steep grade into Battle Canyon, and then up, up a long, bare, 
rocky mesa to 8,000 feet. Here the Slate Creek road and the 
Sublette Cut-off were crossed by a third trail. How the pioneers 
must have labored to get so close to God! The quiet, the sublimity 
and the vastness of the place awed all of us as we crept slowly 
toward the sky in our powerful cars. How hard it must have 
been for the people on foot! 

The snow covered Salt River Range towered closer to the north. 

2:30 P.M. Down we went on a seismograph road for six dizzy 
miles to the Jamison ranch and a good cold drink at the spring. 
The three trails converged near here and became one through 
Rocky Gap. 


Mr. Paul Henderson had prepared the following paper on 
Rocky Gap. 

"Here at Rocky Gap the various trails, which continued west- 
ward from the Green River, converged to cross Willow Creek then 
they divided again to continue to Ham's Fork by both the Com- 
missary Ridge and Dempsey Trail routes. 

"From the junction of roads on Little Sandy some fifteen miles 
west of the famous South Pass a trail continued almost due west 
to Green River. It was known in the early days as the Sublette 
Road with all traffic on this section following one main track to 
the river. The stream was crossed at several places both above 
and below the place where the road came into the river. From 
these crossings several routes were taken towards Ham's Fork. 
One followed along the divide between Muddy and Fontenelle 
Creeks, another passed up Fontenelle Creek valley and a third 
wound up Slate Creek. The first two joined on Fontenelle and 
came into Rocky Gap via The Pine Grove on Sheep Creek. The 
Slate Creek route came into Emigrant Spring to pick up a detour 
of the Fontenelle route then continued on to Rocky Gap. 

"From Rocky Gap one road went southwest along Commissary 
Ridge and reached Ham's Fork between the mouth of Meadow and 
Quaking Aspen Creeks, thence westward up the latter stream to 
Emigrant Springs on the east fork of Rock Creek, thence over a 
divide to cross the main stream, then over another divide in a 
northwestly direction to the headwaters of Trail Creek. Passing 
down that stream to Sublette Creek it junctioned with the road 
coming in from Fort Bridger. 

"Now let us return to Rocky Gap. After crossing Willow Creek 
a trail takes off from the one just mentioned and follows a north- 
westerly course. It follows up Absarka Creek some three miles, 
winds over a high divide in a circuitous route then strikes south- 
west to reach Ham's Fork near the Lower Ham's Fork School. 
It crosses the stream here and again takes a northwesterly course 
over the divide between Ham's Fork and Bear River to reach the 
head of Sublette Canyon. Some went down the canyon, others 
made a short detour around it to meet below the canyon, thence 
down Sublette Creek to junction with the Fort Bridger Road near 
the place where the Commissary Ridge route joined it. 

Many old diaries mentioned Rocky Gap. Some gave a vivid 
description of the terrain, others told of tragedies that happened 
there. Others were impressed by the many graves of those who 
had perished on the trail. The place was a favorite camping site 
and like all the other story spots on the Old Oregon Trail a very 
long story could be written about it." 

3:00 P.M. Because of fences and ditches we took the highway 
into Kemmerer and out again four miles on a new road. 

3:30 P.M. Arrived opposite Ham's Fork Crossing of the 



Sublette Cut-Off about 428 M. There we saw a small cemetery 
containing six graves of Ida Clara Burke 1892-95, Jim, Willie, 
Sammy, James and Elizabeth Westfall. At one time there was a 
toll bridge across Ham's Fork near these graves. It was operated 
by a man by the name of Miller. 

3:45 P.M. At 430 M. we saw another grave marked A.G. 

With our practiced eyes of detecting the old trail we could see it 
going straight up a small mountain. Surely this was one place the 
pioneers were more determined than we — but no — the lead car 
gathering speed, bounced, lunged and hesitated but finally stopped 
at the top. The passengers, hanging on with both hands, were 
thrown from side to side as the drivers followed the dim trail 
through the grass past a grave on the lonly hillside. As each car 
made the top the trekkers jumped out to cheer the successful climb 
of all the other cars. 

4.30 P.M. Stopped at 435 M. to see the Alfred A. Corum - 
July 4, 1849 grave. This head stone was about twenty feet to the 
left of the trail. 

Mr. Emil Kopak read from The Missouri Historical Review, 
October 1928, Vol. XXIII, No. 1. 

"In 1849 the company stayed over one day at this spot because 
Alfred Corum had been ill for ten days, thinking rest might help 
him. Two hundred wagons passed the campers as they waited 
by the trail. He died suddenly on July 4 th." 

Another grave marked "Campbell" was near the Corum grave. 

Across the trail about one tenth of a mile farther west we paused 
at the Nancy Hill grave which has an iron fence around it. The 
marker has been practically destroyed by bullets. The inscription 
on the headstone is wrong, as Mr. Luoma said he put it there years 
ago thinking she had probably been killed in an Indian battle the 
same day Corum died. In the Wake of the Prairie Schooner Mrs. 
Paden gives the date of her death as 1847. She states that "Nancy 
Hill was a goddess of a girl, six feet tall and magnificently healthy." 
She was well in the morning and dead at noon. The family had 
to proceed immediately with the wagon train but her lover re- 
mained to mourn for two days then rode after the others. He 
returned three times to visit her grave in the following fifty-three 

5:30 P.M. Seven of the cars stopped at Emigrant Spring 
(438 M.) which was to be our camping ground for the night. 

Two other cars continued on down the mountain trail. At 440 
M. a branch of the Sublette Road turned to the left. At 445 M. 
the Dempsey Road joined the Sublette Road. We continued down 
the most awful mountain road for several miles, thinking all the 
time that we would never get back up. However, we did and 
returned to Emigrant Spring just in time for supper. 


This camping place, high on the side of the mountain, command- 
ed a view which stretched for miles and miles east to the distant 
mountains. The spring was cold and clear and the air invigorating. 
After supper all joined in singing the original songs composed by 
Pierre La Bonte, our genial photographer from Massachusetts. 


to the tune of On the Old Fall River Line 
On the Old Oregon Trail 
On the Old Oregon Trail 
We took a ride with the greatest pride 
To see what there was there 
Then we fell in with great clouds of dust 
Till we thought our bulging lungs would bust 
So we thank you, Clark, for this pleasant lark 
On the Old Oregon Trail 


to the tune of No, No, Nora 
Albert, Albert, Nobody but you dear 
Albert, Albert, Nobody but you dear 
Can keep this trek a-moving 
They wouldn't, they couldn't 
They're not so smart 

We could have trail-blazers too many to mention 
Wouldn't pay them the least bit of attention 
And would we trade you for Old Fontenelle 
No! No! Albert, No! No! 

As soon as the dishes were done everyone was ready to turn 
in so tents were erected, mattresses blown up and station wagons 
became beds for the tired, bruised, dirty Oregon Trail trekkers of 

Friday — July 6 

Mr. Lyle Hildebrand - Guide 
Caravan: 25 participants 8 cars 

Like true pioneers all were up at 4:30 with everything packed 
and ready for departure by 6:30 A.M. The beautiful, clear 
morning and the cold mountain air restored the pioneer spirit 
in the trekkers. Most had forgotten about the strenuous day 

Traveling south to Kemmerer we could see Commisary Ridge, 
a chain of mountains between Rocky Gap and Ham's Fork to tiie 

8:30 A.M. Left Kemmerer on 30 N. 


9:00 A.M. Met Mr. Reed Dayton and Mrs. Margaret Jane 
Bourne Roberts where the highway crossed Sublette' Creek. 

Here Mrs. Roberts related some stories of the early days in 

Her father, one of the earUest settlers, came in 1875 and she 
was born there in 1876. At that time 500 Shoshone and Bannock 
Indians roamed the region. One of the settlers by the name of 
CoUett was appointed as a minute man to watch for Indians. The 
government sent him 100 needle guns and 5,000 rounds of 
ammunition but he won the friendship of the Indians so didn't 
need them. Indians often spent hours lounging in the doorways of 
the settler's cabins then would saunter off when they became bored. 

Mr. Dayton said that this level stretch was once a popular 
racing ground of the Indians before the canals were dug for irri- 

We were then taken nearer to the base of the mountains and 
shewn an Oregon Trail marker with the date 1843 roughly cut 
in it. 

Looking up the mountain side we distinguished quite a network 
of trails. Three distinct ones could be seen coming down over 
Rock Creek Ridge, the steepest, the Dempsey Cut-off. It was 
the same trail we had followed a short distance the night before. 
How thankful we were that we had turned back! If weather made 
one impassable another would be used. 

The main trail however was the one used by Sublette which 
came due west from Ham's Fork to Bear River. It was not so 
steep and it also saved two and a half days travel, if negotiated. 
The Continental Divide had been crossed at what price! We 
wondered why there weren't more graves along the trails! Such 
endurance, fortitude and determination as the pioneers showed as 
they crept over those mighty, merciless mountains, up and down, 
up and down like snails. 

How glad the emigrants must have been to come to the lovely 
valley of the Bear — as we were. Here a ferry over Smith's Fork 
made their going even easier. 

1 : 30 P.M. Sixty-nine miles from Kemmerer we came to the 
west border of Wyoming and to the end of the seventh Trek. All 
were tired, dirty and hungry but filled with a much greater under- 
standing of what life had meant along the Old Emigrant Road. 
After inspecting the historical marker there and taking a few 
pictures we drove to Cokeville where we ate lunch and disbanded. 

Wyommg Mchaeological J^otes 

DURING 1958 


During the months of June and July, a joint archaeological 
research program was sponsored by the National Park Service, 
the University of Wyoming and the Wyoming State Museum. 
Field operations were under the direction of Dr. William Mulloy 
and Lou Steege. Participants in this program for the entire period 
of time were eight men: Don Kusulas, Lakewood, Colorado; 
Leslie Heathcote, a British exchange student from the University 
of Nebraska; James Duguid, Lusk, Wyoming; Harold Adams, 
Lance Creek, Wyoming; Ralph Lindahl, Laramie, Wyoming; Mark 
Mathany, Thermopolis, Wyoming; Rodes Moran and Dan Witters, 
Cody, Wyoming. Ed Kester of Glendo spent the last three weeks 
with the party. Glenn Sweem, Glenn Sweem, Jr., Dr. R. C. 
Bentzen, and Robert Sowada, members of the Wyoming Archaeo- 
logical Society of Sheridan, Wyoming, and Dan Corbin of Chey- 
enne, Wyoming, spent the first week with the party. Mrs. Mulloy 
was the camp manager and was assisted by her daughter, Kathy. 

Investigations at this site included the excavation of a stratified 
site, excavation of a cave, excavations of stone rings and habitation 
sites. Charcoal samples for carbon 1 4 dating were taken from 
numerous hearths. A topographical map was made of the area 
locating all exploratory trenches and pits in addition to 440 
individual features such as hearths and stone rings. 

On Sunday, June 22, a caravan of 32 cars and 134 persons, 
members of various Mineral and Gem Societies of Colorado, 
Nebraska and Wyoming, were taken on a conducted tour of the 
diggings. On the following Sunday, June 29th, 86 persons, mem- 
bers of the Wyoming State Historical Society from Albany, Platte, 
Goshen, Niobrara, Natrona and Laramie counties, and members 
of the Loveland Chapter of the Colorado Archaeological Society, 
were taken on a conducted tour of the site. 

The research at Glendo has revealed an additional supply of 
information on the little known lives of Wyoming's vegetarian 
inhabitants of the Middle Prehistoric Period which dates back 
about 3,500 years. 


The Kaufman Cave, near Sheridan, Wyoming, was excavated 
over the long 4th of July weekend by members of the Wyoming 


Archaeological Society under the direction of Dr. R. C. Bentzen, 
Glenn Sweem and Don Grey. This cave had served as a shelter 
for many different peoples of prehistoric times. Samples of 
charcoal were taken from the many hearths found in the cave. 
Numerous artifacts were discovered as well as bones of several 
different specie of animals and birds. 


During the first part of August, members of the Wyoming 
Archaeological Society, under the direction of Dr. R. C. Bentzen, 
conducted a research program at the site of the Medicine Wheel 
near Kane, Wyoming, with permission of .the Forest Service. 
Detailed maps of the Wheel were made. Charcoal samples for 
carbon 14 dating were obtained from a fire hearth. Stone arti- 
facts, potsherds and beads were recovered from this site. Some 
wood samples for dendrochronology were obtained. Upon com- 
pletion of the laboratory work, a true date for this Medicine Wheel 
should be forthcoming. 

A field party from the Roswell Museum, New Mexico, under 
the direction of David Gebhard, spent the past season investigating 
some cave shelter sites in the Upper Wind River Valley and also 
continued with their archaeological survey of the middle and 
upper Big Horn Basin. A report on this work is not available 
at this time. 

L. C. Steege 


By L. C. Steege 


War clubs of some description were used during historic and 
prehistoric times by nearly all of the tribes of the Northwest 
Plains. These may be classified as two types. 

The first type, probably the earliest, is known as the "flaked" 
type. Figure I, A-B. These are the double-bitted, percussion 
flaked stone heads which were notched on the top and bottom to 
facilitate the attachment of a handle. These are generally crudely 
chipped and seldom show any secondary retouching along the 
edges. This type of war club has been found throughout the 
central portion of Wyoming from border to border. The greatest 
concentration appears to be in the "Spanish Diggings" area. 

The second type is the full grooved pohshed tomahawk (figure 
I, C) which we generally associate with the historic tribes. The 



heads are made of an oval shaped stone, circular in cross section. 
These were fashioned from steatite, which was easily shaped by 
the individual, or a nature-shaped, river-worn rock was utilized. 
A groove was pecked around the body of the stone. A wooden 
handle could then be attached to the stone with rawhide. These 
were formidable weapons in the hands of the foe and were used 
throughout most of the Plains region. 

The historic Cheyennes used still another type of war club. 
This was a round stone about the size of a baseball, which was 
completely encased in rawhide, and fastened to a long handle. 
These stone heads were not grooved or notched in any manner. 


The stones were utilized as they were found in nature. War clubs 
of this style are on display in the State Museum in Cheyenne. It 
is quite possible that weapons of this style were also in use by 
other historic tribes. 


A foolproof classification for all projectile points does not exist. 
In most cases, previous systems have been too complex with too 
many types and sub-divisions of types. Therefore they were 
impractical for both the field man and the amateur. I have used 
the following described system for several years. Although this 
system is not complete for every detail, it does cover most of the 
stylized Plains types without involving too many sub-divisions. 

The first general characteristic feature of a projectile point is 
one of three variations. The projectile point is either "non- 
stemmed" (N) figure II-A, "stemmed" (S) figure II-B, or "shoul- 
dered" (Sh) figure II-C. 

The simplest form of projectile point without a base distinct 
from the body is known as the "non-stemmed" type. The most 
common shape of this type is triangular. 

When the base becomes narrower than the maximum width of 
the body of the projectile point as a result of notching either the 
edges or corners, we have a feature known as a "stemmed" point. 

The third variation is known as a "shouldered" point. The 
distinguishing feature of this type is a base narrower than the 
body but without definite notches. 

The second general characteristic feature of a projectile point 
describes the method of notching. There are five divisions in this 
classification. The first consideration is the "notchless" (X) 
variety, figure III-A. These can only be classified from either the 
non-stemmed or shouldered groups. 

Non-stemmed points bearing notches cut into the edges are 
classified as "lateral-notched" or "side-notched" (LN), figure 

Stemmed points having notches cut into the corners of the base 
are classified as "corner-notched" (CN), figure III-C. 

Stemmed points bearing notches cut into the base are classified 
as "basal-notched" (BN), figure III-D. 

Stemmed points bearing shoulders formed by notching are 
classified as "shoulder-notched" (SN), figure III-E. 

The third general characteristic feature of a projectile point is 
the description of the base. The same descriptions apply to the 
non-stemmed, stemmed, shouldered, notchless, and notched types 
previously described. There are six divisions of base types. The 
base may be "straight" (S), figure IV-A, "concave" (Ce) figure 
IV-B; "convex" (Cx) figure IV-C; "notched" (N) figure IV-D; 
"tapered" (T) figure IV-E; and "irregular" (I) figure IV-F. 



The last characteristic feature of projectile points is the descrip- 
tion of the edge. There are five divisions of edge types. The edge 
may be "straight" (S) figure V-A; "concave" (Ce) figure V-B; 
"convex" (Cx) figure V-C; "serrated" (Se) figure V-D; and 
"irregular" (I) figure V-E. 

The typical Plains projectile point, figure VI, may now be 
classified as follows: S-CN-Cx-S, a stemmed point (S), corner- 
notched (CN), convex base (Cx), and straight edges (S). 

This concludes the series of the descriptions and classifications 
of stone artifacts. 

Wyoming State Mistorical Society 

Fifth Annual Meeting September 6, 1958 

State Office Building, Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Registration for the Fifth Annual Meeting opened at 8:30 A.M. 
at the Wyoming State Museum in Cheyenne. At 9:30 approxi- 
mately 70 members made a conducted tour to an area known as 
"the grand canyon of southeastern Wyoming" under the guidance 
of Mr. Charles Ritter. This area lies about fifteen miles west of 
U. S. Highway 87 on the Colorado-Wyoming border. The tour 
group returned to Cheyenne at 12:30. 

An Executive Meeting was held in the Conference Room of 
the State Office Building at 10:00 a.m., during which time the 
agenda for the general business meeting to be held at 1:30 was 


The Fifth Annual Meeting of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society met in the State Office Conference Room in Cheyenne on 
September 6, 1958, at 1:30 p.m. with 108 members present. Dr. 
T. A. Larson, President, called the meeting to order. Delegates 
from the following counties were present: Albany, Carbon, Fre- 
mont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona and Sweetwater. 

The Secretary read the minutes of the Fourth Annual Meeting 
which was held in Cody in September, 1957, and the minutes of 
the Executive Committee Meeting which was held in January, 
1958, in Cheyenne. Since there were no additions or corrections, 
the minutes were approved as read. 


September 28, 1957 - September 6, 1958 

Cash and Investments on hand September 20, 1957 $5,458.57 

Receipts and Interest: 

Dues 2,796.50 

Colter Booklet 237.03 

Interest on Savings 




Disbursements 9-20-57 — 


Annals of Wyoming 


Office Supplies 












September 6, 1958 

Cheyenne Federal Building and Loan $5,647.28 

Stock Growers National Bank checking account 1,244.87 

Present membership of the Society as of September 6, 1958 is as 

Life members 28 

Joint Life members ....: 12 

Annual members 482 

Joint annual members 328 

Total 850 
Counties which have organized chapters 12: Albany, Carbon, , 

Campbell, Fremont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona, Park, 

Sweetwater, Uinta and Washakie. 
Registered attendance at Fifth Annual Meeting 109 

Mr. A. H. MacDougall reported that he and Mr. Vernon Hurd 
had audited the books and found them correct and in order. 
The following reports of standing committees were given: 

chairman, reported that he had worked five weeks in the Glendo 
region with his crew. Mr. Steege headed the field group for the 
State Museum which had a joint contract with the National Park 
Service and the University of Wyoming to sponsor this diggings. 
Dr. William Mulloy headed the University of Wyoming crew. 
(A fuller report on the summer field work will appear in the 
October 1958 Annals of Wyoming in the Arcjiaeological Notes 

2. LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE. No one from the Legisla- 
tive committee was present. It was decided that no Archaeological 
bill would be presented to the 1959 Legislature. The consensus 
of opinion was that it is better at this time to educate the public 
in regard to proper methods of excavation and care of such sites 
and to encourage public sentiment against depredations. Dr. 
Larson stated that he felt that some legislative matters relating to 
the historical field would probably be presented at the next 
Legislative session. 

3. SCHOLARSHIP COMMITTEE. Dr. Larson announced 
that Leonard Gregory planned to write a history of Big Horn 
County. It was moved, seconded and carried that Leonard Greg- 
ory be awarded the $300.00 scholarship offered by the State His- 
torical Society and that he receive $100 of this amount immediately 
and $200.00 upon the completion of his thesis. 

4. AWARDS COMMITTEE. Mrs. Condit, chairman, stated 
she would announce the Awards at the banquet in the evening. 


5. SURVEY OF HISTORICAL SITES. No report was given 
as Mr. E. A. Littleton, chairman, was not present. The President 
spoke on the importance of this survey and urged counties to 
continue with this work and to mark important sites. 

Mr. MacDougall reported that he had not been able to follow 
up his investigations regarding the Jim Baker cabin. Mr. Joseph 
Weppner, secretary of the Historical Landmark Commission, stated 
that the Legislature had, a number of years ago, appropriated 
$750.00 to move the cabin to Cheyenne. Five years ago about 
$1,000.00 was spent to preserve the outside of it. Mr. Weppner 
moved that the Secretary of the Historical Society write a letter 
addressed to him as Secretary of the Historical Landmark Com- 
mission asking that something be done immediately to preserve the 
building. Seconded and carried. 

Mr. MacDougall announced that Mr. Ed Gibb who owns the 
ranch where Fort Fetterman once stood will be glad to give a 
right of way so the public may visit the old site and the few remain- 
ing buildings. 

Mr. Claude Gettys of Story announced that information on the 
Fetterman Massacre Monument is incorrect in that it gives the 
idea that Fort Phil Kearney was located at the site of the monu- 
ment whereas it was actually several miles away. The President 
suggested that Mr. Gettys obtain an estimate of the cost of making 
the proper change and submit it to the next Executive Committee 

Mr. L. C. Bishop stated that the Red Buttes Monument in 
Natrona County is not within 20 miles of the graves from the 
battle. He has found remnants of two wagons which were burned 
at the scene of the Custard Massacre. These are only one mile 
from old Fort Casper. He suggested that the gravestones be 
moved to the site of the burials. Mr. Weppner explained that the 
gravestones were merely markers commemorating that tragic event. 
The President suggested that Mr. Bishop have specific recommen- 
dations to be presented to the next Executive Committee Meeting. 

6. ANNOUNCEMENTS. Miss Homsher reported that the 
Westinghouse Broadcasting Company Contest is an annual affair. 
In 1957 Sheridan and Green River submitted historical radio 
recordings, but neither entry won. Only two awards are given 
nation-wide. The radio station or TV station on which the win- 
ning program appeared receives $500 and $500 is awarded to the 
state or county historical society which sponsors the winning entry. 

- Miss Carley, Secretary-Treasurer, reminded members that the 
Colter's Hell booklets are still available for sale. She stated that 
enough have been sold so that the Society is within $55.00 of 
having the publication money returned to the treasury. 

Miss Carley also announced that the two sets of historic slides 
"The Dinwoody Petroglyphs" and the "Oregon Trail" series and 


narratives are now ready for lending. The Society has 4 sets of 
each and one reserve set for security from which additional copies 
can be made. These sets of slides may be borrowed by writing 
to Miss Homsher. 

Annual reports of activities undertaken by County Chapters 
were given. The following reports were given. Those preceded 
by an asterisk were written and are now on file. 

* Albany County Miss Clarice Whittenburg, President 
*Carbon County Mr. Kleber Hadsell, President 

Fremont County Mr. Jules Farlow, Delegate 

Goshen County Mr. Sam Olson, President 

* Johnson County Mrs. Ada Duncan, Delegate 

* Laramie County Mr. Robert Larson, President 

* Natrona County Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins, Delegate 

* Sweetwater County Mr. Vernon Hurd, Delegate 

Under new business it was decided to change the procedure for 
the election of state officers. In the future the slate will be sent 
to each member of the Society with the summer History News. 
Each interested member shall return the ballot addressed to the 
Nomination Chairman, whose name and address will appear on 
the ballot. This will save approximately $85.00 for the Society. 

The Washakie County Historical Society, through a letter ad- 
dressed to the President, Dr. Larson, requested consideration of a 
change in the constitution which would allow county chapters to 
add a new membership classification, that of Associate Members. 
Such an associate member would pay only the county dues: he 
would not belong to the State Historical Society, would have no 
privilege of voting or holding office in the local chapter, and would 
not receive any publications of the Society. In a discussion on 
this subject a number of objections were raised, other county chap- 
ters feeling that the problem of local memberships had resolved 
itself in their counties. It was the concensus of opinion that if 
this change were made in the State Historical Society constitution 
that it would weaken the State Society. It was decided that this 
should continue to be a local problem, handled locally, with a goal 
of educating people over the state as to the advantages of state 
membership and the need of their supporting a state program. 
The Secretary was instructed to write the Washakie County Chap- 
ter regarding the decision of the membership attending the meeting. 

The president announced that the Washakie County Chapter 
has extended an invitation to the State Historical Society to meet 
in Worland in 1961, in conjunction with the 50th anniversary 
celebration of the creation of Washakie County. Dr. Larson 
stated that since no invitations for the 1959 Annual Meeting were 
ready for presentation at this time that they would be considered 
at the next Executive Committee Meeting during the winter. 


Dr. Larson appointed the following Resolutions Committee: 
Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins, Chairman, and Mr. Jules Farlow. 

Dick Nelson, pioneer of Wyoming who now lives in San Diego, 
California, extended by telegram his greetings and best wishes for 
a successful meeting. 

The meeting adjourned for the tour of the State Museum, fol- 
lowed by a tea given by Mrs. Milward L. Simpson at the Executive 
Mansion at 4 o'clock. 

Dinner Meeting — Evening of September 6 

In the evening 173 persons attended a smorgasbord dinner at 
the Palomino Supper Club. Dr. T. A. Larson introduced members 
of the Society who had come from the greatest distance to attend 
the meeting: Mr. and Mrs. Clare Eraser of Fort Credit, Ontario, 
Canada, Mrs. Florence H. Murphy of Seattle, Washington, and 
Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Wright of Duarte, California. 

The President, Dr. Larson, announced the results of the election 
of officers for 1958-59 as follows: 

President, Mr. A. H. MacDougall of Rawlins 
First Vice President, Mrs. Thelma Condit of Buffalo 
Second Vice President, Mr. E. A. Littleton of Gillette 
Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley of Cheyenne 

Historical Awards 

Mrs. Thelma Condit, chairman of the Awards Committee pre- 
sented the following Historical Awards: 

Miss Clarice Whittenburg for her book Wyoming's People, a 
serious history of Wyoming for the 4th, 5th and 6th grades. 

Mrs. Mae Urbanek for her book The Uncovered Wagon, an 
account of some of the history of eastern Wyoming and the Black 
Hills area. (Honorable Mention) 

Mr. Jack R. Gage for his historical novel Tensleep and No Rest, 
a novel based on historical facts of the last cattle-sheep war in 

Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins for her historical article which 
appeared as a section of a book, "The Powder River Basin of 
Wyoming, Land of the Last Frontier." 

The Laramie Daily Boomerang, newspaper, for its outstanding 
coverage of the history of the State through special series of his- 
torical articles and continually presenting to the community its 
historic heritage. 

Homer C. Richards and W. C. Lawrence for estabhshing and 
maintaining a fine private museum in Jackson, Wyoming. 

Louis C. Steege for his volunteer leadership in the archaeological 
field in Wyoming and promotion of better standards in archaeo- 
logical investigations in the State. 


Sweetwater County Historical Society, Radio Station KVRS, 
Social Science Class, Lincoln High School, Green River, for their 
cooperative project culminating in a series of radio programs on 
"The History of Southwestern Wyoming." 


Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins, chairman of the Resolutions 
Committee, presented the following report: 

WHEREAS: The Laramie County Historical Society has been 
the gracious host for the Fifth Annual Meeting of the Wyoming 
State Historical Society, and 

WHEREAS: the membership of the Society, the officials of the 
State of Wyoming and the City of Cheyenne have extended every 
courtesy to make this an outstanding meeting; therefore, 

Be it resolved that we extend our sincere appreciation for the 
excellent program, the interesting trek, and for the hospitality 
extended; and that we especially thank Mr. Robert Larson, the 
president of the Laramie County Historical Society, and Miss Lola 
Homsher and Miss Maurine Carley for their splendid efforts in 
making this State meeting an outstanding success. 

Be it further resolved that we extend our deep appreciation to 
the Honorable Milward L. Simpson, Governor of Wyoming, and 
to Mrs. Simpson for their gracious hospitality in opening the 
Mansion to the members of the Wyoming State Historical Society. 

Edness Kimball Wilkins, Chairman 
Jules Farlow. 

The resolutions were adopted unanimously. 


The Shy-Guys a quartet from Cheyenne sang several numbers 
which were greatly enjoyed. 

An historical skit "Pioneer Portraits" was presented by the Lara- 
mie County Historical Society. Members of the skit were: 

Herbert Salisbury, Dull Knife 
Louis Demand, General Dodge 
Mrs. Anthony Reis, Calamity Jane 
L. C. Steege, Portuguese Phillips 
William Schroll, Tom Horn 
Mrs. Charles E. Lane, Esther Morris 

A Choral Reading Group read a narrative written by Mrs. 
Graham Walker giving some of the history regarding each charac- 
ter. Mrs. Glenn K. Rogers read the lead part of the story and 
she was joined by the following members of the Choral group 
reading the history of the character: Mrs. Walker, Miss Marguerite 


Martin, Mrs. Hazel Ward, Miss Reta Ridings,' Mrs. Owen King, 
Mrs. James Carlisle, and Miss Maurine Carley. 

The speaker of the evening was Dr. S. H. Knight, Head of the 
Department of Geology, University of Wyoming, who gave a most 
interesting and informative talk on the "History of the Rocky 
Mountains" which he illustrated by chalk drawings of the evolution 
of the land now in Wyoming since the beginning of time as it is 
read from the formations of the earth. 

Sunday — September 7 

At 9:00 o'clock Sunday morning approximately 75 members 
met to dedicate the newly erected historical sign on Cheyenne 
which had been erected three miles east of the city. The sign was 
designed and erected by the Laramie County Historical Society. 

Mr. Robert Larson, president of the Laramie County Historical 
Society, made the dedication speech and introduced Miss Maurine 
Carley and Mr. L. C. Bishop, the committee responsible for the 
details of its erection, after which Miss Carley and Mr. Bishop 
unveiled the sign. 

Following the dedication the group drove to the picnic grounds 
of the Veterans Administration Hospital where the Executive 
Board of the Laramie County Historical Society entertained the 
members of the State Historical Society at a Round-up Breakfast. 
Coffee, bacon and pancakes with all the trimmings were served by 
the two efficient cooks, Bill Schroll and Chuck Ritter. 

Entertainment following the breakfast was given by the Chey- 
enne Ki-Ann Indians who gave an excellent exhibition of authentic 
Indian dances. The guests enjoyed visiting with each other, and 
following the breakfast and the entertainment the Fifth Annual 
Meeting was concluded. 

Maurine Carley, Secretary 


Museum Tour Program 

Dr. Paul W. Emerson, Chairman Miss Dorothy Taylor, Chairman 

Mrs. D. M. Carley Mr. Ed Logan 

Mr. Russell Thorp „ . 

Mr L C Steege Registration 

Mr! Charles Elmer Lane Mrs. Mabel B. Martin, Chairman 

Miss Ann Jabelmann 

Banquet Mrs. Paula Durnford 

Mrs. John W. Howard 

Robert R. Larson Tea u r^ ,• , ^t, ■ 

Mrs. James H. Carlisle, Chairman 
Trek Mrs. John W. Howard 

Mr. Charles Ritter, Chairman Mrs. Charles Ritter 

Mrs. William R. Schroll 
Historical Sign Mrs. Graham Walker 

Miss Maurine Carley, Chairman Miss Marguerite Martin 

Mr. L. C. Bishop 




Mrs. Charles Ritter 
Mr. William R. Schroll 


Mrs. Owen R. King, Chairman 


Mr. Herbert J. Salisbury, Chairman 

Courtesy Lola M. Homsher 

Dedication of Historic Sign on Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Miss Maurine Carley and Mr. L. C. Bishop. 

Mook Keviews 

The Autobiography of the West. Compiled and annotated by 
Oscar Lewis (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1958. 
310 pp. $5.00) 

Oscar Lewis writes fluently and abundantly, turning out non- 
fiction books, juveniles, novels, and magazine articles. As a rule 
his works are popular, and deservedly so. 

This, his most recent publication, appears to be something new 
for him, a kind of anthology. He has supplied introductory para- 
graphs and connecting links for a long chain of quotations from 
"personal narratives of the discovery and settlement of the Ameri- 
can West." The period covered is from the 1530's to the 1890's, 
although only a few pages deal with the years before 1800. Ap- 
proximately one hundred sources are drawn upon, and as a rule 
several short quotes are taken from each source. The quotations 
are grouped in eleven chapters: "Widening Horizons," "Trail 
Breakers," "Under Four Flags," "Hunters, Traders, and Trap- 
pers," "The Yankees Head West," "Gold on the American River," 
"The Rush by Land," "The Rush by Sea," "The Northwest," "The 
Southwest," and "Sidewheeler, Stagecoach, and Iron Horse." 

Among the authors quoted are such well known persons as 
Lewis and Clark, Francis Parkman, John C. Fremont, H. H. Ban- 
croft, and Mark Twain. There is even a half page from Mercer's 
The Banditti of the Plains. Most of the authors, however, are 
obscure. Taking the M's for example, not many readers will have 
heard of Lemuel McKeeby, James McNaney, and Ciriaco Molina. 
This of course does not mean that what they wrote is beneath 
attention. On the contrary, the excerpts are well chosen. Only 
Lewis and Clark are mistreated, since the riches available in their 
journals are poorly represented by the dull passages selected here. 

Persons who believe that "Wyoming is the West" may be some- 
what disappointed that the volume has so little about Wyoming in 
it, but when one sets out to pick three hundred pages of quotations 
from four centuries and from all over the trans-Mississippi West, 
with sea routes thrown in, he cannot fairly give much attention to 

The average reader will enjoy this kaleidoscopic presentation 
of western American History. Indeed, it is hard to think of a 
better book for stimulating interest among persons who are just 
beginning to study the History of the West. 

University of Wyoming T. A. Larson 


Owen Wister Out West, His Journals and Letters. Edited by 
Fanny Kemble Wister. (Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 1958. 269 pp., illus. index. $5.00.) 

Any lover of Wyoming history will thoroughly enjoy OWEN 
WISTER OUT WEST, His journals and Letters edited by his 
daughter Fanny Kemble West. The book is a collection of ob- 
servations and experiences recorded on the spot from nearly every 
section of Wyoming. Many of the places he describes are still 
unchanged, many of the people mentioned have relatives living in 
the same areas. From his trips to the west beginning in 1885 he 
found the source material for his western stories and in particular 

Don't skip the Preface written by Fanny Kemble West. It is a 
personal enchanting, interesting account of the trips Owen Wister 
took with his family in later years to Yellowstone Park by wagon, 
to the Y B dude ranch near Jackson, Wyoming and to his own 
ranch near there. 

The Introduction must also be read, for without it you will never 
fully appreciate what a remarkable achievement the writing of 
THE VIRGINIAN was. Owen Wister's background, education, 
his friends and associates prepared him for an entirely different 
role in life than that of creating the heroic cowboy. 

I had visited with a number of old timers in the Wind River 
valley who had met or knew Owen Wister when he came through. 
They describe him as handsome, well educated and distant or 
aloof. They felt he would rather watch than participate. For 
this we can be thankful, for it was his intelligent, objective observa- 
tions that permitted him to record accurately the frontier west 
as it was and to create the present day concept of a cowboy as 
we know him today and is being played by every small boy dressed 
up in a Roy Rogers outfit. 

Owen Wister loved the territory of Wyoming the first time he 
saw it and each subsequent visit made him love it more. He 
worried about hordes of people coming to the state and destroying 
the beautiful spots. He worried that the natural bridges near 
Dubois would "echo with the howling mob, who will have easy 
paths made for them, and staircases, and elevators perhaps too. 
There will be signposts directing you to Minerva Terrace, Calypso 
Garden, Siren Grotto, for every unfortunate ledge and point will 
be saddled with a baleful name rotten with inappropriatness." 

This has still proven to be an unfounded worry for the bridges 
are still as inaccessible today as they were then and still uncluttered 
with beer cans, cigarette packages, kleenex and paper plates. 

When he first saw the faUs at Yellowstone he was deeply moved. 
He says, "One could never weary looking at it. Yet the tourists 
scuttle through here like mice." He would be in full accord with 
the native Wyomingites who lament today when tourists travel 


at sixty miles an hour at night through some of the most spec- 
tacular, scenic parts of their trips. 

The three people who have read the book to date in my orbit 
have continually stopped to find some one to share it with. The 
illustrations by his friend Remington are excellent. This is one 
book that should be found in every library of Wyoming so that 
many can share in the heritage of the state through its pages. 

Dubois, Wyoming Esther Mockler 

Wyoming's People. By Clarice Whittenburg. (Denver, Colo.: 
Old West Publishing Co., 1958. Illus. by Anne C. Mears. 
Index. 253 pp. $4.25.) 

"Wyoming's People" makes me think of Orozco's Frescoes at 
Dartmouth. He painted the whole epic of North America from 
the migration of the Aztecs down through the first third of the 
Twentieth Century on the walls of that library. Clarice Whitten- 
burg has condensed and arranged and written the 10,000 years of 
Wyoming history from the time of the atl-atl to that of inter- 
continental missiles. 

This book is the result of years of reading, collecting, studying, 
interviewing, and planning along with the experimental teaching of 
fourth grade children. I wish such a concise and essential history 
of my native state had appeared when I was a school child in the 
middle grades. In those days I heard references to the Fetterman 
Road and the Custer Massacre and South Pass and the Ride of 
Portugee Phillips and the Cheyenne Deadwood Stage and the 
Overland Trail and the Thornburg Massacre and other events and 
wondered about them. But the curiosity of a ten year old died 
down before I found out about more than a few of them. And, 
you won't believe this, but I got several of them straightened out 
when I read this book. 

I think "Wyoming's People" will set any child or older person 
to thinking about his state, from what has happened here to what 
may happen here. Wyoming is just at the beginning of its real 
development. It has untold resources to be discovered and used 
and conserved for its great future and I think this story and the fine 
way it is presented will have a lot to do with more serious and 
responsible effort in its development. 

Another thing I think is important is that this book will show 
the young citizen that he should take pains to write down any 
incident he hears a grandparent or other old timer relating so that 
more material will be available for checking and verifying and 
adding to the completion of the exciting story. Most of this 
history happened less than a hundred years ago. There are still 
those aUve who took a vital part in it. I regret that I did not 
realize this when I heard my mother telling about the experiences 


of her nine uncles in the Civil war as she listened to them when 
they came home to Wisconsin, or the stories of an eighteen year 
old boy from New York (my father) as he weathered the hazards 
and hardships of the early 80s out here. 

I hope as my grandchildren and great-grandchild read "Wyo- 
ming's People" they will think and take hold of these things and 
someone amongst them will give thoughtful attention to the fifty- 
eight years of papers left by their great-grandfather and those of 
fifty years left by their grandfather. 

Laramie, Wyoming Evelyn Corthell Hill 

Buckskin and Spurs, by Glenn Shirley. (New York: Hastings 
House, 1958) 191 pp. Bibliography, illus. $4.50) 

Television and radio have brought to life the thrilling careers 
of many frontier heroes and villains. Young and old watch and 
listen spellbound as Wild Bill Hickok pulls a fast gun and gets his 
man or Billy, the Kid, outshoots the law. These and others of 
their kind have become familiar modern day characters but we 
need to remember there are dozens of other frontier heroes and 
rogues who are unheard, unsung, not known, not remembered. 
There is a great need for more authentic Western Americana. 

Buckskin and Spurs by Glenn Shirley helps to fill this need by 
recounting the lives of other less famous but equally expert 
gunman both hero and villain of the Wild West at the end of the 
past century and the beginning of the present. The author has 
drawn vivid, exciting pen sketches of men who lived fast and 
dangerously, some within the law, some without, some in buckskin, 
some in spurs. 

The stories of their exciting account of western days read like 
some far fetched inventions of the dime novel era but are all true, 
based on solid research and written so entertainingly that youth 
and adult can enjoy every emotion packed page. 

There is Cap Rossman who organized the Arizona Rangers and 
Thomas J. Smith, known as "Bear Creek" Smith, the marshall of 
Abilene, who carried a gun but used it not, yet had the cowboys 
checking their sixshooters with the saloon keeper. Humor, too, 
is found in a remarkable horse-thief who was finally outwitted 
with one of his own tricks and who lived to become a respected 
citizen. Henry Starr, an angel with spurs, temporarily reformed 
but who reverted to type and held up a bank while producing 
movies. Bill Pickett, the dare-devil half-breed cowboy from the 
famous 101 Ranch, is credited with inventing "buUdogging" a 
present day top rodeo attraction. Bill has earned a place in the 
rodeo "Hall of Fame." These with others equally interesting are 
to be found in this swiftly moving, colorful saga of the old West. 

Green River, Wyoming ZiTA Winter 


The Cattlemen: From the Rio Grande Across the Far Marias. By 
Mari Sandoz. (New York: Hastings House, 1958. 527 pp. 

In the "Foreword" to her new book, The Cattlemen, Mari San- 
doz has written: ". . . to most of the world the cattleman and his 
cowboys, good and bad, are not known for the significance of their 
beef production. Instead they are the dramatic, the romantic fig- 
ures of a West, a Wild West that is largely imaginary. To some 
of the rest of us, however, the rancher is the encompassing, the 
continuous and enduring symbol of modern man on the Great 
Plains." This book is his story — an old story in many of its 
aspects, perhaps, but probably never before told so well; for not 
everyone who writes about the West or cattlemen or cows can 
write so well as Marie Sandoz. Other writers can have the same 
material with which she works, what they produce may be as his- 
torically accurate, and their books may be eminently readable. 
But Mari Sandoz has something in all her books about the West, 
and in her novels too, which sets her apart from most other writers. 
She has the gift of transforming her material into something that 
lives because she penetrates to the core of what she gathers to- 
gether, sees beyond the facts to what they really represent, and 
then through the medium of an amazingly fine and moving prose 
makes the men or the age (here it is both) live again as they lived 
before. She does this because she has such an admirable command 
of language and such a phenomenal ear for speech. She grasps 
always the importance of the way unaffected men express them- 
selves — men who are genuinely concerned with living, who are a 
vital part of the life around them. No amount of "hterary" skill 
and sophistication can express what they were. They can be 
described only in their own terms and their language is a part of 
the process. She did this extraordinarily well in her books about 
Indians and in Old Jules and she has done it again here. In addi- 
tion, she knows both instinctively and imaginatively how the men 
she writes of felt and thought about things. Her own background 
accounts for part of it, and that, combined with her studied use of 
language and her own intense feeling, enables her to do more in 
her books than most other writers have been able to do. 

Here, her subject is vast, but she is equal to it. In time it covers 
a period well over a hundred years (in Chapter II as she traces 
the worship of the cow she takes us back even to pre-historic 
times); in area it takes in at least thirteen states, from Mexico to 
Canada and from the Mississippi west through Wyoming and the 
states north and south; it involves hundreds of men, great and 
small, a gazetteer of towns and counties, and, of course, cattle in 
tens of thousands. On the surface it is the story of the cattle 
industry from the first cattle brought in by the Spanish to the 
latest developments in breeds; but beyond that it is also the history 


of the vision and the dedication of a good many far-seeing cattle- 
men, tied up to be sure with dollars and cents, but a vision and 
dedication which lived on when at times the dollars and cents 
ceased to exist, and a vision and dedication which helped to form 
one huge section of this nation. The book is inscribed, as she puts 
it, "To the old-time hard bitten, hard-driven cowmen, the greatest 
believers in next year, and the year after that." She has lifted the 
cattleman out of the lower, un-glamorous place our age would give 
him and has made of him instead a kind of epic figure. In fact, 
the book itself is a kind of epic. It is not written in hexameters 
and has no Achilles or Hector or Troy, but Miss Sandoz might well 
have begun, as did Homer, with "Sing, Goddess." The ingredients 
are all here. (It might be added as a minor point that the similes 
in The Cattlemen are not as extended as Homer's but they are as 
effective. ) 

In such a subject Miss Sandoz has of necessity had to omit a 
good many things, interesting and significant things in themselves 
no doubt, but what remains is a fairly complete study of this great 
era — especially of Wyoming's contribution. She has tried, she 
says, "through a few selected individuals and incidents, to show 
something of the nature and the contrasts, something of the con- 
flicts and the achievements of the cattlemen as a whole." For this 
reader, at least, she has succeeded. Her choices were wise and 
she has made the most of them. 

University of Wyoming Richard Mahan 

American Knives. By Harold L. Peterson. (N. Y. : Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 1958. Illus. 178 pp. $4.95.) 

Harold Peterson's book, although not a complete guide for knife 
collectors, certainly will give the most rabid knife enthusiast a 
wonderful source of written material, as well as many fine photo- 
graphs of American knives dating from before Columbus' discov- 
ery up to and including modern-day cutlery. 

This being the first book to be published on American knives, 
it deserves much credit. All chapters are filled with excellent 
information which required much research on the author's part. 

A study of the Bowie knife and later variations called "Trappers 
Knives," plus some of our Indian works, will be of interest to all 
who enjoy Western Americana. 

Mr. Peterson has also covered very completely the cutlery de- 
veloped for use by our Armed Forces from World War I up to 
and including our modern-day armies. 

His chapters on the manufacturing, care and upkeep of all forms 
of steel knives are a valuable source of information to all who are 
interested in knives of any size or description. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming W. R. Schroll 


The Bannock of Idaho, by Brigham D. Madsen. (Caldwell: The 
Caxton Printers, ltd., 1958. illus. 382 pp. $5.00.) 

Brigham Madsen's The Bannock of Idaho is the history of a 
small band of warriors and buffalo hunters who lived among the 
Shoshoni Indians in Central Idaho. Because of the poverty of 
their land, they led a nomadic existence, hunting buffalo in Wyo- 
ming and Montana in the fall, fishing in the Snake River in the 
spring, and gathering Camas Roots in the summer. Their chief 
amusements were horse-stealing and making raids upon their tra- 
ditional enemies, the Blackfeet. 

The advent of the white man rudely changed this idyllic way of 
life. After the fur traders and the mountain men, came the over- 
land travelers bound for Oregon and California. The Shoshoni 
were peaceful and friendly to the whites, but the Bannock, proud 
and haughty, retaliated by attacks upon the wagon trains and white 
settlements. Matters were brought to a head by a series of mas- 
sacres in the early 1860's and the mihtary was called in. On 
January 29, 1863, some California Volunteers under Colonel Pat- 
rick E. Connor attacked a force of Shoshoni and Bannock en- 
trenched in a ravine on Bear River in southern Idaho. After a 
fierce fight lasting four hours, the soldiers flanked the Indians out 
of the ravine and killed many of them as they sought to escape. 

On October 14, 1863, the Bannock Chiefs, reaUzing the futility 
of further resistance, entered into the Treaty of Soda Springs with 
the Government. By its terms, the Indians were to stay on the 
Fort Hall Reservation and receive sufficient food and clothing from 
the Government in return for their promise not to molest the 
whites. By this time the tribe had declined from 2000 men, 
women and children, to about 1000. Since the Government failed 
to supply enough annuity goods, the Bannock continued their 
seasonal wanderings to obtain food. 

Discontent was stirred up in 1878 by the uprising of Chief 
Joseph and his Nez Perce. The Bannock again took the warpath, 
but were defeated and scattered by the army in a series of engage- 
ments in August and September of that year. 

Weakened by this loss, the tribe was at the mercy of its enemies. 
White settlers encroached on the reservation. A strip of land was 
taken by the Utah Northern Railroad. The right to hunt buffalo 
was lost. Deprived of their food supply, the Indians had to turn 
to agriculture. The transition was slow and painful. The end of 
the century found the Bannock tamed at last and confined to the 
Fort Hall Reservation. The tribe now numbered only 450 and 
was so intermingled with the Shoshoni that it had lost its tribal 

Mr. Madsen has combined this material in a scholarly work, well 
documented with footnotes referring to a wide variety of primary 
sources. The material, which is the product of a vast amount of 


research, is presented factually and from an objective viewpoint. 
The volume is well illustrated with the graphic drawings of M. D. 
Stewart. A voluminous bibliography, an adequate index, and an 
Appendix containing the main treaties and Acts of Congress com- 
plete the history of this obscure tribe. 

Windsor, Colorado J. W. Vaughn 

The Uncovered Wagon by Mae Urbanek as told by Jerry Urbanek. 
(Sage Books. Alan Swallow Publisher, Denver. 1958. lUus. 
210 pp. $3.50) 

This is an interesting account of the trip Jerry Urbanek took by 
wagon in 1931, carrying some old machinery from North Dakota 
through the Black Hills and northeast Wyoming to his ranch in 
the Lusk neighborhood. 

The Uncovered Wagon is illustrated by photos and also by 
clever drawings by Elsie Christian. 

One of the better realistic bits is the description of Wyoming 
wind and Mae Urbanek's poem "I Am The Wind." 

Reading this book is a pleasant antidote for the violence of many 
television shows. It should also have definite appeal for those 
living along the route Mr. Urbanek travelled from Hellinger, North 
Dakota, 360 miles south to Lusk, Wyoming, and the ranch where 
his wife Mae awaited him. 

Wheatland, Wyoming Leora Peters 

The Great Diamond Hoax and Other Stirring Incidents in the Life 
of Asbury Harpending. (Norman: The University of Okla- 
homa Press, 1958. illus. 240 pp. $2.00) 

The hackneyed expression "his life sounds like fiction" is over- 
worked these days. But there is no other way accurately to 
describe the most unbelievable happenings in the life of Asbury 
Harpending as he recounts them in this book. One suspects, 
indeed, that Mr. Harpending was considerably impressed with his 
conduct and his affairs, as there is a notable lack of modesty in 
large portions of this autobiography. 

A good three-quarters of the volume is concerned with Har- 
pending's experiences prior to the Great Diamond Hoax. He tells 
of his purchase of a shipment of oranges and bananas from the 
purser of a ship carrying him from Panama to San Francisco in 
1857 for $10 (with only $5 in his pocket at the moment), which 
he sold to his fellow passengers for a profit of $400. This stake 
he mushroomed, by 1860, into a fortune of $250,000. Harpen- 
ding recounts his part in the conspiracy, prior to the Civil War, 


to divert the allegiance of California and Nevada to the Southern 
cause (along with the vast wealth of the two states) and his being 
convicted of treason as a result. He speaks in terms of millions 
of dollars when he tells about discovering fabulous mines in 
California and Nevada, investing in choice real estate in San 
Francisco, and his dealings in mining investments in New York 
and London. 

But the cUmax of his story is the Diamond Hoax itself and, 
curiously enough, in his discussion of the events connected there- 
with is a distinct shift in attitude and literary style with Harpending 
apparently going to considerable trouble to de-emphasize his part 
in the matter. It is this change of style that suggests the author 
was deliberately "white-washing" his part in this remarkable affair. 

It was in 1871, according to Harpending, that two prospectors, 
Philip Arnold and John Stack, appeared in San Francisco with a 
sack of uncut diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and other precious 
stones, with a story of having found a large deposit of gems in a 
desert region in the West. Harpending had known both men 
before, by the way, in California. This find occasioned a tre- 
mendous interest in financial circles and a multi-million-dollar cor- 
poration was set up (with Harpending taking a goodly block of 
stock) to develop the deposit. 

Several visits were made to the area by Harpending and others 
interested in the venture, with the visitors always blindfolded. 
The deposit was certified as genuine by no less a personage than 
Henry Janin who was, at that time, the most prominent mining 
engineer in the world. Tiffany pronounced the stones of good 
quality and genuine. Investors mobbed the promoters in their 
efforts to invest in the company, to share in the expected fabulous 
profits to come from development of the deposit. And then, the 
bubble burst: It was discovered that some of the stones in the field 
had definite and distinct marks of the lapidary's art upon them. 

Harpending is quite vague as to the location of the salted dia- 
mond deposit. His only direct reference in his book to the location 
is as follows : "We left the Union Pacific Railroad at a small station 
near Rawlings Springs" and after "many inconveniences" arrived 
and pitched camp on the "famous diamond fields" on the fourth 
afternoon. The actual location of the diamond fields is south of 
the Wyoming border, a few miles east of the site of the Flaming 
Gorge Dam. 

The volume is illustrated with portraits of Harpending and other 
principals in the "incidents", and has a forward by Glen Dawson. 

Despite the changes of emphasis and varying degrees of modesty 
on the part of the author and notwithstanding a rather trying 
vagueness here and there, the book is good reading and a good 
buy for anyone interested in the history of the West. 

Green River, Wyoming Vernon K. Hurd 


Wyoming Manhunt. By Allan V. Elston. (New York: J. B. 
Lippincott Co., 1958. 222 pp. $2.95.) 

Wyoming Manhunt is a fast moving "western" with the usual 
love story interlaced with a cattleman, gambler, killer theme. The 
setting is a framework of Carbon County history, place names, and 
pioneer families that make the narrative as alive today as it could 
have been 78 years ago. 

Wyoming Manhunt is not in itself a history and much of the 
interesting detail of factual historical incidents is omitted. How- 
ever, those who are familiar with the locale will find themselves 
reading this book at one sitting. Others will find it no less grip- 
ping and the knowledge that the setting and many of the characters 
are right from the pages of the Carbon County Journal of the days 
described will add substantially to the enjoyment of the story. 
The author spent many hours getting authentic background detail 
from the bound copies of the Journal in the county museum. 

The Sand Creek ranching community is one terminus of the 
suspenseful races of the story and the frontier railroad village of 
Rawlins is the other. A cowboy bent on avenging the killer of his 
father, a killer after the illicit gold of others fleeing the law, a 
handsome hero of a deputy sheriff, and several wholesome young 
ladies are the principle characters. The lead characters are 
entirely fictional according to the author. 

Names well known in Carbon County history are Tom Sun, 
the Rankin brothers, Ed Widdowfield and Doctor Maghee. Action 
settings such as the Larry Hayes Hotel, the jail at Fourth and 
Cedar, Bell Springs stage station, Ferris, and others contribute to 
the realism of the book. 

Wyoming Manhunt is light reading, not a historical volume in 
any sense, but good entertainment. 

Rawlins, Wyoming Neal E. Miller 

Life and Adventures of Frank Grouard. By Joe DeBarthe. Edited 
by Edgar I. Stewart (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 
1958. 268 pp. Intro. Illus. $5.00) 

In this handsome volume the University of Oklahoma Press has 
brought out a new edition of a work first published in 1894, and 
now very scarce. Edgar I. Stewart, author of the first-rate volume 
Custer's Luck, has supplied a ten-page Introduction and 172 foot- 
notes, besides other editorial services. 

Frank Grouard has a formidable reputation as a scout, which 
is based more on what others said of him than on what he told 
newspaperman DeBarthe. For example, Jim Gatchell considered 
him "the most valuable scout connected with the U.S. Army." 


And General Crook is reported to have said that he would rather 
lose one-third of his command than part with Grouard. 

After living among the Sioux for seven years Grouard went to 
work for Crook in 1876 and was with him at the Rosebud and Red 
Fork battles and with Sibley on the famous Sibley scout. 

It has long been recognized that Grouard's story as published 
by DeBarthe is unreliable. For example, W. J. Ghent in dealing 
with Grouard in the Dictionary of American Biography describes 
his account as "a tale in which fact is liberally intermixed with 
highly wrought fiction." Although Stewart rates the story "largely 
authentic" he admits that there are "exaggerations, omissions, and 
rationalizations." Stewart does not know whether to blame Grou- 
ard, DeBarthe or both. 

The new edition is not a reproduction of the original because a 
good bit has been omitted. Stewart explains: "The task of editing 
has been largely one of condensation and identification. . . . Mr. 
DeBarthe 'padded" and enlarged his account with the interpolation 
of a great deal of material which is not essential to the story. Some 
of this material, especially the long quotations from other books, 
has been eliminated. ..." 

Most readers will find this a very interesting book, no matter 
how much of it they decide to discount. Stewart's Introduction 
and footnotes make the present volume more valuable than the 
original for the general reader. The editor has done a painstaking 
job, and errors are rare. 

In view of Stewart's fine contributions this reviewer hesitates 
to express a regret that there is not included in the Introduction a 
paragraph or two telling something about DeBarthe. He was one 
of several remarkable pioneer editors in Wyoming. He worked 
briefly in Lander, Bonanza, Buffalo, and Sheridan, 1888-1894. 
For a biographical sketch of DeBarthe one must turn to Beach, 
Women of Wyoming, vol. 2, where information about Joe is in- 
cluded with the biography of Mrs. DeBarthe. 

University of Wyoming T. A. Larson 

Tensleep and No Rest. By Jack R. Gage. (Casper, Wyo. : Prairie 
Publishing Co., 1958. Illus. 226 pp. $3.95.) • ' 

The last cattle-sheep war which culminated in violence in Wyo- 
ming took place in the Big Horn Basin on April 2, 1909. The 
event took place on Spring Creek near Tensleep and is known both 
as the "Tensleep Raid" and the "Spring Creek Raid." 

Jack Gage has gathered, over a number of years, the factual 
history of the raid from some of the participants, whom he has 
known since his days as a youth in Worland, and from the records 
of the trial. His account of the raid, based on these sources, 


deviates from a history of the raid into the realm of the historical 
novel by virtue of the fact that he has fictionalized two of the 
names of the raiders and he has added extraneous material on the 
life of the time and conversation which is of his authoriship and 
not that of the characters. Even the romance injected into the 
story has a factual background. 

The sidelights on life of the period interspersed throughout the 
book add a great deal to the story. The description of Worland 
in 1909, the manner in which people lived in a small Wyoming 
town of that day, the customs and conveniences (and inconven- 
iences) which they enjoyed and endured are given in a factual and 
humorous manner. The description of a sheep camp and the 
ingenuity of the herder to make a lonely life easier gives the 
reader a good picture of the life of a herder. 

This book is interesting reading. This reviewer hopes that more 
Wyoming people will follow Mr. Gage and write good historical 
novels of Western life as it actually was, correcting the picture of 
the West depicted in the usual "western" story. 

A number of fine illustrations portray leading persons and sites 
involved in the story. 

Cheyenne Lola M. Homsher 


Edv^^ard.O. Parry of Shaker Heights, Ohio, is a grandson of 
Dr. Henry C. Parry. He was born in Philadelphia, Pa., son of 
Judge and Mrs. George G. Parry. Mr. Parry graduated from the 
Germantown Academy of Philadelphia and Haverford College, 
following which he spent a year at the Prince Royal's College in 
Chiengma, Siam (Thailand) as basketball and track coach. More 
recently he has been associated with the Pennsylvania Railroad 
and Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, and is at present staff analyst 
with the East Ohio Gas Company. During World War II he 
served in 2nd Army Headquarters, 1943-44, and was Staff Ser- 
geant at General MacArthur's Headquarters 1945-46. On Feb. 7, 
1942 he married Virginia Lloyd and they have three sons, Owen, 
David and William. 

John E. Gnam, son of Edward S. and Ruth A. Gnam, was born 
in Cheyenne. He received his education in the Cheyenne schools 
and graduated from the University of Wyoming in 1938. From 
1938-42 he worked for the Stock Growers National Bank of 
Cheyenne. Since 1942 he has been employed by the Mountain 
States Telephone Company and at the present time lives in Denver. 


In 1938 he was married to Helen Christensen and they have one 
son, Edward C. Gnam. 

Jesse Wendell Vaughn of Windsor, Colorado, was born in 
Dadeville, Missouri, the son of Rose and Samuel Jesse Vaughn. 
He received his education in DeKalb, 111., attended the University 
of Illinois and University of Missouri, from which he received an 
A.B. degree in 1925, and University of Denver Law School from, 
which he received his L.L.B. in 1929. Since that time he has 
practiced law in Windsor. Mr. Vaughn's hobby for a number of 
years has been the study of Western military history. He has 
made numerous investigations at the sites of military and Indian 
battlegrounds. The results of some of these investigations and 
thorough research culminated in the book With Crook at the 
Rosebud published by Stackpole Company in 1956. 

Loren Clark Bishop, son of Spencer A. and Edith L. Bishop, 
was born on the Bishop ranch on LaPrele Creek, near Ft. Fetter- 
man (then in Albany County), Wyoming, March 4, 1885, and 
was educated in the public schools of Converse County. He was 
County Surveyor of Converse County from 1909-17, Supt. of 
Water Division No. 1 Wyoming 1920-34, and was appointed Wyo- 
ming State Engineer April 1, 1939, a position he held until his 
retirement April 1, 1957. He holds an honorary Degree of Doctor 
of Laws from the University of Wyoming, 1952, being honored 
for his outstanding work in assisting in the promotion of irrigation 
in the western states. For this work he also received a citation 
from the Four State Irrigation Council in 1957. He is a member 
of Sigma Tau Honorary Engineering Fraternity. His hobby has 
been the collecting of Indian artifacts, the study and investigations 
into Wyoming history, and the sponsoring of a mapping program 
of the old emigrant, stage and express and freight roads across 
Wyoming. He has led a series of treks along the old Oregon- 
Emigrant Trail over a period of years, all of which have been 
appearing in the Annals of Wyoming. He has thoroughly investi- 
gated, carefully mapped and is an outstanding authority on the 
early Wyoming trails. In 1954 he received an Honorary Award 
from the Wyoming State Historical Society for his work on the 

Edmund Anthony Bojarski of Falls Church, Virginia, was 
born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He received his B. S. Degree in 
Education in 1949 and M.A. in American Literature in 1950 
from the University of Wisconsin and has begun work toward his 
Ph.D. He is at present Foreign Service Officer with the Depart- 
ment of State. During World War II he served with the tJ. S. 
Army and was stationed in England in 1944-45. As a hobby he 


does free lance fiction writing, translations, and collects Polish 
and Russian works on Africa and on Polish and Russian travels in 
America before 1900. He is the author of "The Poles in Africa, 
1517-1939", "A Note on the Death of Dr. Heinrich Schliemann", 
"The Last of the Cannibals", and is at present translating Henryk 
Sienkiewicz's "Letters from Africa". 

George N. Ostrom of Big Horn, Wyoming, was born in 
Spencer, Iowa, the son of Margaret and Peter Dumont. He came 
to Wyoming in April, 1913, since which time he has lived in the 
Sheridan area. He was a member of the Wyoming National Guard 
from 1914-1919, served in the Mexican Campaign in 1916, and 
during World War I was a First Sergeant Bat. E, 148th Field 
Artillery, serving overseas and taking part in five major campaigns. 
He was married to Gladys Hann November 23, 1926, at Buffalo, 
Wyoming, and they are the parents of three children: George 
Ostrom, Jr., Mary Louise Ostrom Robbins and Patricia Jean 
Ostrom Kaufmann. Mr. Ostrom has worked with the Bureau of 
Entomology, he has been a rancher, and he is at the present time 
loan inspector for the First National Bank of Sheridan. 

Minnie Presgrove is a native of Lander, Wyoming, the daugh- 
ter of Mary and Alfred Gilliland. After graduating from the 
Lander High School she was married to W. Louis Presgrove 
Dec. 27, 1932, and since that time they have lived on their ranch 
at Crowheart, Wyoming. They are the parents of one son, Alfred 
L. Presgrove. Mrs. Presgrove received her B. A. Degree in 
Education from the University of Wyoming in 1958. She taught 
in Pavillion, Wyoming, from 1946-1957, and now teaches in Riv- 
erton. She is the author of several short articles which have 
appeared in the "Trailblazer." 

Mrs. Thelma Gatchell Condit. See Annals of Wyoming, 
Vol. 29, No. 1, April 1957, page 120. 

Louis C. Steege. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 29, No. 1, 
April 1957, page 121. 

Qeneral jHdc}c 


Abernathy, "Wild Cat" Sam, 177. 

Absarka Creek, 210. 

Adams, Harold, 214. 

Adams, Ramon F., The Best of the 
American Cowboy, reviewed by 
Robert G. Athearn, 112-113. 

Afton, Wyo., 146. 

Albin, Wyo., telephone service, 149. 

Allen, Dr. (dentist) 192. 

Allen, Helen Cody, 108, 109. 

Allen, Henry, Diary, 1853, 200. 

Allen, Mrs. Mary Jester, 108, 109. 

Altrocchi, Julia, 51. 

American Bell Company, 145. 

American Knives, by H. L. Peter- 
son, reviewed by W. R. Schroll, 

American Telephone and Telegraph 
Company, 149, 151. 

Anderson Ranch Crossing, 206. 

Angus, Red, 187-188; port., 186. 

Annett, C. F., 145-146. 

"Arapahoe" Brown, See Brown, An- 
drew (Arapahoe) 

Archaeological bill, Wyo., 220. 

Archaeological Research in Wyo- 
ming during 1958, by L. C. Steege, 

Artifacts, See Indians: Artifacts. 

Arvada, Wyo., 185. 

Astor, John Jacob, 45. 

Athearn, Robert G., review of The 
Best of the American Cowboy, by 
R. F. Adams, 112-113. 

Atkins, Dave, 29. 

Atlantic City, Wyo., 43, 48. 

Augsbach, W. E., 6. 

Augur, General C. C, 72, 79, 81, 
127, 142; letters by, 81-87. 

Austin, Don C, 149. 

The Autobiography of the West, 
compiled by Oscar Lewis, re- 
viewed by T. A. Larson, 227. 

Babbitt, A. W., 203, 204. 
Babcock, "Bill", 32. 
Bad Lands [Wyo.] search for water 
in, 1867, 140. 

Baggs, Wyo., telephone service, 146. 

Bagley, Joseph L., 193; explains 
Sublette Cut-off, 198; guide for 
Oregon Trail Trek, 193-206; in 
picture, 196; reads excerpts from 
Bruff Journals, 39-40, 203-205; 
relates account of Pacific Springs, 

Baker, James (Jim) cabin, 221. 

Baker's cabin (road house) 33. 

Bald Mountain Site, artifacts from, 
93-98; excavation, 93-98; geology, 
93; topography, 93. 

Baldy, E., 209. 

Bancroft, Hubert H., 208. 

Bannack, U. T., 1867, 54, 55. 

The Bannock, of Idaho, by B. D. 
Madsen, reviewed by J. W. 
Vaughn, 233-234. 

Bar C ranch, 34. 

Barnard, Lt. P. F., 66. 

Barnum, Thomas Freeguard (Tom) 
19-21, 177; port. 20. 

Barnum, Wyo., 183; description of, 
18; illus, 18; postoffice estab- 
lished, 17. 

Bartholomew, Mrs. Evelyn, given 
award, 108. 

Basin, Wyo., telephone service, 146. 

Battle Canyon, Wyo., 209. 

Battle of the Little Big Horn, 1876, 

Bayer, Mr. & Mrs. Albert, 50. 

Bear River, 210. 

Bear River Mts., 204. 

The Beginning of a Great Emblem, 
by George N. Ostrom, 163-167. 

Bell, Alexander Graham,, 145. 

Bell Telephone Company, 150. 

Bentzen, "Chuck", 92. 

Bentzen, Dr. R. C, 7, 214, 215; The 
Little Bald Mountain Site, pre- 
liminary report, 91-98; biog. of, 

The Best of the American Cowboy, 
by R. F. Adams, reviewed by R. 
G. Athearn, 112-113. 

Big Bear River, 198. 

Big Horn Basin, archaeological sur- 
vey, 1958, 215. 

Big Horn National Forest, 5. 

Big Horn sheep, 5. 



"Big Nose George", See Parrot, 

George (Big Nose George) 
Big Piney, 205, 207. 
Big Piney, Wyo., telephone service, 

Big Piney Telephone Company, 148. 
Big Sandy, 195, 198, 199, 200, 202; 

ferries, 206. 
Big Sandy Crossing, 198, 199. 
Big Sandy Station, 197. 
Bishop, Loren Clark, 91, 159, 162, 

198-200, 208, 221, 225; biog. of, 

239; in picture, 196, 226. 
Bishop, Mrs. Loren Clark, 193; in 

picture, 196; reads paper on 

Names Hill, 208-209. 
Bishop, Mr. & Mrs. Spencer A., 239. 
Bitter Creek, Wyo., 1867, 141. 
Black Creek (of Green River) 199. 
Black Hills (Laramie range) 168; in 

1867, 138. 
Black Hills Stage Coach, leaving 

Chugwater, illus. on cover, v. 30, 

no. 2. 
"Black Jack" Ketchum, See Ketch- 

um, Tom (Black Jack) 
Black Tooth Mt., 5. 
Blizzard, 1883, 195. 
Bloom, Mrs. John, 50. 
Blue Creek Ranch, 18. 
Bog Creek, 195. 
Boise, U. T., 54, 55. 
Bojarski, Edmund Anthony, trans- 
lator. Quo Vadis in Wyoming, by 

Henry Sienkiewicz, 168-170; biog. 

of, 239-240. 
Bomber Mt., 9. 
Bonneville, Capt. B. L. E., 46. 
Boodry, David, 111. 
Bordeaux, James, 153. 
Bordeaux, Wyo., 153. 
Bowen, Hal, 108. 
Bowrer, Earl T., 111. 
Boyack, Col. A. R., 37; prayer by, 

37-39; reads paper on Burnt 

Ranch, 43-44. 
Boyack, Mrs. A. R. (Hazel Noble), 

Poem to the Pioneer Women, a 

poem, 49; prepares paper on 

Names Hill, 208-209; reads paper 

on South Pass, 45-49. 
Bozeman trail, 60. 
Bradley, Col. W. R., 37, 193; in 

picture, 196. 
Bradley, Mrs. W. R., in picture, 196. 
Bragg, Mrs. W. F., Sr., 106. 
Branded Peace, a poem, by Dick J. 

Nelson, 12. 
Brewer, Harrison, 108, 111. 
Brewer, Mrs. Harrison, 108, 111. 

Bridger, James (Jim) 46, 66, 87, 
199, 204, '208; name at Names 
Hill, 209. 

Bridger trail, 60. 

Brophy, Col. John, 203. 

Brown, Andrew (Arapahoe), 35, 
172-192; poetry of, 184-185; port. 

Brown, Arapahoe, See Brown, An- 
drew (Arapahoe) 

Brown, Mrs. Katie, 108, 109, 111. 

Bruff, G. J., diary of, 39-40, 203- 

Bryan, Wyo., 207. 

Buckhorn Canyon, 202. 

Bucking Broncho Brigade from Wy- 
oming, 166. 

Bucking Broncho emblem, illus. on 
equipment, 166; origin of, 163- 

Buckskin and Spurs, by Glenn Shir- 
ley, reviewed by Zita Winter, 230. 

Buffalo, Wyo., 6; telephone service, 
147, 150. 

Buford, Wyo., 169. 

"Bull" teams", 129. 

Bull's Bend [Wyo] 154. 

Bull's Bend-Cottonwood Road, 154. 

Bullwhackers, 153, 155. 

Bunton, Eric, 188-190. 

Burials, Glendo Dam Reservoir 
area, 90-91. 

Burke, Ida Clara, grave of, 211. 

Burnt Ranch, Wyo., 43-44, 50. 

"Butch Cassidy", See Parker, George 
Leroy (Butch Cassidy) 

Butler, George, 92. 

Cademan, W. K., talks on Colter 
Stone, 109. 

Caldwell, Celeste, 92. 

Calquist, Linney, 92. 

Camas prairie, Ida., 68, 81, 83. 

Camp Carlin, Wyo., 152. 

Camp Floyd, Utah, 41. 

Camp life, 1867, with railroad com- 
mission, 139. 

Campbell, Mr., grave of, 211. 

Campbell, Robert, 46. 

Carbon County Chapter, (Wyo. 
State Historical Society) gets 
award, 107. 

Carey, William B., 149. 

Carissa Mine, South Pass, 43. 

Carley, Mrs. D. M., 225. 



Carley, Maurine, 108, 111, 221, 223, 
224, 225; compiler, Oregon Trek 
no. 6, 37-51, Oregon Trek no. 7, 
193-213; in picture, 196, 226. 

Carlisle, Mrs. James H., 106, 225. 

Carpenter, Jim, 37, 51, 52; tells of 
mining days & Lewiston, Wyo., 

Carr, Glenn, 20. 

Carson, Alta May, 172. 

Carson, Kit, 46. 

Carter, James Van Allen (interpre- 
ter) 72; biog. of, 87; letters by, 

Carter, Judge William A., 66, 87. 

Carver, "Bill", 29. 

Case Ferry, 206. 

Casper, Wyo., telephone service, 

Cassidy, "Butch", See Parker, George 
Leroy (Butch Cassidy) 

The Cattlemen: From the Rio 
Grande Across the Far Marias, 
by Mari Sandoz, reviewed by 
Richard Mahan, 231-232. 

Cavy (horses) 14. 

Chatterton, Fenimore C, Yester- 
day's Wyoming, reviewed by T. 
A. Larson, 115-116. 

Chaworth, Mr. (correspondent) port. 

Cheevers Flats, 32, 33. 

Chestnut, George, 92. 

Cheyenne, Wyo., 1867, 137, popu- 
lation, 142; in 1876, 168, 169; 
historical marker, dedication, 225, 
illus. 226; telephone service, 145, 
147, 149, 150. 

Cheyenne Daily Sun, 145. 

Cheyenne Ki-Ann Indians, 225. 

Cheyenne Leader, 147. 

Cheyenne Pass, first telephone ser- 
vice over, 145. 

Christensen, . Helen (Mrs. John E. 
Gnam) 239. 

Christopulos, Adrianne, in picture, 

Christopulos, Elaine, in picture, 196. 

Christopulos, George, 37; in picture, 

Christopulos, Mrs. George, in pic- 
ture, 196. 

Christopulos, Louis, in picture, 196. 

Church Buttes, Utah, 1867, 140, 

Clark, Mr., 201, 202. 

Clark, William V., 196, 197. 

Clark's Fork, 109. 

Clear Creek Pass, 187. 

Cloud Peak, 5, 6, 9. 

Cloud Peak Wilderness Area, 5, 7, 

Cody, William F., 41. 

Cody, Wyo., telephone service, 146, 

Coffee Creek, 155. 
Cole, Jack (surveyor) 159. 
Collett, Mr., 213. 
Colorado City, Colo., 133. 
Colter, John, cachets, 106; marker 

dedicated, 110; pageant on Colter, 

110; pamphlet on, 107; poem 

about, 11. 
Colter Stone, discussion on, 109. 
Colter's Hell, 11; talk on, by M. 

Mattes, 109. 
Colwell, Capt., 165. 
Commissary Ridge, 210, 212. 
Condit, Mrs. Thelma Gatchell, 106, 

108, HI, 220, 223, 240; The 

Hole-in-the-Wall, pt. 5, sect. 2, 

Outlaws and Rustlers, 17-36, pt. 

5, sect. 3, 175-192. 
Connelley, Pat, 21. 
Corbin, Dan, 214. 
Corum, Alfred A., grave of, 211. 
Cottonwood Creek, 153. 
Cowboy Representative or Rep, by 

Ed Wright, 13-16. 
Cowboys, habits of, 13-16. 
Cowley, Wyo., telephone service, 

Crazy Woman Creek, 178. 
Crook, Gen. George, 153. 
Crow Creek, 152; in 1867, 135, 137, 

138, 139. 
Cruzan, Bill, 29. 
Curry, "Flat-Nose" George, 17, 22, 

24, 27, 28, 29. 
Custard Massacre [Wyo.] 221. 
Custer, General George Armstrong, 

152, 169. 
Custis, Mr. & Mrs. Thad, 92. 

Daggett, Harold, 149. 

Dalton, Bob (outlaw) 179-180. 

Daniel, Wyo., 205. 

Dayton, Reed, 213. 

Deaver, Wyo., telephone service, 

DeBarthe, Joe, Life and Adventures 
of Frank Grouard, edited by E. I. 
Stewart, reviewed by T. A. Lar- 
son, 236-237; biog. of, 237. 

Deer Haven Lodge, 8. 

Demand, Lewis, 224. 



Dempsey Cut-off, See Dempsey 

Dempsey Road, 210, 211, 213. 
Denman, Col. H. B., 86. 
Devil's Gate, 42. 

Diamond Hoax, book on, 234-235. 
Dilts, Fred, 159. 
Dinwoody Petroglyphs, slides on, 

"Dirty Jim", 23. 

Dixon, Wyo., telephone service, 146. 
Dodge, Gen. Grenville M., 127, 

135-136, 141, 142; port. 130. 
Dominick, Dr. DeWitt, read script 

of Colter pageant, 110; signed 

lease for Rawlins Plaques, 110. 
Dominick, Mrs. DeWitt, 108, 111. 
Doty, Gov. James Duane (Utah) 

56, 59, 63, 84, 85. 
Dougherty, Al (Peg) 197. 
Dougherty, James, 149. 
Douglas, Wyo., telephone service, 

146, 150. 
Dry Creek, 199. 
Dry Medicine Creek, origin of 

name, 7. 
Dry Sandy, 198, 201. 
Dry Sandy Stage Station, 195. 
Duff, Mr., port. 130. 
Duguid, James, 214. 
Dumont, Mr. & Mrs. Peter, 240. 
Duncan, Private, 158. 
Duncan, Mrs. Ada, 222. 
Dunn, Capt., port. 130. 
Durnford, Mrs. Paula, 225. 

Early History of the Telephone in 
Wyoming, by John E. Gnam, 

Eklund, R. A., in picture, 196. 

Elk Mt. Wyo., in 1867, 138. 

Elkhorn. Wyo., telephone service, 

Elkhorn Creek, 153, 155, 159. 

Elston, Allan V., Wyoming Man- 
hunt, reviewed by Neal E. Miller, 

Emerson, Dr. Paul W., 225. 

Emigrant Road, See Old Emigrant 
Road; Oregon Trail. 

Emigrant Spring, Wyo., 211. 

Emigrant Springs, 209, 210. 

Encampment, Wyo., telephone ser- 
vice, 146, 150. 

Esmay, Gen. R. L., 37. 

Evanston, Wyo., first telephone, 146. 

Farlow, Jules, 193, 222, 223, 224; 
tells of 1883 blizzard, 195. 

Farson, Wyo., 200. 

"Feast in the Wilderness" 43, 47, 52. 

Felter, Joe, 171-173. 

Ferries, Green River, 205-207. 

Fetterman Massacre Monument, 

"Fight at Platte Bridge Station" 

pageant, given award, 107. 
Fischer, Charles, 35. 
Fish Creek, 196. 
Fitzpatrick, Thomas, 46. 
"Flat-Nose" George Curry, See 

Curry, "Flat-Nose" George 
Flick and Halter, 195. 
Florence Pass, 6, 8, 9. 
Fontenelle Creek, 206, 209. 
Ford, H. W., 90, 91. 
Fords, Green River, 205-207. 
Foreman, Mary Douglass and Fun- 

daburk, E. L., Sun Circles and 

Human Hands, reviewed by Wil- 
liam Mulloy, 117-118. 
Fort Bridger, 141, 207; illus. in 

1868, 54. 
Fort Bridger Indian Agency, in 

1867, 59. See Also Washakie and 

the Shoshoni. 
Fort Bridger Road, 210. 
Fort Fetterman, 142, 152, 153, 157, 

Fort Laramie, 46, 152, 153, 201. 
Fort Laramie Road, 157. 
Fort Phil Kearny, 60, 65, 221. 
Fort Reno, 60. 
Fort D. A. Russell, in 1867, 142, 

Fort Sanders, 138. 
Fort Sedgwick, Colo., 127, 128; 

fording river near, illus. 136; plan 

of in 1867, 131; railroad tracks 

near, 133. 
Fort C. F. Smith, 60, 6-5. 142. 
Foy, Ed, 159. 
Fraker, George, 188. 
Fraker, Harmon, 188. 
Franks, John B., 193; in picture, 

Franks, Mrs. J. B., in picture, 196. 
Franks, J. B. Jr., in picture, 196. 
Eraser, Mr. & Mrs. Clare, 223. 
Freighting, in 1876, 152-162. 
Fremont, Gen. John C, 171, 172, 

173; letter by, 173-174. 
Fremont County, naming of, 173. 
Fremont Creek, 171. 
Fremont Lake, 171. 
Fremont Peak, 171; climbed, 172. 



French Creek (in Wyo.) 181, 185, 
189, 190, 192. 

Fritzjofson, Peter, 106. 

Fritzjofson, Mrs. Sarah, 108. 

From Wilderness to Statehood, a 
History of Montana, 1805-1900, 
by J. M. Hamilton, reviewed by 
Mrs. Lois B. Payson, 114-115. 

Frost, Ned, 108, 109, 111. 

Fuller, E. O., 106. 

Fuller, Raymond, 51. 

Fundaburk, Emma Lila and Fore- 
man, M. D., Sun Circles and Hu- 
man Hands, reviewed by William 
Mulloy, 117-118. 

Gage, Jack R., receives historical 
award, 223; Tensleep and No 
Rest, reviewed by Lola M. Hom- 
sher, 237-238. 

Garland, Wyo., telephone service, 
148, 150. 

Gebhard, David, 215. 

Geiger and Bryarly, Diary, 1849, 

Gettys, Claude, 221. 

Gibb, Ed, 221. 

Gillette, Wyo., telephone service, 
148, 149. 

Gilliland, Mr. & Mrs. Alfred, 240. 

Gilmore, Robert (and wife) grave 
of, 204. 

Glendo, Wyo., telephone services, 
150, 152. 

Glendo Reservoir Area, 90-91. 

Glendo sites, 92, 214, 220. 

Glenrock, Wyo., telephone service, 

Gnam, Mr. & Mrs. Edward S., 238. 

Gnam, John E., Early History of the 
Telephone in Wyoming, 145-151; 
biog. of, 238. 

Gold mines, early, in Wyo., 43. 

Gordon, Crow, 31. 

Graham, Fred, 51. 

Grand Teton, 172. 

Granite Canon, Wyo., 169. 

Graves of, Burke, Ida Clara, 211; 
Campbell, Mr., 211; Corum, Al- 
fred A., 211; Gilmore, Robert 
(and wife) 204; Hill, Nancy, 211; 
Westfall family (Elizabeth, James, 
Jim, Sammy, Willie) 211. 

The Great Diamond Hoax, by As- 
bury Harpending, reviewed by V. 
K. Hurd, 234-235. 

Green River, 170, 195, 198, 205; 
ferries, 205-207. 

Green River, Wyo., Lincoln High 
School receives historical award, 
224; telephone service, 150. 

Greenwood, Caleb, 198, 206. 

Greenwood Cut-off, 203, 205. 

Greenwood Road, See Greenwood 

Gregory, Leonard, gets scholarship, 

Grey, Don, 215. 

Greybull, Wyo., telephone service, 

Griffin, Pete, 30. 

Gros Ventre Limestone formation, 

Grouard, Frank, book on, 236-237. 

Groves, Mr., 157. 

Guns, used in 1876, 153, 156. 

Hadsell, Kleber, 222. 

Halabaugh, Mr., 188-190, 192. 

Halter and FHck, 195. 

Hamilton, James McClellan, From 
Wilderness to Statehood, a His- 
tory of Montana, 1805-1900, re- 
viewed by Mrs. Lois B. Payson, 

Hamilton, Wyo., 43. 

Ham's Fork, 199, 210, 212. 

Ham's Fork Crossing, 210. 

Handcart Emigration, 41-42. 

Hann, Gladys, (Mrs. G. N. Ostrom) 

Hanton, Capt., 158. 

Harney, Gen. William S., 65, 72, 

Harpending, Asbury, The Great 
Diamond Hoax, reviewed by V. 
K. Hurd, 234-235. 

Harris, Burton, talks on Colter 
Stone, 109. 

Harris, Moses, 50. 

Hart, Capt. V. K., opens Plains 
Hotel, 147. 

Haun, Henry Peter, 203. 

Hayden, Dudley, 105. 

Haystack Butte, 200. 

Hazard, Wyo., 169. 

Head, F. H. (Indian Supt.) 59, 63, 
85, 88; letters to, 53-55, 56-58, 
62-63, 66, 73-77, 87-88; letters 
by, 55-56, 59-62, 63-65, 77-80. 

Heathcote, Leslie, 214. 

Hebard, Grace R.„ 41. 

Hecht, Emil, 185. 

The Heck Reel Wagon Burning, by 
J. W. Vaughn and L. C. Bishop, 
152-162; nlap of location, 154. 



IlL-rulcrsoii, J. B., 65. 

Ilciulcison, Paul, prepared paper on 

(irccii Kiver ferries. 205-207. 
IlihluMi, Miss, 51. 
Ilidilcn I epee (reek, origin of 

name. 7. 
IliUleliraiul, Ann, in pieliue, 196. 
Hiklebrand, IM/abelli, h).^; in pie- 
line, l')6. 
Ilildehranti, I'leiidie, in pietnre, 1^6. 
Ilikleliraiui, (ieneva, in pieture, 196. 
lliUlehrand, lyle. .^7. 193. 205-207; 

guiile, Oregon Trail Trek, 212- 

213; in pielnie, 196. 
Hill, I'.velyn Corlhell, review of 

Wvoniinu's People, by Clarice 

Whillenburg, 229-230. 
Hill. N. P., 55. 
Hill. Naney, 21 1. 
liilnian. Mr. &. Mrs. Fred, 92. 
liilinan, Mr. & Mrs. /.ane, 92. 
liislorical markers, near Cody, i.W<\- 

iealeil, 110; Cheyenne, dediealed. 

225. ilkis. 226. 
Hislorieal sites snrvev. 221. 
Hillell, .lohn S., 20S. 
Ilolbrook. .Stewart H., ihe Rocky 

Moiintdiii Rrvoliition. reviewed 

by H. .1. Swimiey. 118-119. 
Ilole-in-the-Wall Ciang, 17-36. 
The Holc-in-tlic-nall. pt. 5. sect. 2. 

Oiithiws and Rustlers, by Thelma 

(iatehell (\>ndit, 17-36; pi. 5, 

sect. 3. 175-192. 
Homsher. lola M.. 103. 104. 105. 

107, 108, 221, 224; review of 

Tensleep ami No Rest, by .lack R. 

(Jage. 237-238; and M. 1 . Pence, 

(ilioxt I'owns of Wvoinini;. given 

award. 108. 
Hold. Mrs. Charles. 106. 
Horn. Maj. (ilaun. Henry Peter) 

I lorn. I om. 1 3. 
lloisc stealing. IS8-I89. 
Honk. Id. 33. 
Howard. I'd. 28. 
Howard. Mrs. John W.. 225. 
Howard. Robert W., editor of This 

is the West, reviewed by Mary R. 

Rogers. 113-1 14. 
limit. Or. Fester C.. gives to state 

copvright to bucking broncho, 


Hunt. Wilson Price, 45. 
Hunt Mountain. 93. 
Hunter Ranger Station. 6, 7. 
Hunton. .lohn, 153, 157. 

Hurd, Vernon K., 220, 222; review 
of The Cheat l'>iaiiioiul Hoax, by 
Asbury Harpending, 234-235. 

Huson, Dr. Ixlward W., biog. of, 

Huson, Harry, 179. 
Hunton, Joseph M., 50-51. 
Hyattville, Wyo., 6, 7. 
Hynds, Harry, opens Plains Hotel, 


Ice Slough, Wyo., 37, 39. 
Iiulependenee Rock, 208. 
Indian Peace Commission, 65; let- 
ters to. 81-87. 
I' he Indian Tipi, its History, Con- 
strnclion and U,se, by R. & G. 
Faubin, reviewed by F. H. Sin- 
clair, 1 19-120. 

annuities, 56, 85. 
appropriations for agency, 80. 
artifacts, amulets, 99; ceremonial 
and problematical, 99-101; dis- 
coidals, 100-101; effigies, 99- 
100; gorgets, 99; pendants, 99; 
perforated disks, 101; projectile 
points, 217-218, edges, 218, 
non - stemmed, 217, notched, 
217, shouldered, 217; stemmed. 
217. typed used by Plains In- 
dians, 217-218; tomahawks, 
215-216; war clubs. 215-217. 
cattle, owned by, 79. 80. 
character of. 131, 142. 
Chiefs and individuals: Antero, 
53; A-wite-etse, 72; Had Hand, 
86; Ha/il (Ba/eel) 72; Big 
Foot. 86; C\io-sha-gan. 72; Go- 
sho. 85; Iron Shell. 86; Nar- 
kok. 72; Pan-sook-a-motse. 72; 
Pan-to-she-ga. 72; Red Bead 
(and family) 133; Red Cloud, 
65, 75, leads attack against 
Washakie in 1868, 75; Spotted 
rail, 86; Swift Bear, 86; Ta- 
boonsheya, 72; Taghee, (Tag- 
gee, Taggie, Tahgay) 54, 72, 
74; claims for certain lands 
made for Bannocks, 81, 83; 
Fav-to-ba, 72; Frop-se-po-wot, 
72;" Wan-ny-pitz, 72; Washakie, 
54. 56. 57, 59, 60, 61, 66, 72, 
76, 142; claims certain lands 
for Shoshonis, 81, 83; port. 
143; We-rat-/.e-mon-a-gen, 72; 
White Eyes, 86. 




condition of Indians, in 1868, 
77-80, in 1869, 88-89. 

custom when on war path, 139. 

depredations, attack Heck Reel 
Wagon Train, 152-162. 

diseases, in 1868, 76. 

furs and skins of, 53, 80, 89. 

habits of, 134. 

horses, etc., owned by, 53, 79, 80. 

population, in 1867, 53; in 1868, 
77-78; in 1869, 88-89. 

telegraph wires, suspicions con- 
cerning, 135. 

tipis, illus. in 1867, 134. 

Treaties: Treaty at Fort Bridger, 
July 3, 1868 (Shoshoni and 
Bannock) 67-72, 84; Treaty at 
Soda Springs, Oct. 14, 1863, 56. 

Tribes: Bannocks, 55, 59, 67-70, 
74-75, 78, 213, annuities, 56, 
85, desire own reservation, 82- 
84, friendly with Shoshonis, 75, 
remarks to July 3, 1868, 82-84; 
Blcickfeet, 86; Cheyennes, 152, 
at Julesburg, Colo., 131, 132; 
Elk Mountain Vtes, 11; Fish- 
Utes, 11, 79; Coshen-Utes, 11\ 
Goships, 78, 79, 85; Paiiites 
(Pah-Edes, Pah-Utes, Pi-Edes) 
77; Pahranugats, 11; Pah-Vents, 
11, 79; Pawnees, 128, 136, 137, 
and Sioux relations, 134, skir- 
mish with Arapahoes, 139; San- 
pitches, 11; Sheepeaters, 55; 
Shoshonis, 55, 59, 142, 213, 
annuities, 56, desire reservation, 
82-84, friendly relations with 
Bannocks, 75, in summers, 58, 
65. number of, 1867, 57, range 
of country, 59 - 60, remarks 
made to, July 3, 1868, 82-84, 
reservation for, 67-76; Shosho- 
nis, Eastern Band, 78-79, good 
conduct of, 57, reservation for, 
57, wealth of, 57; Shoshonis, 
Northwestern Band, 79, annu- 
ities, 1 867, 56; Shoshonis, West- 
ern Band, 79; Sioux, 133, 152, 
153, hostility of, 83, 86, and 
Pawnee relations, 134; Timpai- 
avats (Timpanogs) 77; Uintah 
Vtes, 79, 100; Vtes, population, 
1867, 53, 78, 79; Weber Vtes, 
78; Yampah Vtes, 11, 79. 

Wealth of, in furs and skins, 53, 
80, 89; in horses, 53, 79, 80. 
Irish Pete, 155, 158. 
Island Lake, 172. 
Izaak Walton League, 7. 

Jabelmann, Ann, 225. 

Jackson, Teton, 34. 

Jackson Hole Country, telephone 

service, 150. 
Jackson Valley Telephone Co., 150. 
James Bros, (outlaws) 35. 
John Colter, a poem, by Mae Ur- 

banek, 1 1. 
Johnson County Invasion, 188. 
Johnson's Army to Utah, 48. 
Jones, J. A. (Flatrock) 191. 
Jorzick, Henry, in picture, 196. 
Julesburg, Colo., town moved, 1867, 


KC ranch, 30. 

KSPR Radio, Casper, gets award, 

KVRS Radio, Green River, gets 

award, 224. 
Kamas prairie, Ida., See Camas 

prairie, Ida. 
Kane, Wyo., 215. 
Kaufmann Cave, Wyo., 214-215. 
Kaycee, Wyo . 30. 
Kemmerer, Wyo., telephone service, 

146, 148, 149. 
Kemmerer-Big Piney Telephone Co., 

Kennedy, Mr. (sheriff) 190. 
Kester, Mr. and Mrs., 92. 
Kester, Ed, 214. 

Ketchum, Tom (Black Jack) 24. 
Kilpatrick, Ben, 29. 
Kincaid, Mr., 200. 
King, Mrs. Owen, 225, 226. 
Kinkade, Mrs. Harley, 108, 111. 
Kinney's Cut-off, 200. 
Kintz, Ralph, 111. 
Kleiber, Mr. & Mrs. Hans, 92. 
Knight, Dr. S. H., gives talk on 

"History of the Rocky Mts.", 225. 
Kopac, Emil, 211-212. 
Kusel, Mr. & Mrs. Herman, 92. 
Kusulas, Don, 214. 

Labarge Creek, 198. 

LaBonte, Pierre, Jr., 193; composes 

song on Old Orefion Trail, 212, 

on Albert Sim, 111. 
LaBonte Creek, 155, 158. 
Lake Helen, 9. 
Lake Marion, 9. 
Lake Solitude, 5-11; illus., 4; origin 

of name, 7. 



Lake Solitude, a Glacier Sapphire, 
by Mae Urbanek, 5-11. 

Lander, Col. W. F., 44. 

Lander, Wyo., telephone service, 
146, 150. 

Lander Cut-off, 44. 

Lander Road, 51. 

Lander Trail, 206. 

Lane, Charles Elmer, 225. 

Lane, Newt (sheriff) 187. 

LaPorte, Colo., 138. 

LaPrebe Creek, 142. 

LaPrele Creek, 157. 

Laramie, Wyo., telephone service, 
145, 147, 148-149. 

Laramie County Historical Society, 
224, 225. 

Laramie Daily Boomerang, 145; giv- 
en award, 107, 223. 

Laramie Mts., See also Black Hills 
(Laramie range) 

Laramie Peak, 155. 

Larom, L H., 107; and Mrs. Larom, 
hosts to Society members, 110. 

Larson, Robert R., 222, 224, 225. 

Larson. Dr. T. Alfred, 106, 108, 
109, 219, 222, 223; elected presi- 
dent, Wyo. State Hist. Society, 
108; appoints committees. 111; 
President's Message, 102-104; re- 
view of The Autobiography of the 
West, by Oscar Lewis, 227, Life 
and Adventures of Frank Grou- 
ard. by Joe De Barthe, ed. by E. 
L Stewart, 236-237. Yesterday's 
Wyoming: the Intimate Memoirs 
of Fenimore C. Chatterton, 115- 

Latter Day Saints, establish ferry 
on Green River, 206. 

Laubin, Reginald and Gladys, The 
Indian Tipi, its History, Construc- 
tion and Use, reviewed by F. H. 
Sinclair, 119-120. 

Lawrence, W. C, receives historical 
award, 223. 

Lay, Elza, See McGinnis, Bill 

Lee, Bob, 29. 

Lester, Josephine Irby, 51. 

Letters from the Frontier — 1867, 
by Henry C. Parry, 127-143. 

Lewis, Mr. (on Strawberry Creek) 

Lewis, Sergeant Chuck. 166. 

Lewis. Malcom, 108, 111. 

Lewis, Oscar, compiler. The Auto- 
biography of the West, reviewed 
by T. A. Larson, 227. 

Lewis & Clark expedition, 5. 

Lewiston, Wyo., 42, 43. 

Life and Adventures of Frank Grou- 
ard, by Joe DeBarthe, edited by 
E. I. Stewart, reviewed by T. A. 
Larson, 236-237. 

Lindahl, Ralph, 214. 

Linford, Velma, 43. 

Little Goose Creek, 153. 

Little Sandy Creek, 198, 199, 200, 
201, 202, 204. 

Little Sandy Crossing, 198, 199. 

Littleton, E. A., 103, 104, 105, 106, 
111, 221, 223. 

Lloyd, Maj. Henry, 37. 

Lloyd, Virginia (Mrs. E. O. Parry) 

Lodge Pole Creek, telephone ser- 
vice, 145. 

Logan, Ed, 225. 

Logan, Harve, 24, 28, 29. 

Logan, John, 28. 

Logan, Lonny, 28. 

Lonabaugh, Maj. H. E., 165. 

Longabaugh, Harry, 28-29. 

Loshbrough, Paul E., 149. 

Lower Ham's Fork School, 210. 

Luman, Uncle John, 6. 

Luoma, Julius, 193, 211; guide of 
Oregon Trail Trek, 208-210; 
ranch of 206, 207, illus. 207. 

Lusk-Manville Telephone Co., 148. 

MacDougall, A. H., 106, 108, 220, 
221; elected president, Wyo. State 
Historical Society, 223. 

McGee, Mrs. Price, 108, 111. 

McGinnis, Bill, 29. 

Mcintosh, Chuck, 92. 

McKee, E. E., 172-173. 

McKinstry, Bruce, 198, 200; in pic- 
ture, 196. 

McKinstry, Mrs. Bruce, in picture, 

McKinstry, Byron N., biog. of, 200- 
203; Diary, 1850, 200-203. 

Maclean, John, 172. 

McMillen, Emily, Diary, 1852, 199. 

McNair, Mr. & Mrs. James, given 
award, 107. 

Madsen, Brigham D., The Bannock 
of Idaho, reviewed by J. W. 
Vaughn, 233-234. 

"Mag Jesses' Emporium", 32. 



Mahan, Richard, review of The 
Cattlemen: From the Rio Grande 
Across the Far Marias, by Mari 
Sandoz, 231-232. 

Mahnken, Olin, 149. 

Mann, Homer, 107, 108. 

Mann, Luther, Jr. (Indian Agent) 
55, 56, 59, 65, 72, 78, 85, 88; 
letters by, 53-55, 56-58, 62-63, 66, 
73-77; seeks office for agency, 73. 

Manning, Loyal, 197. 

Marion, William L., 106; speaks on 
St. Mary's Stage Station, 40-41. 

Martin, Mrs. Mabel B., 225. 

Martin, Marguerite, 225. 

Martin, William, 105. 

Mathany, Mark, 214. 

Mather, Kirtly, 6. 

Mather Peak, 6. 

Mattes, Francois E., 7. 

Mattes, Merrill, 106; "Rediscovery 
of Colter's Hell," talk, 109. 

Mayoworth, Wyo., 183. 

Meadow Creek, 210. 

Meadow Gulch, Wyo., 43. 

Medicine Bow, Wyo., telephone ser- 
vice, 148. 

Medicine Wheel [Wyo] 97, 215; 
maps made of, 215. 

Meeteetse, Wyo., telephone service, 

Memoriam from One Old Soldier to 
Another, by Minnie Presgrove, 

Mexicans, buUwhackers, 155. 

Midwest, Wyo., telephone service, 
147, 149, 150. 

Midwest Oil Company, 147. 

Military Operations, Artillery, 148th 
Field Artillery. 165, 166; Cavalry, 
2d U. S. Cavalry, at Fort Fetter- 
man, 142; 2d U. S. Cavalry, B 
Company, 142, Troop F, 142; 
Infantry, 4th Infantry, 136, 158, 
at Fort Fetterman, 142; 18th In- 
fantry, 142; 36th Infantry, 138. 

Miller, Mr. (toll bridge operator) 

Miller, Neal E., review of Wyoming 
Manhunt, by Allan V. Elston, 

Miner's Delight, [Wyo.] 43, 48. 

Misty Moon Lake, 9. 

Mizner, Capt. port. 130. 

Mockler, Esther, review of Owen 
Wister Out West, His Journals 
and Letters, edited by Fanny K. 
Wister, 228-229. 

Mockler, Frank C, 105, 111. 

Moffett Company, 146. 

Moncrieffe, Malcolm, 23. 

Mooney, J. Will, 181-182. 

Moorcroft, Wyo., telephone service, 

Moran, Rodes, 214. 

Morgan, Dale L., editor, Washakie 
and the Shoshoni, pt. X, 1867- 
1869, 53-89. 

Morman Ferry (on Green River) 

Mormon Trail, 198. 

Mormon Vanguard, 47, 50. 

Mormons, in 1847, 47. 

Morris, Esther Hobart, 48-49. 

Morrison, W. W., 90, 198. 

Morrow, Col. Henry A., 72; at Fort 
Bridger, 85. 

Mount Gannett, 172. 

Mountain climbing, Fremont Peak, 

Mountain States Telephone and Tel- 
egraph Co., 148. 

Mowry, Mr. & Mrs. (on French 
Creek) 181. 

Muddy Creek Ferry (on Green Riv- 
er) 206. 

Muggins (horse) 108. 

Mulcey, Private, 158. 

Mulloy, Kathy, 214. 

Mulloy, Dr. William, 92, 214, 220; 
review of Sun Circles and Human 
Hands, the Southeastern Indians 
— Art and Industry, ed. by E. L. 
Fundaburk and M. D. Foreman, 

Mulloy, Mrs. William, 214. 

Murphy, Mrs. Florence H., 223. 

Murphy, Frank, 193; in picture, 196. 

Murray, Mrs. Maud, 106. 

Myers, Elva, 37. 

NH ranch, 30. 

Names Hill, 202, 207, 208-209. 

Nantkes, Mr. & Mrs. Robert, 92. 

Nelson, Charles, 92. 

Nelson, Dick J., 223; Branded 

Peace, a poem, 12; Wyoming, a 

poem, 16; biog. of, 121. 
Nelson, Otto, 92. 
Newcastle, Wyo., telephone service, 

148, 149. 
Newton, Earl, 108, 109, HI. 
Nickerson, Capt. Herman G., 171- 

173; letter to, 173-174. 
Nickerson, O. K., 172. 
Nigger Steve, 187. 
Nolan, John, 30. 



Nolan, Tom, 30. 

North Platte, Neb., 1867, 128. 

Northern Wyoming Telephone Co., 

Nye, Edgar Wilson (Bill) 145. 

Oberhansley, Frank, 109. 
O'Dasz, Mrs. Frank, 108, 111. 
O'Day, Tom (Peep) 23, 29, 30, 31. 
"Old Eagle Breast", 34. 
Old Emigrant Road, 154, 195, 213; 

See also Oregon Trail. 
Old Oregon Trail, song by Pierre 

LaBonte, Jr., 212. 
Olmstead, Mel, 23. 
Olson, Sam, 222. 
Oregon Trail, emigration on 147; 

north bank route from Fort Lara- 
mie, 201; slides, 106. 
Oregon Trail Trek, no. 6, compiled 

by Maurine Carley, 37-51, map 

of, 38, summarized, 51-52; Trek 

no. 7, 193-213, map of, 194. 
Orin Junction, Wyo., 153. 
Osage, Wyo., telephone service, 148, 

Ostrom. George N., The Beginning 

of a Great Emblem, 163 - 167; 

biog. of, 240; first to use bucking 

broncho to identify state of Wyo., 

Otto, Wyo., 169. 
Outlaws, in Wyoming, 17-36, 175- 

Owen Wister Out West, His Journals 

and Letters, edited by Fanny K. 

Wister, reviewed by Esther Mock- 

ler, 228-229. 

Pacific Creek, 195. 

Pacific Fur Company, 45. 

Pacific Spring Crossing, 201. 

Pacific Springs, 46, 50-51, 193. 

Pacific Springs Stage Station, 195. 

Paden, Irene, Wake of the Prairie 
Schooner, cited, 211. 

Pageants, Fight at Platte Bridge Sta- 
tion, given award, 107; John Col- 
ter, 110. 

Paintrock Creek, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11. 

Paintrock creeks, origin of name, 6. 

Palmer, Joel, Diary, 1845, 198-199. 

Park County Chapter (Wyo. State 
Historical Society) dedicates John 
Colter marker, 1 10. 

Parker, E. S., letters by, 88-89. 

Parker, George Leroy (Butch Cas- 
sidy) 17, 18, 21, 23-30, 34. 

Parker O A 32 

Parrish, William Floyd, 148, 149. 

Parrot, George (Big Nose George) 

Parry, Edward Owen, edits Letters 
from the Frontier — 1867, 127- 
144; biog. of, 238. 

Parry, Judge Edward Owen [Sr.] 

Parry, George G., 127. 

Parry, Dr. Henry C, 238; Letters 
from the Frontier — 1867, 127- 
144; biog. of, 127; opinion of 
Indians, 142; port. 130. 

Parting of the Ways, 197; monu- 
ment, 195, 198. 

Patrick, Mrs. Lucille, 108, 110, 111. 

Patterson, Capt. J. H., 88. 

Payche (dog) 141. 

Payson, Mrs. Lois B., review of 
From Wilderness to Statehood, a 
History of Montana, 1805-1900, 
by J. M. Hamilton, 114-115. 

"Peep O'Day" See O'Day, Tom 

Pemmican, 178. 

Pence, Mary Lou and Homsher, 
Lola M., Ghost Towns of Wyo- 
ming, given award, 108. 

People's Telephone Co., 149. 

Perry, Guy, 20, 21. 

Perry, John, 21. 

Peters, Leora, review of The Un- 
covered Wagon, by Mae Urban- 
ek, 234. 

Peterson, George, 31. 

Peterson, Harold L., American 
Knives, reviewed by W. R. 
Schroll, 232. 

Peterson, Robert (Bob) 159. 

Phillips, John "Portugee" 153. 

Pierson, Mrs. L., 106. 

Pine Bluffs, Wyo., 150, 168; tele- 
phone service, 149, 150. 

Pine Tree Bluffs, 137. 

Pinedale, Wyo., telephone service, 

Pioneer Museum, Douglas, Wyo., 

"Pioneer Portraits" skit, 224. 

Pipes (smoking) 100. 

Plains Hotel, Cheyenne, opened, 
147; telephone service, 147. 

Poem to the Pioneer Women, a 
poem by H. N. Boyack, 49. 

Pole Creek [Wyo] 136. 

Port Neuf, 68, 81, 83. 



Powder River Country, 19. 

Powder River place, 189, 190. 

Powell, George, 157, 158. 

Prairie dogs, 128; town, 128. 

Presgrove, Minnie, Memoriam from 
One Old Soldier to Another, 171- 
173; biog. of, 240. 

Primitive area. Cloud Peak, 7, 9. 

Project Mutual Telephone Co., 150. 

Projectile points. See Indians: Arti- 

Provot, Etienne, 46. 

Public Utilities Commission, Wyo., 

Pumpkin Buttes, 6. 

Quaking Aspen Creek, 210. 

Quo Vadis in Wyoming, March, 

1876, translated by Edmund A. 

Bojarski, 168-170. 

Radio Station KSPR, Casper, re- 
ceives historical award, 107; 
KVRS, Green River, receives his- 
torical award, 224. 

Radium Springs, 42. 

Ramstein, Charles, 92. 

Ranches, in 1867, 129, adobe 
houses, 129; Bar C, 34; Blue 
Creek, 18; KC, 30; Luoma, 206; 
NH, 30. 

Randall, Tod (Indian interpreter) 

Rawlins, Gen. John A., port. 130. 

Rawlins, Wyo., first telephone, 146, 

Razzari, Mrs., in picture, 196. 

Red Buttes Monument, Wyo., 221. 

Red Wing (horse) 163-167. 

Register Cliff, Wyo., 208. 

Reis, Mrs. Anthony, 224. 

Reel, A. H. (Heck) 152-162; port. 
156; wagon train burning, remains 
of, 159-162, site of, 159. 

Relocation of Pioneer Burials, by 
L. C. Steege, 90-91. 

Richards, Homer C, receives his- 
torical award, 223. 

Ridings, Reta, 225. 

Ritter, Charles, 111, 219, 225, 226. 

Ritter, Mrs. Charles, 225, 226. 

Ritter, Judd, 18. 

Riverside, Wyo., postoffice, 21, il- 
lus. 18. 

Riverton Telephone Co., 148. 

Roberts, B. H., 47. 

Roberts, Rev. John, 195. 

Roberts, Mrs. Margaret Jane 
Bourne, 213. 

Roberts Brothers (outlaws) 23. 

Rock Creek (Johnson co.) 181, 185; 
Rock Creek-French Creek coun- 
try, 181. 

Rock Creek (near South Pass) 42, 

Rock Creek (western Wyoming) 

Rock Creek Ridge, 213. 

Rock River, Wyo., telephone ser- 
vice, 148. 

Rock Springs, Wyo., telephone ser- 
vice, 146, 149. 

Rocky Gap, 206, 209, 210-211, 212. 

Rocky Mountain Bell Telephone 
Co., 146, 147. 

The Rocky Mountain Revolution, 
by S. H. Holbrook, reviewed by 
H. J. Swinney, 118-119. 

Rocky Ridge Station, Wyo., 40-42. 

Roedigger, Mr., 91. 

Rogers, Glenn K., 224. 

Rogers, Mary Read (Mrs. Glenn 
K.) review of This is the West, 
edited by R. W. Howard, 113-114. 

Rogers, William, 93. 

Roswell Museum, N. M., 215. 

Roundup, 13-16; roundup cook, 13. 

Ruby Valley, 79. 

Russell, Ann, in picture, 196. 

Russell, Mr. & Mrs. Jim, 92. 

Russell, Majors & Waddell, 40, 41, 
44, 48. 

Rustlers, in Wyoming, 17-36, 175- 

Ryder, George, 195-196. 

Sage hens, 1867, 139. 

St. Mary's Cut-off, 40. 

St. Mary's Station, 40-41. 

Salisbury, Herbert, 224, 226. 

Salt Creek, Wyo., telephone service, 

147, 149, 150. 
Salt Creek Range, 202. 
Salt Creek Telephone Co., 149. 
Salt Lake City, 88. 
Salt Lake City Telephone Co., 146. 
Salt River Range, 209. 
Sanborn, Gen. John B., 65, 66, 74, 




Sandoz, Mari, The Cattlemen: From 

the Rio Grande Across the Far 

Marias, reviewed by Richard Ma- 

han, 231-232. 
Sands, Mr. & Mrs. Bill, 92. 
Saratoga, telephone service, 146, 

Scherbel, Paul H., 193. 
Schroll, William R., 224, 226; re- 
view of American Knives, by H. 

L. Peterson, 232. 
Schroll, Mrs. William R., 225, 226. 
Schunk, Edna, 7. 
Schunk, Dr. Will, 7. 
Scott, Mr. (stage driver) 196, 197. 
Scott, John Tucker, Diary, 1851, 

Scott, Mary Hurlburt, reads paper 

on Pacific Springs, 50-51. 
"script" (land) 20. 
Seven Brothers Lake, 8. 
Shankersville (road ranch) 33. 
Shanton, George, 33. 
Shaw, J. C, 153. 
Shay, J. J., 208. 
Sheridan, Gen. P. H., 87. 
Sheridan, Wyo., 6; telephone service, 

147, 150. 
Sherlock, Maggie, 195-196, 197. 
Sherlock, Peter, 195. 
Sherman, Sylvester "Ves", 155, 159; 

biog. of, 152-153, 156, 157, 162. 
Sherman, Gen. W. T., 65, 72. 
Shirley, Glenn, Buckskin and Spurs, 

reviewed by Zita Winter, 230. 
Shoshoni, Wyo., telephone service, 
146, 149. 

Shy-Guys, quartette, 224. 
Sieber Diary, 1851, 199. 
Sienkiewicz, Henry, Quo Vadis in 

Wyoming, translated by Edmund 

A. Bojarski, 168-170. 
Simpson, Milward L., 224. 
Simpson, Mrs. Milward L., 223. 
Sims, Albert, 162, 212; in picture, 

Sinclair, F. H., review of The Indian 

Tipi, its History, Construction 

and Use, by R. and G. Laubin, 

Slack, E. A., 145. 
Slate Creek, 51, 206. 
Slate Creek Road, 209, 210. 

Smelser, Mr., 201. 
Smith, Mrs. Babs, 108. 
Smith, "Black Henry", 34-35. 

Smith, James, 197. 

Smith, Hugh, 108. 

Smith, Jedediah Strong, 46, 50. 

Smith, John R., 178. 

Smith, Dr. M. H., 108, 111. 

Smith's Fork, 199; ferry, 213. 

Snowsheds, in Wyoming, 1876, 168. 

Snyder, Fred, 171-173. 

Snyder Basin Ranger Station, 51. 

Solitude Circle Trail, 6. 

Sonny, Mrs. (Old Lady Sonny) 185. 

South Pass, 43, 45-49, 140, 201; 
mines at, 58, 63. 

South Pass City, 41, 63, 193, 195, 
207; telephone services, 148, 149. 

Southern Wyoming Telephone Co., 

Sowada, Robert, 214. 

Spalding, Eliza Hart, 47. 

Spanish Diggings [Wyo] 215. 

Speck, "Old Bill", 23. 

Speigel, Sydney, 103, 106. 

Split Rock, 41. 

Spohr, Mrs. Adolph, 108, 111. 

Spring Creek Raid, book on, 237- 

Stage Station, Overland Route, 1867, 
illus. 126. 

Stagecoaches, 1867, 132. 

Steege, L. C, 105, 111, 220, 224, 
225, 240; Archaeological Research 
in Wyoming during 1958, 214- 
215; Relocation of Pioneer Bur- 
ials, 90-91; Stone Artifacts, 99- 
101, 215-218, illus. 98; receives 
historical award, 223. 

Stems, W. A., 149. 

Stevens - Townsend - Murphy party, 

Stewart, E. L, editor of Life and 
Adventures of Frank Grouard, by 
Joe DeBarthe, reviewed by T. A. 
Larson, 236-237. 

Stewart, W. J., 195, 196, 197. 

Stone Artifacts, by L. C. Steege, 
99-101, 215-218. 

Stratton, Mrs. Fred, 172. 

Strawberry Creek, 42, 43. 

Stroud, Charles, 173. 

Stuart, Robert, 45, 50. 

Stubbs, Bud, 18. 

Sturm, Mrs. Henrietta, 108, 111. 

Sublette, William, 46, 50. 

Sublette Canyon, 210. 

Sublette Creek, 210. 

Sublette Cut-off, 50, 203, 205, 206, 
209, 213; marker, 200, 201. 

Sublette Road, 51, 211. See also 
Sublette Cut-off. 



Sublette Trail, 198. 

Sun, Tom, 37. 

Sun Circles and Hntntin llamls, 
edited by E. L. Fundabuik and 
M. D. Foreman, reviewed by Wil- 
liam Mulloy, 117-118. 

Sundance Kid, See Longabaugh, 

Surveyor Park, 172. 

Swan Land and Cattle Co., Chug- 
water, telephone line to, 145. 

Sweem, Glenn, 92, 214, 215. 

Sweem, Glenn, Jr., 214. 

Sweetwater County Historical So- 
ciety, 224. 

Sweetwater Crossings, 39, 40; 9th, 
43, 44. 

Sweetwater mines, 63, 85-86; Indian 
depredations, 74. 

Swinney, H. J., review of 'I he Rocky 
Mountain Revolution, by S. H. 
Holbrook, 118-119. 

Tanner, Francis, 193. 

Tanner, Helen, 193. 

Tappan, S. F., 65, 72. 

Taylor, Dorothy, 225. 

Taylor, Earl J., 149. 

Taylor, John, 47. 

Taylor, N. G., 65, 72; letters by, 
63-66; letters to, 55-56, 59-62, 
63-65, 77-80. 

Telephone Canyon, telephone .ser- 
vice, 145. 

Telephones, barbed wire used, 146; 
first in Cheyenne, 145; first inter- 
state. Rocky Mt. area, 145; first 
long distance. Rocky Mt. area, 
145; history, in Wyoming, 145- 
151; increased rates, 149, 150. 

"Tensleep" origin of name, 6. 

Tensleep, Wyo., telephone service, 

Tensleep and No Rest, by Jack R. 
Gage, reviewed by Lola M. Hom- 
sher, 237-238. 

Tensleep Canyon, 6. 

Tensleep Creek, 6. 

Tensleep Raid, book on, 237-238. 

Tepees, construction of, 133. 

"Terrible Jake", 132. 

Terry, Gen. Alfred H., 65, 72. 

Thermopolis, Wyo., lelephone ser- 
vice, 146, 149. 

This is the West, edited by R. W. 
Howard, reviewed by Mary R. 
Rogers, 113-114. 

Thomas, C. W., 209. 

Thompson, vSang, 34. 

Thorn, John, 195. 

Thorn, Mrs. John, 195. 

Thorp, Russell. Jr., 162, 225. 

To Albert Sims, song, composed by 
Pierre La Bonte, Jr., 212. 

Townsend, Mr., 201. 

Three Crossings, Wyo., 41. 

Throstle, George, 152-155, 157, 162; 
buried at Fort Fetterman, 158; 
port. 156. 

"Tiger of the Hole - in - the - Wall" 
gang, 28. 

Tipperary, Wyo., 178. 

Tourtelotte, Col. J. i:., 88; letters 
by, 88-89. 

Towns, H. E., 91. 

'Irabing, Wyo., 178. 

frail Creek, 210. 

Trainrobbers Syndicate. 27. 

IVoper, Private, 158. 

1'rue, Allen, designs bucking bron- 
cho on license plates, 167. 

Twin Springs, 158. 

Tyrrell Ranger Station, 6, 9. 

Uncle John Luman, See Luman, 
Uncle John 

The Uncovered Wagon, by Mae Ur- 
banek, reviewed by Leora Peters, 

Union Pacific Railroad, 83; at Jules- 
burg, Colo., 133. 

Union Pacific Railway Commission, 
127, 135, 144; port, of members, 

Union Pass, 45. 

U. S. Military Operations, See Mili- 
tary Operations. 

U. S. National Park Service, spon- 
sors archaeological program, 214. 

University of Wyoming, sponsors 
archaeological program, 214. 

Upper Wintl River Valley, cave 
sites, 215. 

Upton, Wyo., telephone service, 148. 

Urbanek, Mae, John Colter, a poem, 
1 I; L(die Solitude, a Glacier Sap- 
phire, 5-11; ihe Uncovered Wag- 
on, reviewed by Leora Peters, 
234; received honorable mention, 

Utah Indian Agency, ;SV<' Washakie 
and the Shoshoiu. 



Vail, Theodore N., 145, 149; biog. 
of 150-151. 

Van Lenep, Mr. (geologist) port. 

Vaughn, Jesse Wendell and Bishop, 
L. C, The Heck Reel Wagon 
Burning, 152-162; review of The 
Bannock of Idaho, by B. D. Mad- 
sen, 233-234; biog. of, 239. 

Vaughn, Mr. & Mrs. S. J., 239. 

Wack, L. O., in picture, 196. 

Walker, Mrs. Graham, 224, 225. 

Wallace, Mrs. Dwight, 106. 

Ward, Corporal, 158. 

Ward, Mrs. Hazel, 107, 108, 225. 

Warm Springs Creek, 6-7. 

Warner, J. Laird, 6. 

Warren, Senator Francis E., 145. 

Washakie and the Shoshoni, A selec- 
tion of Documents from the Rec- 
ords of the Utah Superintendency 
of Indian Affairs, edited by Dale 
L. Morgan, pt. X, 1867-1869, 53- 

Washakie County Historical Society, 

Wassells, General, 142. 

Webb, Frances Seely, summarizes 
Trek no. 6, 51-52. 

Webber, Sergeant, 158. 

Wells, Charlotte, 92. 

Weppner, Joseph, 221. 

West Tensleep Creek, 9. 

West Tensleep Lake, 9. 

Westfall family (Elizabeth, James, 
Jim, Sammy, Willie) 211. 

Westinghouse Broadcasting Com- 
pany Contest, 106, 221. 

Weston, Mrs. Perry, 106. 

Wheatland, Wyo., telephone service, 

Wheelwright, Shorty, 177. 

Whelan, Lt., port. 130. 

White, A. S. H., 72. 

White, C. F., 209. 

White, Clara, 92. 

Whitman, Dr. Marcus, 46. 

Whitman. Narcissa Prentiss, 47. 

Whitney, History of Utah, cited, 

Whittenburg, Clarice, 222; Wyo- 
ming's People, reviewed by E. C. 
Hill, 229-230; received historical 
award, 223. 

"Wild Bunch" (Butch Cassidy's) 22, 

"Wild Cat Sam" See Abernathy, 
"Wild Cat" Sam. 

Wilderness Society, 7. 

Wiley, Mrs. Lucille, 106, 108, 111. 

Wilkins, Mrs. Edness Kimball, 222, 
223, 224; received honorable 
award, 223; summarizes Trek 
no. 6, 51-52, 111. 

Wilhams, Mr. (soldier) 158. 

WiHiams, Vilina, Diary, 1853, 200. 

Willie Handcart Company, 43. 

Willow Creek, 43, 48, 210. 

Wind River Mts., 204. 

Wind River Reservation, 79. 

Wind River Valley, 57-58. 

Winter, Zita, review of Buckskin 
and Spurs, by Glenn Shirley, 230. 

Wister, Fanny Kemble, editor of 
Owen Wister Out West, His Jour- 
nals and Letters, reviewed by Es- 
ther Mockler, 228-229. 

Witters, Dan, 214. 

Wolverine Rangers, 1849, 204. 

Woodring, Mr. & Mrs. John W., 

Woodruff, Wilford, 47. 

Worland, Wyo., telephone service, 
147, 150. 

Wright, E. H. (Ed) 223; The Cow- 
boy Representative or Rep, 13-16; 
biog. of, 120-121; in picture, 12. 

Wright, Mrs. E. H., 223. 

Wyeth, Nathaniel, 50. 

Wyoming, a poem, by Dick J. Nel- 
son, 16. 

Wyoming Archaeological Notes, 90- 
101, 214-218. 

Wyoming Archaeological Society, 
91, 214, 215. 

Wyoming Manhunt, by Allen V. El- 
ston, reviewed by Neal E. Miller, 

Wyoming State Capitol, illus. on 
cover, V. 30, no. 1. 

Wyoming State Historical Society, 
4th annual meeting, 1957, 104- 
111; 5th annual meeting, 1958, 
219-226; historic sites survey, 
1957, 103, 105, for 1958, 221; 
historical awards, 1957, 107-108, 
for 1958, 223-224; officers, 1957- 
8, 108-109, 111, for 1958-1959, 
124; President's message, 1958, 
by Dr. T. A. Larson, 102-104; 
scholarship, 1958, 220; slides to 
loan, 221-222. 

Wyoming State Museum, 217, 223; 
sponsors archaeological program, 



Wyoming Telephone Co., 150. 
Wyoming Telephone and Telegraph 

Co., 145, 146. 
Wyoming Territory, organized, 88. 
Wyoming's People, by Clarice Whit- 

tenburg, reviewed by E. C. Hill, 


Yesterday's Wyoming: the Intimate 
Memoirs of Fenimore C. Chatter- 
ton, reviewed by Dr. T. A. Lar- 
son, 115-116. 

Young, Brigham, 48. 

Yankee Spring, Wyo., 43. 
Yellowstone National Park, tele- 
phone service, 149-150. 

Zindel, Mr. 31-32; saloon, 192, illus. 

Zumbrunnen, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley, 




The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has as its func- 
tion the collection and preservation of the record of the people of Wyo- 
ming. It maintains a historical library, a museum and the state archives. 

The aid of the citizens of Wyoming is solicited in the carrying out of its 
function. The Department is anxious to secure and preserve records and 
materials now in private hands where they cannot be long preserved. Such 
records and materials include: 

Biographical materials of pioneers: diaries, letters, account books, auto- 
biographical accounts. 

Business records of industries of the State: livestock, mining, agricul- 
ture, railroads, manufacturers, merchants, small business establishments, 
and of professional men as bankers, lawyers, physicians, dentists, ministers, 
and educators. 

Private records of individual citizens, such as correspondence, manuscript 
materials and scrapbooks. 

Records of organizations active in the religious, educational, social, 
economic and political life of the State, including their publications such 
as yearbooks and reports. 

Manuscript and printed articles on towns, counties, and any significant 
topic dealing with the history of the State. 

Early newspapers, maps, pictures, pamphlets, and books on western 

Current publications by individuals or organizations throughout the 

Museum materials with historical significance: early equipment, Indian 
artifacts, relics dealing with the activities of persons in Wyoming and with 
special events in the State's history.